• Accountability

      Thomas, Mike; University of Chester (Sage, 2008-03-17)
      This chapter considers the concept of accountability within the nursing profession. It examines how the issue of accountability is no longer placed solely on the line manager and argues that the professional nurse or midwife is accountable for their actions at all times.
    • Advocacy

      Baldwin, Moyra A.; University of Chester (Sage, 2008-03-17)
      This chapter examines the role of advocacy within the healthcare system, considering the need for advocates to support patients who have to make decisions but may not have the knowledge, confidence or ability to do so. The chapter also discusses the need for an advocate to promote and protect the patient’s autonomy and act on their behalf.
    • Assessment: Physical

      Ridgway, Victoria; University of Chester (Sage, 2008-03-17)
      This chapter examines the need for effective assessment skills in the nursing profession, and argues that the process of assessment is not a one-off activity and that ongoing assessment of patients is needed in order to identify actual and potential problems along with need to prioritise the need against demands on resources. Further consideration is given to the underpinning philosophy of the process of assessment.
    • Autonomy

      McCarthy, Jill; University of Chester (Sage, 2008-03-17)
      This chapter examines the concept of autonomy within the health care profession, which involves consideration of the moral and legal implications. The chapter also discusses the practicalities of autonomy when it is not always possible for the patient to exercise their autonomy because of an inability to communicate or act independently.
    • Biological determinants of need

      Woodhouse, Jan; University of Chester (Sage, 2008-03-17)
      This chapter examines the concept of biological determinates of need; consideration is given to many factors that impact on the human. The chapter argues that there is need for issues to be examined holistically. This would allow for all the different factors which may affect an individual to be considered, rather then being condensed into specialised areas, and would lead the way to understanding disease, its treatment and prevention.
    • Caring

      Rose, Pat; University of Chester (Sage, 2008-03-17)
      This chapter examines the concept of caring, and considers the essential elements of caring such as knowledge and competence. The discussion also highlights how caring involves a relationship between the carer and the cared-for.
    • “Cautiously Optimistic” Older Parent-Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities response to the Care Act 2014

      Gant, Valerie; Bates, Claire; University of Chester
      This paper discusses potential opportunities for best practice in the UK that may be brought about by the Care Act (2014). Carers in the UK were given new rights within this legislation with a focus on needs led assessment. The underpinning philosophy of the Care Act is to streamline previous legislation and offer a framework for carers and people in receipt of care, to enable a more personalised approach to care and support.
    • Clinical governance

      Meredith, Linda; University of Chester (Sage, 2008-03-17)
      This chapter examines the role of clinical governance within the healthcare system, and how it can facilitate continuous quality improvement in the delivery of health care. The discussion also considers the importance of a quality healthcare that meets national standards but provided at a local level.
    • Common sense

      Phillips, Sue; University of Chester (Sage, 2008-03-17)
      This chapter examines the use of common sense in the healthcare profession, discussing how common sense can be applied in working environment, which allows creativity in the problem solving process.
    • Exploring Public Perceptions and Understanding of Dementia: Analysing Narratives from the Mass Observation Project

      Olsen, Veronica; Taylor, Louise; Whiteley, Kirsty; Ellerton, Annie; Kingston, Paul; Bailey, Jan; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-07-10)
      Over 850,000 people living in the United Kingdom have been diagnosed with dementia, yet knowledge about this condition amongst the general population remains relatively poor. Many studies have evaluated the level of public knowledge and understanding about dementia from a research and professional service perspective, however none have considered this condition from the perspective of the wider public. In this preliminary overview, we analyse and describe high level narratives collected from 143 respondents to a dementia Directive commissioned to the Mass Observation Project. These narratives present a perspective on the public knowledge and understanding about dementia not previously considered, where respondents have written openly about their own experiences, and reflected on their perception of the wider public’s knowledge and understanding about dementia. This unique perspective importantly enhances our knowledge about the public’s understanding and awareness of dementia, and informs the main areas of public concern found in the analysis: care responsibilities, impact on relationships, and fears about developing dementia.
    • The management of children and family social workers in England: reflecting upon the meaning and provision of support

      Harlow, Elizabeth; University of Chester (Sage, 2015-09-28)
      In England in 2010, the then Children’s Workforce Development Council introduced an initiative which aimed to support front line social work managers in the performance of their role. This article reflects on the way in which support was interpreted and implemented by the Children’s Workforce Development Council and the local authorities that participated in the project, but also the relevance of the project for the social work profession in England at the time.
    • Nurses' experiences of communicating respect to patients: Influences and challenges

      Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-04-04)
      Background: Respectful care is central to ethical codes of practice and optimal patient care, but little is known about the influences on and challenges in communicating respect. Research question: What are the intra- and inter-personal influences on nurses’ communication of respect? Research design and participants: Semi-structured interviews with 12 hospital-based UK registered nurses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore their experiences of communicating respect to patients and associated influences. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Institutional ethics board and National Health Service Trust. Findings: Three interconnected superordinate themes were identified: ‘private self: personal attitudes’, ‘outward self: showing respect’ and ‘reputational self: being perceived as respectful’. Respectful communication involved a complex set of influences, including attitudes of respect towards patients, needs and goals, beliefs around the nature of respectful communication, skills and influencing sociocultural factors. A tension between the outward self as intended and perceived presented challenges for nurses’ reputational self as respectful, with negative implications for patient care. Discussion: The study offers an in-depth understanding of intra- and inter-personal influences on communicating respect, and sheds light on challenges involved, helping provide practical insights to support respectful care. Conclusion: Findings stress the need for improved conceptualisations of respect in healthcare settings to formally recognise the complex attitudinal and socially constructed nature of respect and for appropriate professional training to improve its communication
    • On the road to social death: A grounded theory study of the emotional and social effects of honor killing on families—A Palestinian perspective

      Khatib, Salam; Edge, Dawn; Speed, Shaun; University Palestine; University of Manchester; University of Chester
      Despite high rates of domestic violence and increased rates of honor killing (HK) over the past decade, there is a paucity of empirical data about how HK affects family members. This study used grounded theory to explore the emotional and social effects of HK on 23 family members of murdered women and found that HK failed to achieve the restoration of honor. Following HK, families subsequently entered a protracted process of grief compounded by negative social interactions, which led to a form of “social death.” The road to social death was a painful and continuous social process, which, for many, never abated.
    • Prisoners regulating prisons: voice, action, participation and riot

      Buck, Gillian; Tomczak, Philippa; University of Chester; University of Nottingham (Sage, 2022-06-16)
      Prisoners are a critical source of prison regulation around the world, but regulation by (rather than of) prisoners remains little analysed. In this article, we utilise the 1990 riots at HMP Strangeways (England), as a case study of prisoners (re)shaping imprisonment. We examine prisoners’ roles in these riots and subsequent cross-sectoral regulatory activities. We innovatively use the four-phase process of translation from actor-network theory to guide document analysis of i) Lord Woolf’s (1991) official inquiry into the riots and ii) the voluntary organisation Prison Reform Trust’s (2015) follow up report. We explore how participatory approaches could inform prison regulation through (former) prisoners partnering with external regulators throughout the processes of identifying problems and solutions to establish broader alliances seeking social change.
    • Recruitment to the “Breast—Activity and Healthy Eating After Diagnosis”(B-AHEAD) Randomized Controlled Trial

      Pegington, M; Adams, JE; Campbell, AM; Bundred, NJ; Howell, A; Howell, SJ; Speed, S; Wolstenholme, J; Harvie, MN; University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK 2 University of Manchester, Manchester, UK 3 Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK 4 Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK 5 The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK 6 University of Oxford, Oxford, UK University of Chester
      Excess weight at breast cancer diagnosis and weight gain during treatment are linked to increased breast cancer specific and all-cause mortality. The Breast—Activity and Healthy Eating After Diagnosis (B-AHEAD) trial tested 2 weight loss diet and exercise programmes versus a control receiving standard written advice during adjuvant treatment. This article identifies differences in characteristics between patients recruited from the main trial site to those of the whole population from that site during the recruitment period and identifies barriers to recruitment. A total of 409 patients with operable breast cancer were recruited within 12 weeks of surgery. We compared demographic and treatment factors between women recruited from the main trial coordinating site (n = 300) to the whole breast cancer population in the center (n = 532). Uptake at the coordinating site was 42%, comparable to treatment trials in the unit (47%). Women recruited were younger (55.9 vs 61.2 years, P < .001), more likely to live in least deprived postcode areas (41.7% vs 31.6%, P = .004), and more likely to have screen-detected cancers (55.3% vs 48.7%, P = .026) than the whole breast cancer population. The good uptake highlights the interest in lifestyle change around the time of diagnosis, a challenging time in the patient pathway, and shows that recruitment at this time is feasible. Barriers to uptake among older women and women with a lower socioeconomic status should be understood and overcome in order to improve recruitment to future lifestyle intervention programs.
    • 'Reflections on a birthday': An auto-ethnographic account of caring for a child with a learning disability

      Gant, Valerie; University of Chester (Sage, 2016-09-10)
      This commentary offers some of the author’s experiences of parenting a child with a severe learning disability and complex and challenging behaviours. Drawing on principles of auto-ethnography and critical reflection, the author considers issues of transition from children’s to adult social care services and the potential for support from a new piece of UK Legislation, the Care Act, 2014.
    • Study skills for nurses

      Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; Mason, Tom; Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester (Sage, 2007-12-14)
      This thoroughly revised second edition of Study Skills for Nurses will show you how to develop the skills and techniques you need for stress-free studying throughout your nursing education. Written in a lively and down-to-earth style it will help you face everyday challenges with confidence.
    • The Use of Language in Hospice Care and the Impact on Patients and Families

      Gant, Valerie; University of Chester (Sage, 2017-07-01)
      Whilst there is an expanding literature and a growing knowledge-base relating to patient and family experiences in hospice settings (1,2,3), there is a much more limited corpus reflecting the first-person perspective of patients and their families. These accounts can be helpful in highlighting perceived gaps between current practice and family needs (4). This narrative account reflects upon the perspective of a hospice patient’s family during her last week of life and notes how the actions and language of staff members and volunteers had a major impact on the overall experience and subsequent grieving processes of family members.
    • Using and developing evidence in health and social care practice

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Sage, 2020-03)
      [A] Overview This chapter outlines the processes of developing evidence-based practice and carrying out research and highlights the similarities and differences between the two. This chapter aims to increase your skills and motivation in utilising research evidence to improve your practice, introduce you to the process of research and develop your research skills. [A] Learning Outcomes At the end of this chapter you will be able to: • Critique research papers. • Share best practice with your colleagues. • Assist with research in practice. • Develop your research skills with a view to becoming a researcher.