• Diversity in ageing, reductive welfare and potential new ways of utilising ethics in social work with Older People

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-01-15)
      This chapter examines some ethical and political challenges generated by the increasingly complex needs of an ageing society upon social work. It concentrates on the UK as a case study and critically evaluates related age-graded policies and practices relating to social work and care. The chapter includes a discussion of the on-going tensions between social diversity within an ageing society and the shrinking of formal care provision, alongside the impact of professional codes of ethics.
    • An evaluation and critical analysis of the impact of the Aged Veterans Fund

      Di Lemma, Lisa; Howe, Sonia; Finnegan, Alan; University of Chester; Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust.
      There has been research on the numbers and needs of an ageing society yet, relatively little is known about the specific needs of older veterans, and the effectiveness of services specifically developed to meet these needs. In 2016 and 2017, the Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust funded invested £30 million to the Aged Veterans Fund (AVF) programme. This consisted of 19 portfolio projects to support health, wellbeing, and social care needs for older veterans (born before 1st January 1950) and their families. This report explores the impact of the AVF, with the intent of informing service providers, stakeholders and policy makers, of the lessons learned and the next steps required for the support of older veterans. A retrospective evaluation focused on both the impact of the processes adopted by the programmes, and the outcomes achieved, was commissioned. Qualitative analysis was performed on 78 eligible source documents, from which 10 recurrent themes were identified. Themes focused on the methodology and evaluations adopted by the projects, the number of beneficiaries reached, challenges encountered, associated costs and savings. In addition, the study identified projects outreach and sustainability, including staff, volunteers and clients perceptions of the services. Finally, there are results regarding the related health and wellbeing benefits, behaviour change and influences on the UK National Health Service (NHS) practice. The findings indicated that project promotion, partnership and collaboration was strong, which provides a foundation for the sustainability and outreach of some of the programmes. The AVF programmes were successfully rolled out via referrals, but this was not without challenges such as capacity, uptake, staffing and timelines issues. Two primary approaches were adopted. The first being a person-centred care approach, that takes into consideration the complex needs of the individual. The second was a skill-exchange model consisting of peers passing on their skills to beneficiaries. The results provided compelling evidence that the AVF initiatives were successful and were positively perceived by beneficiaries, staff and volunteers. Evidence was found on the impact of the fund on boosting resilience in the beneficiaries, by reducing social isolation and improving their health and wellbeing. Additionally, awareness was raised in the wider community, via the delivery of specific educational training to staff. In addition, AVF programmes influenced current health-care practice such as re-admission and discharge rates, via effective signposting and cross-referrals. The lessons learnt lead to recommendations and indicators for the next steps required to support older veterans and their families.
    • Issues of Ageing, Social Class, and Poverty

      Carey, Malcolm (Routledge, 2019-01-18)
      This chapter examines some ethical and political challenges generated by the increasingly complex needs of an ageing society upon social work. It concentrates on the UK as a case study and critically evaluates related age-graded policies and practices relating to social work and care. The chapter includes a discussion of the on-going ethical tensions between social diversity within an ageing society and the shrinking of formal care provision.
    • Some limits and political implications of participation within health and social care for older adults

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2018-03-14)
      This paper critically examines service user participation and involvement for older adults. It concentrates upon research and community-led engagement for older people, and maintains that despite extensive support and expansion, participation offers a complex form of governance and ideological control, as well as a means by which local governments and some welfare professions seek to legitimise or extend their activities. Some of the paradoxes of participation are discussed, including tensions that persist between rhetorical claims of empowerment, active citizenship and democratic engagement on one hand, despite tendencies towards risk-aversion, welfare retrenchment and participant ambivalence on the other. The paper also highlights practical problems in relation to participative research and community involvement, and questions arguments that participation may challenge the authority of welfare professionals. Critical theory is drawn upon to contextualise the role of participative narratives within wider welfare, including its role in moving debate away from ownership or redistribution while masking and validating policy related goals which can counter many older people’s needs. Tension is also noted between participation projects represented as resource to support ageing identities as opposed to those representing technologies for social regulation and conformity.
    • Visual perceptions of ageing: A multi method and longitudinal study exploring attitudes of undergraduate nurses towards older people

      Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; McIntosh-Scott, Annette; Ridgway, Victoria (University of Chester, 2015-12)
      Ageism and negative attitudes are reported to be institutionally embedded in healthcare. The unprecedented increase in the older population together with social perceptions of later life presents all those involved in the delivery of healthcare with considerable challenges. It was therefore timely to examine attitudes and perceptions of healthcare professionals towards older people. This study presents a critical visual exploration of the perceptions of ageing of undergraduate nursing students at a University in the North of England, based on the findings of a three year longitudinal study. The research employed a pragmatic standpoint where mixed methodology was adopted to explore perceptions and included the use of an attitude towards older people scale (KOP) (Kogan, 1961), visual methods (participants were asked to draw a person aged 75), a Thurstone scale and photo elicitation. The research design and construct was influenced by the epistemology of constructionism and discourse analysis. The research was conducted alongside an undergraduate nursing programme, and followed the natural journey of 310 students from one intake and involved three waves of data collection. The study established that the majority of participants had moderately positive attitudes towards older people the beginning of the programme and that these had improved for a significant number by the end of the study programme. From the quantitative data it was determined that age, gender, educational qualifications, practice learning, branch of nursing and contact with older people influenced the participants’ overall attitude score. The use of visual methods provided a narrative of the participants’ perceptions of later life and appearance dominated the imagery via the physical depiction of ageing and the ascetics of clothing and grooming. The influence of role models was seen to impact upon the production of the image via the depiction of grandparents and people they knew and the drawings identified some older people being active. The visual findings established that the undergraduate nurses in the study viewed older people from a socially constructed phenomenon and used symbols (hairstyle, clothing, mobility aids) to depict old age. The nursing programme was found to positively alter perceptions. The research findings have led to recommendations based on three prominent themes; 1) implications for nurse education and practice, 2) gerontology education and research and 3) future use of the research methods.