• Factors affecting progress of the National e-Health Strategy in the NHS in England: A Socio-technical Evaluation.

      Page, Steve; Bellamy, Lawrence; Manning, Paul; Richardson, Keith (University of Chester, 2019-03-21)
      Background: This is a formative socio-technical study of the “middle out” NHS e-health strategy in England. It began in 2015 with an objective to become “paperless at the point of care by 2020”, focussing nationally on the “electronic glue”, (interoperability), to facilitate the inter-organisational exchange digital communications of patient data and leaving the choice of EHRs to local organisations. No academic research has been published into the strategy and similar studies rarely include sample groups of suppliers or IT consultants. So this study seeks to fill both gaps in knowledge. Such strategies are prevalent across westernised developed countries and can consume large sums of government funding and local resources. In consequence, their failure can be very costly. This study seeks to mitigate that risk whilst recognising that, as they operate in highly complex environments, choosing any particular type of “bottom up”, “middle out” or “top down” strategy construct does not guarantee success. Their outcome is dependent upon the successful navigation through a mix of factors, known and unknown, across technical, human and social, organisational, macro-environmental and wider socio-political dimensions through time. Findings: The “middle out” strategy is broadly more appropriate, rather than “bottom up” or “top down”, but the target, of becoming “paperless by 2020”, is unattainable. Major cultural barriers include resistance by powerful clinicians, who can perceive such strategies as threats to the moral order and their traditional role as gatekeepers of access to patient data. Other barriers include inadequate and delayed national funding; disruption caused by government reorganisations; major premature programme re-structuring and a shift away from the original intent, resulting in the inappropriate selection of single organisation pilot sites rather than multi-organisational community wide ones to promote interoperability. New factors found include: the threats of cyber security incidents and the need for protective measures; the mismatch between strategy timescales and local procurement cycles; the quality of IT suppliers and the competing demands of similar change management programmes for scarce local NHS resources. Proposition: To reflect those findings a new socio-technical model is proposed that incorporates those additional factors as well as two further cross cutting dimensions to reflect “Lifecycle” and “Purpose”, drawing on elements of both Change Management and Technology Lifecycle Theory. “Lifecycle” reflects the “passage of time” as the evidence suggests that factors affecting progress may vary in their presence and impact over time as a strategy moves though its lifecycle. The addition of a “Purpose” dimension supports a reflection on the “why”. Some support is found for the proposal that a “middle out” strategy is more likely to facilitate progress than “bottom up” or “top down” ones. However a shift in approach is advocated. It is proposed that “middle out” e-health strategies are more likely to be successful if their “purpose” shifts away from promoting EHRs, per se, like with single organisation pilot sites, towards inter-organisational clinical and social care workflow improvement across health and social care economies. To achieve that, the focus should shift towards interoperability and cyber security programmes. Those should promote and mandate the use of national interoperability infrastructure, national systems and national standards. They should also provide national funding support to health economy wide clinical and social care workflow improvement pilots and initiatives that span those economies.
    • Family-Centred Motivations for Agritourism Diversification: The Case of the Langhe Region, Italy.

      Lyon, Andrew; Canovi, Magali; University of Chester, ESCP Europe (Taylor and Francis, 2019-08-07)
      This paper examines the motivations underlying family wineries' decisions to diversify into agritourism. Empirical evidence is provided by a sample of North Italian family wineries that have recently engaged in agritourism. While the majority of studies have adopted an economic-noneconomic dichotomy approach when examining the motivations for agritourism diversification, this paper highlights the limitations of this approach, outlines the complexity of motivations and argues for the need to take the family context into account. Drawing on the socioemotional wealth (SEW) framework, we offer a conceptual model and derive a set of propositions to show how family owners' motivations for agritourism diversification are primarily driven by family-centred goals. This paper thus contributes to a better understanding of diversification in general, and of farming families' motivations for agritourism diversification in particular. Practical implications at the European and regional level are discussed. KEYWORDS: Agritourism, wine tourism, diversification, socioemotional wealth, family business
    • Family-owned businesses in the global marketplace: A taxonomy for generational evolution and directions for future research

      Ozdemir, Ozlem; harris, Phil; University of Chester; Regents University, London
      The words “global company” often conjure up images of large, publicly-traded organizations, while the words “family-owned business” may evoke images of small, tightly held companies. However, some of the world’s largest global companies are actually family-owned businesses. Global marketing research has paid little attention to investigating decision making and behavior in family-owned businesses. It has paid even less attention to the important role that women play in leading family-owned businesses. This chapter illuminates these gaps. The current study builds on extant theory about family business cultural impacts on succession using a multidimensional model of succession that adapts stewardship theory while including the previously under-researched perspectives of family-owned businesses. Keywords: Family-Owned Business, Succession, Women
    • Financial Technology for Sustainable Development

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Teissier, Cedric; University of Chester, Finexkap
      N/A
    • FinTech (Financial Technology): What is it and how to use technologies to create business value in FinTech way?

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; University of Chester (International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 2018-04-01)
      We define FinTech as a cross-disciplinary subject that combines Finance, Technology Management and Innovation Management. The definition had been presented to different audiences with different backgrounds, such as students and business professionals in various events, we found that the definition provides audiences better understanding on what is FinTech and its potential. Moreover, in order to discuss how FinTech would create value for businesses, we summarized various FinTech applications into four major categories: i) payment, ii) advisory service, iii) financing and iv) compliance. In addition, we also discuss what are the emerging technologies in FinTech and how they could possibility create business values. We believe that this study could serve as a reference for researchers, particularly from technology background, on how to identify and develop new Fintech solutions.
    • Flexible Systems in HR

      Bamel, Umesh; Stokes, Peter; Indian Institute of Management Raipur; University of Chester (Springer, 2016-02-26)
      Research on the concept of ‘flexibility’ has produced a substantive scholarly in recent decades and has evolved as a focal area of management research (Mønsted 1991; Sushil 1994; Skipper et al. 2014; Krishna et al. 2015). According to Sushil (2001) ‘Flexibility offers freedom of choice and is highly context specific’. Here, ‘context specific’ refers to the role of contingencies within flexibility which might render it as a form of a firm’s dynamic capability. The dynamic capability scholarship argues that in order to achieve excellence, organizations should develop capabilities complementary to their competencies (Teece et al. 1997; Helfat and Peteraf 2009). Thus, flexible HR practices can help organizations in achieving sustainable competitiveness through creating, integrating, reconfiguring, and building on its human resource base. For example, organizations can achieve competitive edge by customizing training and development programs.
    • Freedom and transparency in turbulent times: Some thoughts and issues

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Wiley, 2017-08-21)
      Editorial of Volume 17, 3 of Journal of Public Affairs
    • Funding the growth of UK technology-based small firms since the financial crash: are there breakages in the finance escalator?

      North, David; Baldock, Robert; Ullah, Farid; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2013-07-04)
      This paper presents recent research assessing the impact of the financial crisis on young and established Technology-Based Small Firms (TBSFs) and considers whether their ability to contribute to economic growth is being affected by ongoing problems in obtaining external finance. It reports on original findings from a survey of 100 TBSFs undertaken in late 2010 as well as 20 in-depth interviews with a range of finance providers. The surviving TBSFs exhibited considerable demand for external finance since 2007, particularly for working capital and early stage R&D, sought mainly from banks, but also with younger TBSFs seeking business angel finance and innovation grants and more mature TBSFs seeking venture capital finance. However, both debt and equity finance have become harder to access for TBSFs, particularly for early stage funding and for more R&D intensive firms, hampering their growth potential. Where external finance has been available, the terms and conditions set by providers were often unacceptable to business owners. The paper concludes that the smooth operation of the finance escalator has proved difficult to achieve under recent financial conditions and identifies a number of breakpoints relating to TBSFs which government policy needs to address.
    • Getting past the language in the assessment of the International Student in UK HE

      Pownall, Ian (Queens English Society, 2018-12-31)
      A short positional paper on the language and assessment of international students.
    • Globalization and International Students: Re-modelling Micro-international Aspects for the Entrepreneurial University

      Hancock, Connie; Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; University of Chester
      In the highly competitive higher education (HE) market for international students, the adoption of entrepreneurial approaches to internationalization by universities and higher education institutions (HEIs) is imperative in order to ensure a sustainable organizational future. Due to program popularity, HEI business schools often find themselves at the forefront of internationalization. While an appreciation of the need for ‘entrepreneurial’ behavior with regards to macro-aspects of internationalization (for example, international recruitment and market development) is longstanding, a developed understanding of, and the extension of ‘entrepreneurial’ approaches into the micro-contexts (i.e. student experience in the classroom setting) remains surprisingly understudied, particularly at the micro-operational level. This chapter adopts an inductive case study approach, focusing on a HEI business school undergraduate cohort in the United Kingdom (UK). The study collected data via semi-structured interviews, focus groups and questionnaires conducted with students and academic staff involved in internationalization. Overall, the study generates a micro-portrayal of the issues faced by a UK HEI business school as it attempts to develop ‘entrepreneurial’ approaches to, and models for, its internationalization strategy. Specifically, the chapter develops insights into the challenges associated with student experience and linguistic engagement, program design and delivery and highlights areas of potential development. These findings and their implications enable HEI business schools to rethink and remodel ways in which issues originating in macro-aspects of internationalization can be successfully addressed at the micro-level.
    • Going it Alone or Working as Part of a Team: The Impact of Human Capital on Entrepreneurial Decision Making

      Hancock, Connie; Hormiga, Esther; Jaría-Chacón, Natalia; University of Chester; University of Barcelona
      This paper endeavours to measure the effect that human capital has on the decision taken by the entrepreneur to pursue new venture creation either in a lone capacity or collaboratively. This study applies a logit model to investigate the research relationships. The results show that three factors (experience, social perception and extrinsic motivation) are relevant in the decision to initiate a new venture either in a lone capacity or as part of a collaborative undertaking. The results indicate that previous experience holds the greatest significance on the decision taken by entrepreneurs to ‘go it alone’, with factors relating to social perception and extrinsic motivation chiefly predicting a decision to work collaboratively. The findings of this study provide new insight and evidence with regard to the factors that influence a key decision in the start-up process: that of continuing in a lone capacity, or proceeding as part of an entrepreneurial team.
    • GREXIT, Openness, Transparency and Honesty in Systems (GOTHS): Public Affairs Reflections on Changing Economies and Societies

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-08-17)
      Editorial Financial capacity and political perspicacity are inversely correlated. Long-run salvation by men of business has never been highly regarded if it means disturbance of orderly life and convenience in the present. So inaction will be advocated in the present even though it means deep trouble in the future. Here, at least equally with Communism, lies the threat to Capitalism. It is what causes men who know that things are going quite wrong to say that things are fundamentally sound.’ Galbraith (2009), The Great Crash of 1929. Page 194 The rumbles of the fallout from the 2008 financial crisis are still with us as the EU has put together another bailout proposal for Greece as a member of the Euro Zone. One wonders whether monitoring and support for quality fiscal management of economies within the Euro Zone have been as robust and rigorous as it should have been. Clearly something for the banks, finance ministers, businesses and economists to reflect on as the Greek Banking system is propped up by Central European economies. Good basic banking is paramount; one can only borrow what one can payback at a realistic rate or one starts moving into areas of usury level re-payments and financial distrust and disharmony in society. To tread carefully, stimulate business, civic society, creativity and be supportive of well managed economies seems to be the general rule that works. Finance and international banking is increasingly attracting major public affairs activity, partly a result of the failures in the system which led to the financial crash in 2008. Bankers were not the only people to blame for the crash but also central bankers and other international financial regulators who bear the responsibility too, who mishandled the crisis and failed to keep economic imbalances in check and for not exercising proper oversight of institutions. The development of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and gradual roll out of the RMB as a world trading currency may lead to greater transparency and balance on theworld financial scene and help stimulate better global regulation of markets and currencies. The signs are good that this will happen. Clearly reform of financial institutions to cope with the rapid speed of financial trading, markets and shifting trends in world trade and investment is needed, underpinned by greater transparency and regulation. The issue contains arange of articles.
    • Heroes and Helpers, Victims and Villains: A syntagmatic analysis of manager stories

      Rostron, Alison I.; University of Chester (British Academy of Management, 2015-09-08)
      This paper builds on the growing body of work using narrative as a means of both conceptualising and researching identity. Drawing on the work of Propp, it presents a method of syntagmatic analysis which attends to the narrative plots underpinning stories, and the narrative roles adopted by the narrator and roles ascribed to others. The paper presents research into manager workplace identities at a UK Social Landlord. It demonstrates how a syntagmatic analysis of manager stories reveals rich insights into the workplace identities of managers, and the identity work they undertake in order to construct and sustain such identities. It further reveals how managers personally position themselves in relation to the range of possible organisational functions of a manager, and in relation to the organisation and other organisational actors. By attending to individual stories, such analysis also draws attention to the plurality of manager experience.
    • Historical and Contemporary Contexts: The Representation and Character of ‘Modern’ Organizations

      Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Kogan Page, 2016-04-01)
      Chapter 2: Historical and Contemporary Contexts: The Representation and Character of ‘Modern’ Organizations Peter Stokes Objectives This chapter aims to outline the modernistic and positivistic philosophies and paradigms which underpin contemporary markets, management and organizations by: • elaborating the historical context of the role of the enlightenment and the emergence of science; • explaining the development of the Industrial Revolution, the development of positivism and the recognition of modernism and its powerful implications for the shape and nature of organizations and management; • elaborating the nature and role of Taylorism and Fordism as consequences of the general modernistic movement and events; • contextualising modernism and positivism by developing a conceptual understanding of epistemology and frames of reference; • providing examples of modernistic effects in organizations such as hard and soft management and corporate cultures, key performance indicators and metrics, audit cultures, managerialism, McDonaldization and the role of fashions and fads in management thinking and ideas. Introduction Chapter One mapped out the contemporary nature of the work and organizations and their environments, in local and global terms, and underlined the contexts and issues which have become important for organizations. The Chapter now proceeds to examine modernism and the phenomena of, for example, managerialism, Taylorism and McDonaldization and how they have endured as powerful influences on contemporary work settings. The management of change and evolution have been a recurrent experience in business and organizations generally. It has become common to read in texts that, in the contemporary era, change is happening at an unprecedented rate and on a global scale. However, organizations and societies have always undergone change. At times, this change has seemed radical and unpredictable whilst at other times there have been periods which have provided a semblance of stability and continuity (Linstead, Fulop and Lilley, 2009:619). Historically, it is possible to cite many major events which have caused severe and extensive disruption to established society processes and structures which have caused companies and organizations to go bankrupt and disappear forever. Changes might be relatively small or, alternatively, may be on a continental scale. These might include major tragedies such as, for example, plagues and illnesses (the Black Death and the post-First World War influenza outbreak (1918-1919) both of which killed hundreds of thousands of people and brought about significant transformations in social hierarchies, land and wealth distributions); conflicts (such as World War I and II (1914-18 and 1939-1945)) and economic collapses and depressions (The Wall Street Crash (1929) and the ‘Credit Crunch’ Recession (2008)). Moreover, whatever changes are taking place in a period, different periods of history are characterised by particular values and beliefs regarding the drivers that shape the epoch. Such beliefs are likely to change over time and acknowledging this is important for contemporary managers and organizations because by generating an appreciation of this it will facilitate a better understanding of the energies and forces at play in the contemporary world and workplace. A key philosophy that has shaped the 20th and 21st Centuries has been that of modernism which can be considered to have followed on from pre-modernism. Modernism can be considered to have exerted influence from the mid-1600s until the contemporary era, whilst Pre-modernism embraces Ancient History (that is, for example, Ancient Greek, Roman and other civilizations of the surrounding eras) leading up towards the early Medieval period (Cummings, 2002). Modernism is important to understand because the values it embodies are very different from those that prevailed in the preceding pre-Modern and Medieval eras.
    • Hotel Employer’s perceptions of employing Eastern European employees: a case study of Cheshire, UK

      Lyon, Andrew; Sulcova, Dana; University of Chester (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2009-02-01)
      This article examines and reveals hotel employer’s experiences of employing Eastern European workers in Cheshire in the UK. Cheshire has a vibrant and significant visitor economy, with its main tourist destination Chester receiving over 8 million visitors a year and has over 30% of its income generated from the tourism, retail and hospitality sectors. There is almost full employment in many parts of the region and many employers struggle to fill vacant positions, particularly at the lower skill levels. Many visitor economy employers are now reliant on migrant labour from Eastern Europe. The objectives of this study are to examine the experiences of employers of Eastern European employees and to compare and contrast the contribution of Easter European employees and local employees using six key themes. This article analyses the outcome of in-depth, one-to-one interviews with accommodation employers from Cheshire in the north west of England in the UK. The findings suggest that some employers can put forward a number of clear, positive reasons for employing Eastern European workers. These reasons are mainly driven by the migrant workers having certain abilities which British employees lack. On the other hand however, some employers also suggest that Eastern European workers have certain limitations which could have implications for the quality of service delivery. Key words: Migrant workers, quality, employer perceptions
    • The Impact of Wine Tourism Involvement on Winery Owners' Identity Processes

      Canovi, Magali; Lyon, Andrew; Mordue, Tom; ESCP Europe; University of Northumbria; University of Chester,
      This paper examines how involvement in wine tourism has affected winery owners’ identity processes. Using Breakwell’s Identity Process Theory (IPT) as a conceptual framework, we investigate the extent to which place is a part of winery owners’ self-identities, thereby giving them senses of belonging, distinctiveness, continuity, and self-esteem. Simultaneously, we find that these senses and feelings influence winery owners’ perceptions of the benefits and dis-benefits of wine tourism development in their region. We also discover how personal involvement in tourism can strengthen or threaten winery owners’ identities and thereby affect their support or otherwise for wine tourism. Empirical evidence is provided via a sample of twenty-eight winery owners in Langhe, Italy, who have recently engaged in various tourism-related activities due to the continuous development of the local tourism industry. Our research recognises that place is an integral part of the identity process.
    • The importance of colour on the communication of financial data in management

      Sung, Anna; Williams, Taylor; Flora, Sun; Leong, Kelvin; Andoniou, Constantine; University of Chester
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of colour on the communication of financial data in management and to encourage future discussion on related topic. Design/methodology/approach – Hypothesis was designed building on relevant literatures. Quantitative discrete data were collected through a mini-test activity in a lecture from students. The results were reviewed and evaluated by relevant statistical tool. Findings – The authors found consistent statistical significance results in the mini-test. The findings support that users prefer to choose the financial data presented in cool colours in business management context. Research limitations/implications – Gaining the understanding of colour’s influence on decision making and behaviour is subjected to complexity. There are many other contextual factors should be taken into consideration in practice. Although the design of the mini-test in this study is relatively simple, it still provides clues for the issue. With the discussions and findings of this paper, the authors shed some light on the direction of potential uses of colour on the communication of financial data in management context. The findings could also be used by management educators to facilitate related discussions among students regarding the complexity of business communication and the importance of perception in decision making. For example, decision making could be affected by various factors (such as colour) outside verbal and text. Originality/value – Managers often need to use financial data in communication for various purposes in work place. The authors believe this is the first time that a study like this had been conducted to specifically review and discuss the importance of colour on the communication of financial data in management. Hopefully, the work reported in this paper could be viewed as reference for management educators, researchers and managers in future research or practical applications on related topics.
    • Innovation in family firms: an empirical taxonomy of owners using a mixed methods approach

      Salmon, Udeni; Allman, Kurt; University of Keele
      The increasingly competitive manufacturing sector has made innovation crucial for the continued survival of family-owned SMEs. However, family firm owners are highly heterogenous and their diverse characteristics influence their approach to innovation. The purpose of this paper is to provide solutions to two heterogeneity related innovation problems: first, the failure of generic innovation policy advice to address the specific types of family firm owners; and second, the difficulty for owners in understanding how their innovation approach compares to their competitors. The solution is to create a taxonomy of family firm owner-innovators which creates innovator types. This taxonomy addresses these two problems: first, the taxonomy enables policy advice to be tailored to a particular innovator types; and second, the taxonomy allows owners to understand the strengths and weaknesses of their particular approach to innovation.
    • Inquiry into the cultural impact on cost accounting systems (CAS) in Sri Lanka

      Nagirikandalage, Padmi; Binsardi, Ben; University of Chester; Glyndwr University (Emerald, 2017-11-04)
      The purpose of this paper is to critically explore the implementation of cost accounting systems (CAS) using content analysis. In particular, it aims to examine the impact of Sri Lankan cultural and local characteristics on the adoption of CAS. In particular, it examines the factors that facilitate or hinder the adoption of CAS in Sri Lanka. Primary data for the research were obtained by interviewing selected respondents from Sri Lanka’s manufacturing and service sectors. They were shortlisted using maximum variation sampling to obtain a representative cross-section of the national population. A total of 16 respondents were interviewed, which resulted in 57 interview paragraphs to be coded. Several theories were used to analyse them, namely, the theory of institutional isomorphism (homogeneity) and the theory of heterogeneity, as well as Clifford Geertz’s cultural theories. A cross-comparison between the findings and relevant literature indicates the existence of complete institutional isomorphism and partial institutional heterogeneity in Sri Lanka. Heterogeneity exists in organisations such as foreign multinationals, which have adopted unique and sophisticated CAS. In addition, inadequate access to information and the orientation of the local culture has affected the implementation of CAS in Sri Lanka, with a lack of awareness of the importance of CAS, a sluggish approach to costing and cultural values forming prominent barriers to its implementation. These findings are plausible in light of the relationship between a sluggish approach towards costing (a low cost awareness), and local attitudes towards the implementation of more efficient accounting practices such as CAS. This research is invaluable as a tool for Sri Lankan policymakers and practitioners, enabling the public and private sectors to provide education and training to enhance staff understanding and promote a positive attitude towards costing. With more efficient institutional CAS, the country’s economy will be more competitive internationally. As well as policymakers and practitioners, this research could be used by academicians for advancing theoretical development around the cultural triggers and barriers for adopting more innovative and fresher CAS in Sri Lanka. The originality of this research can be justified on two counts. Firstly, although a wealth of research exists that examines the influence of culture on behaviour, this research specifically evaluates the impact of cultural factors on attitudes towards costing. These factors could be facilitators or obstructions for implementing CAS. Secondly, this research aims to combine both earlier and recent theories of institutionalism with Clifford Geertz’s cultural theory, to investigate how people and institutions in Sri Lanka adopt CAS. Earlier studies have focused merely on earlier theories of institutional homogeneity.
    • Intellectual capital and new ventures: the entrepreneur's cognizance of company management

      Hancock, Connie; Hormiga, Esther; Valls-Pasola, Jaume; University of Chester; University of Barcelona
      The purpose of this research is to analyse the intellectual capital gauges most often utilized by entrepreneurs in the management of new ventures and to relate the use of these gauges to business performance. On the basis of interview data collected from 103 entrepreneurs, we provide evidence that the use of such measuring techniques impacts positively on overall business performance. Moreover, the results indicate that those entrepreneurs utilizing some form of intellectual capital (IC) measurement have superior results. Consequently, we highlight the importance of detecting, measuring and utilizing IC for new ventures stressing the potential benefits that such analysis can have on the initial steps taken by an entrepreneur in venture formation and business development.