• Re-thinking the management of team performance: No longer disingenuous or stupid

      Rowland, Caroline A.; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2015-04-01)
      This chapter deals with the topic of team performance and current management practice. In a challenging and turbulent economic climate, characterised by pressures to improve productivity and reduce costs, performance management has taken a more central role in helping to ensure competitive advantage. The challenge for managers is to bring about commitment to discretionary effort, which is increasingly a crucial feature in gaining competitive advantage. This chapter examines current theory and practice and offers a new way to approach team management that requires a radical re-think of management practice.
    • Recasting the 'technologies' of outdoor management development: An interpretivist perspective on the tools, models and processes used in the field

      Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; Hickman, Mark; Scott, Peter; Rowland, Caroline A.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Central Lancashire ; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester (Inderscience Publishers, 2013-12-13)
      This paper investigates the models and tools commonly engaged in outdoor management development (OMD). The paper employs an interpretive methodology engaging participant observation and narrative techniques. A number of OMD providers were studied and this generated a rich body of data which is relayed and examined in the text. In spite of extensive theoretical contemporary debates and developments in wider human resource development domains, the study identifies that many practitioners working in experiential course settings continue to engage a predominantly positivistic, well–rehearsed, over–used, and indeed ageing, collection of models. The paper identifies linear and modernistic assumptions on which such models are predicated. OMD is a relatively longstanding form of training which continues to be used by a large number of individuals. The phenomenon therefore merits attention so as to better determine the social implications of the approach. The paper offers an original and innovative consideration of the tools generally employed in OMD programmes.
    • Reflections on 20 years of the Journal of Public Affairs: Public affairs in a rapidly changing and globalising world

      Harris, Phil; Moss, Danny; University of Chester
      As we commence the twentieth year of publication of the Journal of Public Affairs [JPA],we reflect on having published 20 volumes of the journal, comprising 80 issues with over 1000 academic articles and close to 10 million words of text and illustrations. This endeavour has been superbly supported by a network of 1500 authors and 2000 reviewers contributing from across the world. This remarkable body of work has been generated by an international collection of academics, aficionados, businesses, experts, governments, interest groups, practitioners associated with the vast industry of public affairs. The editorial team would like to acknowledge and thank all our contributors and reviewers for their support over the past two decades.
    • Reflections on the Impact of Coronavirus on Public Affairs

      Harris, Phil; Moss, Danny; University of Chester (Wiley, 2020-06-28)
      As the editorial team considered how we might best mark the 20th anniversary year of the publication of the Journal of Public Affairs and reflected on what significant developments have occurred in the world of public affairs over the past two decades, none of us around that table could have possibly imagined how the world of politics and society as a whole could and would change in just a few short months. Yes we all witnessed the horrible effects of Ebola in Africa, and of SARS in the Far East and in the UK we experienced the nationwide lockdown of countryside during the infamous foot and mouth disease that ravaged the countryside in 2001. However devastating each of these disease outbreaks that we might think of as contagions have been, none can really compare or have prepared us fully for a the rapidity and impact that the recent coronavirus pandemic has had across the world, not only in terms of the scale of the infection rising death rate, but in the profound impact it has had on the economy and on people's lives and livelihoods
    • The relationship between employee propensity to innovate and their decision to create a company

      Hancock, Connie; Hormiga, Esther; Jaume, Valls-Pasola; University of Chester; University of Barcelona
      The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the decision by employees’ to initiate a new venture, whilst continuing in employment. Based on survey data collected from employees working for a public organization, we provide evidence that an analysis of individuals’ propensity to innovate, provides an insight into entrepreneurial intention which increases in probability where there is a lower opportunity cost. This study contributes to the growing empirical literature on entrepreneurial intentions which currently lacks focus on employed potential entrepreneurs.
    • The resistance in management accounting practices towards a neoliberal economy

      Nagirikandalage, Padmi; Binsardi, Ben; Kooli, Kaouther; Anh Ngoc Pham; University of Chester; Glyndwr University; Bournemouth University; Glyndwr University
      Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the resistance in management accounting practices (MAPs) in a developing economy in the manufacturing and service sectors in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach – Data collection was carried out using survey questionnaires in Vietnamese language. The questionnaires were distributed to selected respondents from the manufacturing and service organisations in Vietnam. Textual structuralism was used to analyse different categories of data, i.e. survey questionnaires, photos and qualitative texts obtained from the literature. Findings –The findings indicate that the usage of MAPs is more prevalent in the manufacturing sector than in the service sector. In addition, various traditional and contemporary MAPs are being used concurrently in Vietnam, which challenges the classical twofold dichotomy between mere socialism and mere neoliberalism. Research limitations/implications – The textual and photographic structuralism is used in this study to analyse primary data (geography and society and time) in a static setting. Hence, it does not analyse the research phenomena in a dynamic equilibrium setting to view the development of the research phenomena over time. Further research could expand data collection to include longitudinal and dynamic settings. Practical implications – MAPs can be implemented in economic systems ranging from command to capitalist systems. Although most countries in the world follow a mixed economic system, specific MAPs could be designed for a transitional economic system such as that of Vietnam. This affects both theorists and practitioners in Vietnam applying sustainable MAPs to boost a country’s competitiveness during transition. Originality/value – This study expands understanding of the conformity of MAPs in relation to economic systems under the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) – the ruling party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Understanding the differences in the way these MAPs are utilised constitutes an essential area of the accounting discipline to advance MAPs in Vietnamese enterprises and progress theoretical development of sustainable MAPs.
    • Rethinking talent management in organizations: Towards a boundaryless model

      Foster, Carrie; Moore, Neil; Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2013-07-26)
    • A review of spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches on crime analysis

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; University of Chester (The University of the Basque Country, 2015-02-02)
      This review aims to summarize spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches for crime analysis. Spatio-temporal pattern analysis is a process that obtains knowledge from geoand- time-referenced data and creates knowledge for crime analysts. In practice, knowledge needs vary amongst different situations. In order to obtain relevant types of knowledge, different types of spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches should be used. However, there is a lack of related systematic review which discussed how to obtain related knowledge from different types of spatio-temporal crime pattern. This paper summarizes spatio-temporal patterns into five major categories: (i) spatial pattern, (ii) temporal pattern, (iii) frequent spatio-temporal pattern, (iv) unusual spatio-temporal pattern and (v) spatio-temporal effect due to intervention. In addition, we also discuss what knowledge could be obtained from these patterns, and what corresponding approaches, including various data mining techniques, could be used to find them. The works of this paper could provide a reference for crime analysts to select appropriate spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches according to their knowledge needs.
    • A review of the trend of microlearning

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Blanchard, Claire; Au, David; University of Chester; The Chinese University of Hong Kong; University of Wales Trinity Saint David (Emerald, 2020-12-17)
      Purpose Microlearning has been considered as a promising topic in work-based learning. This paper aims to review the trends of microlearning in terms of related publications and internet searches. Hopefully, the findings can serve as a reference for the education sector, government, business and academia, to promote, design and use microlearning. Design/methodology/approach In this study, two sets of analysis were conducted. Firstly, we analysed the publication trend of microlearning. Second, we analysed the trend of internet searches related to microlearning. More specifically, we analysed 14-years real-world data obtained from Scopus and Google Trends for the purpose. These data include the first relevant publication found in the database. Findings In total, 476 relevant publication have been identified during 2006 to 2019. According to the findings from analysing the identified publications, microlearning is a relevant new and emerging global topic involving authors, affiliations and funding sponsors from different countries. Moreover, many microlearning related publications were conducted from perspectives of elearning or mobile learning. Furthermore, we notice higher education was the most frequently mentioned education level in the identified publications. On the other hand, language learning (i.e. second language, vocabulary learning) had been mentioned more times in the titles and abstracts then other subject areas. Overall, the increasing trend of publications on ‘microlearning’ (as a knowledge supply) is in line with the established increasing internet searches of ‘microlearning’ (as a practical demand) in recent years. Practical implications From the work-based learning perspective, microlearning has been considered as one of the key topics in talent development topics. Policymakers, educators, researchers and participators, have the responsibility to explore how to promote, design and use microlearning to help people to learn in the right direction through valid knowledge with ethical consideration. Originality/value Although many works had been done on microlearning, there is a lack of comprehensive studies reviewing the trends of microlearning in terms of related publications and internet searches. This study aims to fill this gap by analysing real-world data obtained from Scopus and Google Trends - these data include the first relevant publication found in the database. We believe this is the first time that a study has been conducted to comprehensively review the development trends of microlearning. Hopefully, this study can shed some light on related research.
    • Role of attitudes in Brazil's country brand image

      Giraldi, Janaina de Moura Engracia; Maheshwari, Vishwas; Mariutti, Fabiana; Konstantopoulou, Anastasia; University of Sao Paulo, University of Chester, Univeristy of Sao Paulo, Edge Hill University (Inderscience Publishers, 2018-10-09)
      For past three decades, the academic community has sought to advance the analysis relating to the image of several countries around the world. In relation, several studies have since been published on contemporary relevance of the image of a given country, and its subsequent effects on product evaluations and purchase intentions, among other behavioural outcomes. Nonetheless, despite the importance of the theory of attitude in evaluating the image of a country, the majority of papers in the field has focused on the cognitive component of attitude only, having the other components, affective and conative, not thoroughly being examined. As a result, with an aim to extend our current understanding into the role of attitudes on country brand image, this paper considers the conations more broadly such as, the predisposition for traveling, doing businesses, investing, working in the country, as well as, the willingness for either buying products made in the Brazil or shopping in the Brazil. Additionally, the purpose of this paper is to investigate Brazil's country brand image, based on the three-attitudinal categories "cognitive", "affective", and "conative". The methodological approach taken in this study is a quantitative method via an online survey. The study population consisted of the 427 undergraduate students at foreign institutions partaking agreements with a Brazilian public university. Attitudes were analysed using exploratory factor analysis to correlate potential impact on Brazils' country brand image. The country's image refers to a construct derived from the concept of attitudes, being comprised of cognitive, affective, and conative components. Results of this study indicate that the conative dimension received the highest scores of the respondents implying strong behavioural intentions in relation to Brazil's country brand image. It is also noteworthy that the technical dimension presented a more negative assessment in comparison to all other dimensions of Brazil's image, indicating that such a cognitive element to be adequately developed to highlight better brand assurance.
    • Shaping the future : A study using scenario analysis

      Pownall, Ian; University of Chester (SAGE, 2019-12-31)
      Scenario analysis requires the integration of a diversity of concepts, views, data and practices for organisations. It is an analysis that draws upon current understanding of organizational and environmental contexts but also one that reflects creativity in the construction of future scenarios within which organisations could compete. This case study explores the application of scenario analysis using the ‘Field Anomaly Relaxation’ (FAR) technique by a group of regional stakeholders to understand and prioritize emergent futures in a UK seaside town. The discussion is focused on two phases of that research project; the series of stakeholder meetings to prioritize emergent futures and the factors shaping them; final analytical and interpretive phase that generated four distinctive scenarios which were used to frame ongoing strategic planning by local and regional organisations.
    • Sights and insights: Vocational outdoor students’ learning

      Hickman, Mark; Stokes, Peter; University of Central Lancashire; University of Chester (Outdoor Council of Australia, 2016-02-18)
      Outdoor leader and adventure sport education in the United Kingdom has been characterized by an over-emphasis on technical skills at the expense of equally important, but often marginalized intra- and inter-personal skills necessary for contemporary outdoor employment. This study examined the lived experience of vocational outdoor students in order, firstly, to identify what was learned about the workplace through using reflective practice and, secondly, what was learned about reflective practice through this experience. The study used a purposive sample of students (n=15) who were invited to maintain reflective journals during summer work experience, and this was followed up with semi-structured interviews. Manual Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) revealed that in the workplace setting students used reflective practice to understand and develop technical proficiency, support awareness of the value of theory, and acted as a platform to express emergent concepts of ‘professionalism’. Lessons about reflective practice emphasized its value in social settings, acknowledging different ways of reflection, and understanding and managing professional life beyond graduation.
    • Signs and wonders: Exploring the effects and impact of the Investors in People logo and symbols

      Smith, Simon M.; Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Emerald, 2015-05-06)
      Purpose – This paper aims to examine and assess the reputational impact of the logo and symbols of the UK Standard Investors in People (IiP). The extant literature highlights differing opinions in terms of the likely benefits that IiP generates following achievement of the Standard. This paper focuses specifically on the perceptions of reputational claims made regarding existing employees, potential employees and customers. Design/methodology/approach – The debate is explored through 38 interviews using the perceptions of managers and frontline employees within six IiP-accredited firms and one non-accredited firm. Findings – The study indicates that the logo and symbols of the Standard have minimal meaning and significance for the interviewees and their outlook on potential employees and customers. There were some indications, however, that the wider reputational implications of carrying the logo may have some potentially beneficial effects. Originality/value – The paper concludes that the overarching findings present a potentially serious issue for IiP, and that there is a need to understand further the impact and value of the logo and symbols.
    • ‘Smart cities’ – Dynamic sustainability issues and challenges for 'old world' economies: A case from the United Kingdom

      Stokes, Peter; Larson, Mitchell J.; Russell, Natalie; Adderley, Simon; Moore, Neil; Mathews, Martin V. C.; Smith, Simon M.; Lichy, Jessica; Scott, Peter; Ward, Tony; et al. (Slovenian Academy of Management, 2015-10-01)
      The rapid and dynamic rate of urbanization, particularly in emerging world economies, has resulted in a need to find sustainable ways of dealing with the excessive strains and pressures that come to bear on existing infrastructures and relationships. Increasingly during the twenty-first century policy makers have turned to technological solutions to deal with this challenge and the dynamics inherent within it. This move towards the utilization of technology to underpin infrastructure has led to the emergence of the term ‘Smart City’. Smart cities incorporate technology based solutions in their planning development and operation. This paper explores the organizational issues and challenges facing a post-industrial agglomeration in the North West of England as it attempted to become a ‘Smart City’. In particular the paper identifies and discusses the factors that posed significant challenges for the dynamic relationships residents, policymakers and public and private sector organizations and as a result aims to use these micro-level issues to inform the macro-debate and context of wider Smart City discussions. In order to achieve this, the paper develops a range of recommendations that are designed to inform Smart City design, planning and implementation strategies.
    • Social Capital: A review from an ethics perspective

      Ayios, Angela; Jeurissen, Ronald; Manning, Paul; Spence, Laura J.; Ayios, A. Brunel University; Jeurissen, R. Nyenrode University; Mannin, P. Liverpool UNiverisrity; Spence, L. R., Royal Holloway, University of London. (Wiley & Sons, 2014-01-30)
      Abstract Social capital has as its key element the value of social relationships to generate positive outcomes, both for the key parties involved and for wider society. Some authors have noted that social capital nevertheless has a dark side. There is a moral element to such a conceptualisation, yet there is scarce discussion of ethical elements within the social capital literature. In this paper ethical theory is applied to four traditions or approaches to economic social capital: neo-capitalism; network/reputation; neo-Tocquevellian; and development. Each is considered in detail and subject to ethical analysis by the application of utilitarianism, Kantianism, justice and rights, and ethic of care. Accordingly the assumption that social capital is either value-neutral or a force for good is critiqued and a framework for understanding social capital from an ethics perspective presented.
    • Soft Power and International Political Marketing

      Sun, Henry; harris, Phil; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-06-28)
      Joseph Nye defines soft power as the ability of “getting others to want the outcomes that you want” through persuasion and attraction of one’s ideas or the ability to set the political agenda to shape the preferences of others. Nye further argues that in the international arena, besides the military and economic power, there is a third dimension which is characterized as indirect power, cooptive power, and intangible power in contrary to direct power, coercive power, and tangible power. Nye states, “The ability to establish references tends to be associated with intangible power resources such as culture, ideology and institutions. This dimension can be thought of as soft power, in contrast to the hard command power usually associated with tangible resources like military and economic strength.” Henry Sun defines international political marketing as following: International Political Marketing seeks to establish, maintain and enhance long-term relations among nation-states, political actors and organizations, so that the objectives of stakeholders involved are met. This is done by mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises through cross-border and cross-culture marketing strategy and management
    • Staging and managing match events in the English professional football industry: an SME learning perspective

      Moore, Neil; Stokes, Peter; Scott, Peter; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Inderscience Publishers, 2016-06-01)
      Abstract: The English professional football industry has attracted considerable academic interest in relation to the tragedies that occurred during the 20th century. However, the bulk of this work has focused on historical, social and economic factors rather than match processes. Consequently, an in-depth view of contemporary football match event management processes does not exist. This paper aims to address this by examining small and medium enterprises (SME) and event literatures in order to surface the SME mentality evident in the majority of clubs. A Football Match Event Lifecycle Model is developed and then used to provide an insight into contemporary football event management issues and processes and demonstrate how clubs can generate, transfer and use knowledge to learn from the mistakes of the past. The paper adopts an interpretivist methodological approach and utilises qualitative primary data from semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation.
    • Stereotypical Notions of the Entrepreneur: An Analysis from a Perspective of Gender

      Hancock, Connie; University of Chester, University of Barcelona (Routledge, 2014-02-10)
      The principal objective of this paper is an analysis of the stereotypical figure of the entrepreneur in the Spanish context, from a perspective of gender. We provide evidence that the characteristics largely associated with an entrepreneurial individual are stereo-typically male or androgynous, with a notable absence of female typologies. Our findings suggest that this relationship has an influence on the continued predominance of male entrepreneurial activity. This study contributes to the growing empirical literature on female entrepreneurship from an understudied perspective; gender stereotyping, demonstrating that socially constructed gender stereotyping persists in contemporary Spanish culture.
    • Structure of the public relations/communication department: Key findings from a global study

      Moss, Danny; Likely, Fraser; Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy; Ferrari, Maria; University of Chester; University of Ottawa; Purdue University; University of Sao Paulo (Elsevier, 2017-01-17)
      This paper reports on some of the core findings from a program of research focused on the structure of public relations/communication departments. It draws on a recent major global study that was sponsored by the former Research Foundation of the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC). Analyzing the results from interviews with 26 Chief Communication Officers (CCOs) located in each of the five continents and from a survey sample of some 278 CCOs based in organizations headquartered across the globe, the study found quite notable variations in the type of departmental structures. No one dominant structural model emerged. In effect, each organization appeared to adopt a structural design to suit their individual circumstances, although there were nevertheless some reasonably common component functional elements within each department. CCOs identified those variables that they believed most influenced the design of the public relations department structure. While recognizing department structure is situation dependent, the evidence suggests that CCOs create hybrid structures unique to the circumstances. What was perhaps most surprising was that department structure did not appear to be strongly influenced by department size, other than in terms of the vertical structural design. In short, there do not appear to be any common formulas or prescribed solutions for how organizations should or do orchestrate the design of the public relations department structure, rather CCOs appear to be able to exercise a degree of latitude in determining what works best for them.