• Cost of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in Europe and the USA: The GAIN study.

      O'Hara, Jamie; Finnegan, Alan; Dhillon, Harpal; Ruiz-Casas, Leonardo; Pedra, Gabriel; Franks, Bethany; Morgan, George; Hebditch, Vanessa; Jönsson, Bengt; Mabhala, Mzwandile; et al. (2020-07-15)
      Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) leads to cirrhosis and is associated with a substantial socioeconomic burden, which, coupled with rising prevalence, is a growing public health challenge. However, there are few real-world data available describing the impact of NASH. The Global Assessment of the Impact of NASH (GAIN) study is a prevalence-based burden of illness study across Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) and the USA. Physicians provided demographic, clinical, and economic patient information via an online survey. In total, 3,754 patients found to have NASH on liver biopsy were stratified by fibrosis score and by biomarkers as either early or advanced fibrosis. Per-patient costs were estimated using national unit price data and extrapolated to the population level to calculate the economic burden. Of the patients, 767 (20%) provided information on indirect costs and health-related quality of life using the EuroQOL 5-D (EQ-5D; n = 749) and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire - Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (CLDQ-NAFLD) (n = 723). Mean EQ-5D and CLDQ-NAFLD index scores were 0.75 and 4.9, respectively. For 2018, the mean total annual per patient cost of NASH was €2,763, €4,917, and €5,509 for direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs, respectively. National per-patient cost was highest in the USA and lowest in France. Costs increased with fibrosis and decompensation, driven by hospitalisation and comorbidities. Indirect costs were driven by work loss. The GAIN study provides real-world data on the direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs associated with NASH, including patient-reported outcomes in Europe and the USA, showing a substantial burden on health services and individuals. There has been little research into the socioeconomic burden associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The GAIN study provides real-world data on the direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs associated with NASH, including patient-reported outcomes in five European countries (UK, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy) and the USA. Mean total annual per patient cost of NASH was estimated at €2,763, €4,917, and €5,509 for the direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect cost categories, respectively. [Abstract copyright: © 2020 The Author(s).]
    • Impact of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis on caregivers: caregiver-reported outcomes from the multinational PICTURE study.

      Mighiu, Claudia; orcid: 0000-0002-2938-4939; O'Hara, Sonia; Ferri Grazzi, Enrico; Murray, Karen F; Schattenberg, Jörn M; Ventura, Emily; Karakaidos, Melanie; Taylor, Alison; Brrang, Harpreet; Dhawan, Anil; et al. (2022-02-02)
      <h4>Background</h4>Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a spectrum of rare genetic diseases characterized by inadequate bile secretion that requires substantial ongoing care, though little research is published in this area. We report health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work productivity outcomes from the retrospective, cross-sectional PICTURE study investigating the burden of PFIC on caregivers. Information from caregivers of patients with PFIC 1 or 2 in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States from September 2020 to March 2021 was included.<h4>Results</h4>The PICTURE study sample comprised HRQoL responses from 22 PFIC caregivers. Patients were on average 8.2 years old; most caregivers were 30-49 years old (68%) and mothers (77%). Median CarerQoL-7D score was 67.7/100; mean CarerQoL-VAS score for general happiness was 5.7/10 (SD 2.1). Most caregivers reported fulfilment in their caregiving responsibilities, but problems with mental and physical health, finances, and relationships. When stratified by patient's PFIC type, mean CarerQoL-7D and CarerQoL-VAS scores suggested worse HRQoL outcomes with PFIC2 versus PFIC1 (59.4 vs. 71.2, and 5.3 vs. 6.5, respectively). Additionally, more caregivers reported impact on sleep in the PFIC2 versus PFIC1 subgroup (93% vs. 75%). When stratified by history of PFIC-related surgeries, mean CarerQoL-7D and VAS scores were higher among those whose children had no specified surgeries (67.7 vs. 59.0/100 and 6.2 vs. 5.2/10, respectively). Nearly all caregivers reported an impact of caregiving responsibilities on sleeping (86%) and on personal relationships (82%). No caregivers reported having formal care support. Most caregivers were employed (73%); a third reported mean productivity loss of 12.9 days (SD 19.3) over the last 3 months, and a mean of 2.8 (SD 9.5) missed years of employment during their career. A higher number of workdays were missed by PFIC 2 caregivers compared to PFIC1 over last 3 months (16 days vs. 3 days).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The PICTURE study has demonstrated the prevalent, comprehensive, and meaningful burden that caring for an individual with PFIC has on caregivers. Despite fulfilment from caregiving, the breadth and depth of these responsibilities reduced caregiver reported HRQoL including mental and physical health, productivity, career prospects, sleep, relationships and finances.