• Dark Open Innovation in a Criminal Organizational Context: the Case of Madoff’s Ponzi Fraud

      Manning, Paul; Stokes, Peter; Visser, Max; Rowland, Caroline A.; Tarba, Shlomo Y.; University of Chester; De Montfort University; Radboud University; University of Central Lancashire; University of Birmingham (Emerald, 2018-06-11)
      his paper investigates the processes of open innovation in the context of a fraudulent organization and, using the infamous Bernie L. Madoff Investment Securities (BLMIS) fraud case, introduces and elaborates upon the concept of dark open innovation. The paper’s conceptual framework is drawn from social capital theory, which is grounded on the socio-economics of Bourdieu, Coleman and Putnam and is employed in order to make sense of the processes that occur within dark open innovation. Given the self-evident access issues, this paper is necessarily based on archival and secondary sources taken from the court records of Madoff v New York—including victim impact statements, the defendant’s Plea Allocution, and academic and journalistic commentaries—which enable the identification of the processes involved in dark open innovation. Significantly, this paper also represents an important inter-disciplinary collaboration between academic scholars variously informed by business and history subject domains. Although almost invariably cast as a positive process, innovation can also be evidenced as a negative or dark force. This is particularly relevant in open innovation contexts, which often call for the creation of extended trust and close relationships. This paper outlines a case of dark open innovation. A key implication of this study is that organizational innovation is not automatically synonymous with human flourishing or progress. This paper challenges the automatic assumption of innovation being positive and introduces the notion of dark open innovation. Although this is accomplished by means of an in-depth single case, the findings have the potential to resonate in a wide spectrum of situations. Innovation is a concept that applies across a range of organization and management domains. Criminals also innovate; thus, the paper provides valuable insights into the organizational innovation processes especially involved in relation to dark open innovation contexts. It is important to develop and fully understand the possible wider meanings of innovation and also to recognise that innovation—particularly dark open innovation—does not always create progress. The Caveat Emptor warning is still relevant. The paper introduces the novel notion of dark open innovation.
    • The dark side of social capital: Lessons from the Madoff case

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      Book chapter exploring the dark-side of the social capital concept.
    • Demographic factors, personality and entrepreneurial inclination

      Zhou, Jinbo; Tang, Xiao; Lam, Wing; Guangxi Normal University, University of Chester (Guangxi Social Science Association, 2018-06-08)
      This paper looks at the demographic factors of undergraduate and postgraduate students and explore their psychological characteristics in different aspects that related to entrepreneurial intention. 根据选取的335名在校大学生和研究生,探讨4种人口统计学因素[包括性别、年龄、家庭背景、学院 (经管类和非经管类)]及6种心理特征(包括控制点、成就需求、模糊容忍度、风险偏好、自信和创新的)对创 业意愿的影响。结果表明:成就需求、模糊容忍度、自信和创新在区分企业家和非企业家时具有重要意义,而控 制点和风险偏好没有表现出显著差异。除这6种心理特征外,研究结果还强调了家庭背景和学院在创业意愿预 测中起决定作用。这项研究对我国教育体制政策制定产生了巨大影响,同时弥补了中国样本的缺失
    • Determinants of Brand Loyalty: A Study of the Experience-Commitment- Loyalty Constructs

      Maheshwari, Vishwas; Lodorfos, George; Jacobsen, Siril; Univresity of Chester, Leeds Beckett University, Software Innovation Norway (Sciedu Press, 2014-11-16)
      Marketing strategies for brands have shifted its focus on relationships and value creation that directly links to brand loyalty, is the main focus of this paper and two key factors: brand experience and brand commitment, within automotive sector, are investigated to examine relative relationships. These factors have already been established to have a connection to brand loyalty. However, as brand commitment consists of both affective and continuance commitment, it is still somewhat unclear about which of these aspects of commitment has the greatest, or most important impact on brand loyalty. Moreover, the existing research and literature surrounding the brand experience construct is extensive. However, it is not entirely clear regarding this construct’s relationship to brand loyalty. While some authors claim that it affects brand loyalty directly, others have found that it is a dependent variable, which, alone does not have any immediate effect on brand loyalty. This study also investigates a connection between brand experience and brand loyalty as far as automotive sector is concerned, both with and without commitment as a mediator. As a result, continuance commitment was found to not have any considerable impact on the consumer’s loyalty towards a brand, it is assumed that factors such as price and other available alternatives dos not influence this desire to maintain said relationship.
    • Digital Marketing and Young Consumers

      Maheshwari, Vishwas; Sinnott, Karl; Morris, Bethan; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (Routledge, 2017-11-22)
      The digitalisation of media fuelled by remarkable technological advancement has changed the landscape of the business environment and the variety of functions within it since the initial development of the Internet. This includes key business operations of marketing and its relative activities such as advertising, direct and personal selling, relationship building, branding and brand development for enhancing communication to serve existing and increasing potential segments in a set market. Moreover, significant development of digital media has led to the establishment of the term digital marketing where traditional models and frameworks of marketing could be applied in a more enhanced manner using a variety of digital platforms, drastically improving the promptness and effectiveness of marketing efforts. This includes use of innovative webpages, social media marketing through prominent platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Snapchat and digital channels such as YouTube and mobile marketing applications. The use of digital marketing mediums have been increasingly popular within all demographic segments, especially for the purpose of information searching, fact-finding and establishing trustworthiness before committing to a particular product or a brand.
    • Do new first year students seek optimal distinctiveness in a new learning environment?

      Pownall, Ian; Kennedy, Victoria; Acquaye, David; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Elsevier, 2019-03-30)
      The learning experience of the first year student joining Higher Education Institutions (HEI) can be examined from a number of perspectives and we focus upon the development of identity within that new learning environment. A conceptual framework is presented to argue that the tension between distinctiveness and social identification of the learner with the environment, contributes to how the learner engages in that environment through their processing style. A supporting empirical analysis explores this argument for a small sample of new first year students in two UK HEIs studying business modules. We determine that students exhibit cognitive dissonance through exercising a dominant processing style that is not primarily seeking to identify with that learning environment whilst also recognising the benefits of a more engaged processing style aligned with greater identification with their peer group. We propose therefore there is a need for the development of social identification capacity within new students.
    • Economic Rationality and Corporate Social Irresponsibility: An Illustrative Review of Social Capital Theory.

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      Purpose The purpose of this chapter is to argue that utility maximisa- AU:1 tion, taken from a narrow economic understanding of rationality, frames contemporary business school pedagogy and management theory. The chapter will illustrate this observation by detailing the rational framing assumptions in social capital literature. The chapter will argue that these framing rational notions foster a perspective that inclines towards excessive self-interest as well as a concomitant lack of fellow feeling or morality. Methodology Literature review Findings The chapter demonstrates that the narrow economic understanding of rationality that predominates as the framing notion in management theory tends towards amorality as it privileges individual self-interest. In consequence, the significance of ethics and cooperation are under-reported and under-emphasised which leads to CSI. These AU:2 observations are discussed with reference to social capital theory. Research implications To consider the significance of the underacknowledged rational background or framing perspectives in distorting theory and empirical research in social capital literature, and more generally in contemporary management literatures and business school pedagogy. Social implication There is a need to re-examine and challenge the validity and application of rational notions in contemporary management literatures and pedagogy. Originality The chapter identifies that a narrow utility maximising understanding of rationality frames and therefore inhibits current management literatures and pedagogy, including social capital literature.
    • Elite interviewing and the role of sector context: An organizational case from the football industry

      Moore, Neil; Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Emerald, 2012-08-31)
      Purpose – Elite individuals and groups constitute a distinctive, upper echelon and social grouping. In various shapes and forms, elites have been an enduring feature of many societies and in the contemporary era, the concept of elites and the related notion of celebrity have seen fresh interconnected developments. The purpose of the paper is to consider the literature on elite interviewing both generally and more specifically against a backdrop of an organization and management disciplinary setting. Importantly the paper examines and surfaces the role of context in relation to elite interviewing. In order to consider and illustrate this phenomenon the argument engages with the organizational environment and behaviours of the English professional football industry with the intention of offering fresh perspectives into the form and function of context in elite interviewing. Design/methodology/approach – The paper's examination of the literature feeds into the fieldwork stage which employs an inductive and interpretivistic methodology. The key method employed within the methodology is semi‐structured interviews tailored for elites and conjoined with participant observation. The approach is applied within an elite interviewing process in the specific organizational context of the professional football industry. Findings – The paper concludes that in relation to elite interviewing, there is scope to consider a contextualisation and recontextualisation of elite interviewing processes through the development of a potential range of novel conceptual and theoretical models. By engaging with interview frameworks, the paper draws heightened attention to the possibility of generating typologies for, and categorising elites operating within, those given contexts. The paper underlines the established notion of inter‐differences between elites in different sectors, and, more importantly, surfaces intra‐differences in elites within sectors. This issue of diversity of elites is currently not a factor that is clearly acknowledged or addressed in the extant literature. In the case of the present study this novel analysis and illustration are undertaken within the English professional football industry. Therein, the argument exemplifies how elites and elite interviewing may be understood in this specific context through the concepts of process, power and “positionality” and “knownness” identifying, for example, issues of arrogance, amateurism and the phenomenon of insider‐outsider. Social implications – Elites and celebrities constitute longstanding phenomena that have endured into the twenty‐first century and, as a consequence, merit on‐going close analysis. Equally replete in contemporary life are the multifarious organizational and managerial domains and contexts in which given elites reside and operate. Given the potential impact of elites and their actions on people, it would seem worthwhile and important to seek heightened understanding of them. The professional football industry is one particular instance for study given that it is high profile, represents a substantial business sector in its own right, and, plays a central role in the lives of many members of the public. Originality/value – The work is an original study of the contextual issues surrounding interviewing elites in the organizational and management setting of the English professional football industry. In a more specific sense, the paper contributes insights into the issue of typologies within elite interviewing, the role of elites in English professional football and makes progress in redressing a general paucity of commentary on elite in the overall business and management research methodology literature.
    • Embedding Anti-Corruption in the MBA Curriculum: Reflections on a Case History Analysis of Affinity Fraud

      Manning, Paul; University of Chester (Emerald, 2018-02-05)
      Purpose – This paper aims to report a case history delivered to MBA students that developed their understanding of corruption and also enhanced their ability to be able to contribute to the anti-curriculum agenda. This case history method selected was innovative, as it was constructed from multidisciplinary archival sources. The case focus was the egregious affinity fraud of Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities (BLMIS), with court documents taken from “United States V. Bernard L. Madoff And Related Cases USAO-SDNY”, including court sentencing records, victim impact statements and the defendant’s “Plea Allocution”. The case study aimed to enhance students’ ability and inclination to recognise and oppose corrupt practices. The longer-term ambition of the case was to contribute to developing the students’ moral awareness, character and facility for self-reflection, in terms of responding to corruption. The case study exercise also addressed rising societal expectations for more robust responses to corruption, in terms of illustrating how business school pedagogy can be expanded to emphasise the centrality of ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR) to economic life. The case history was analysed within Carroll’s CSR pyramid and also with themes derived from the developing area of behavioural ethics, including a deontological, justice for its own sake and focus. Design/methodology/approach – This research used the qualitative case method (Stake, 2000; Yin, 2004, 2010, 2011) to investigate lived experience from the viewpoint of those being studied and to provide the case history “experience”, using an analytical lens developed from Carroll’s CSR pyramid (1991) and from behavioural ethics research. Furthermore, following Chell’s recommendation, the case history of theBLMIS fraud was chosen – “[. . .] for analytical purposes to produce insight into the phenomena in question” (2008). The case was constructed from archival sources, including court records of the sentencing of Bernie Madoff. Findings – The findings of the research are that students gained knowledge and understanding of the nature and practice of corruption, as well as developing their understanding of the anti-corruption agenda. The case also facilitated students to develop their moral awareness, character and facility for self-reflection with reference to corruption. In sum, the findings are that case histories, using archival sources, in this instance taken from the court records, have the potential to enhance teaching and learning in business ethics and responsible management education. Research limitations/implications – A limitation of this research is that it is reporting on one instance of a classroom delivery of the case study. In consequence, a recommendation for future research is for CSR and ethics focussed educationalist to conduct similar case study teaching to add to and complement the conclusions reached in this paper. Originality/value – This paper is original in detailing and reflecting on a case history teaching example of global corruption. This case history teaching method was innovative, as it was constructed from archival sources taken from court records to include victim impact statements and the defendant’s “Plea Allocution”.
    • Embracing business start-up programme in UK mainstream entrepreneurship education

      Lam, Wing; Zhou, Jinbo; Tang, Xiao; University of Chester, Guangxi Normal University (Hunan University, 2018)
      The results of a research-informed-teaching project carried out by the author help to identify several key factors related to the content and delivery of a successful government initiative – New Entrepreneur Scholarship (NES, 2001-2008). This project aims to evaluate the feasibility of implementing these changes to undergraduate and postgraduate entrepreneurship programmes. The outcome of this research project helps to highlight deep-rooted issues related to entrepreneurship education and research.
    • Emerging Technologies in Education for Sustainable Development

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Cunningham, Stuart; University of Chester; Manchester Metropolitan University
    • Employee Engagement, Motivation, Resilience, and Leadership: An exploration of relationships within a Higher Education Institution

      Thomas, Mike; Rowland, Caroline; Mulliner, Julie (University of Chester, 2018-02-09)
      This study seeks to explore, in one particular UK Higher Educational Institution (HEI), the relationships between engagement, motivation, resilience and the quality of the relationship between managers and those being managed. A literature review provides salient themes relating to the four concepts of: employee engagement, motivation, emotional resilience, and leadership. The changing landscape of the University sector in the UK is also considered for contextual purposes. A mixed methods approach was used to explore relationships between these four concepts. Methods included: observation, focus groups, questionnaires and interviews. Findings from this study indicate that motivation, resilience, engagement and leadership all interrelate; but that leadership interrelated with the other concepts to a lesser extent. Prerequisites of engagement were found to be motivation and resilience, both of which were inter-reliant and as such were difficult to separate. Prerequisites of motivation and resilience were found to be individuals’ personality characteristics, mind-set and thinking style. Higher quality relationships with managers were consistently associated with higher effort, whereas lower quality relationships ranged from making no difference to the exertion of effort, to being a minor irritation in the background, to adversely affecting effort and resilience. Specific leadership attributes and behaviours were found to be more influential in terms of creating affinity between the line manager and follower which were more likely to positively influence engagement, motivation and resilience. Conclusions indicate that the majority of effort is influenced by an individual’s personality characteristics, mind-set and thinking style. The minority of effort therefore was influenced by external factors such as job enjoyment, as a loci of engagement, and autonomy, as a determinant of engagement. The role of a leader is therefore critical in terms of creating and maintaining an engaging work environment. Certain leadership attributes such as gaining trust, being genuinely caring and compassionate and having a positive outlook were positively associated with the followers having a stronger emotional attachment to the organisation manifesting in increased engagement, motivation and resilience. Practical recommendations for senior leaders in organisations, people managers and HR practitioners include: creating operational clarity and clarity of vision; creating and maintaining a culture of care and support; developing leadership attributes and competencies which are key to achieving an engaged workforce; and implementing practices to facilitate job satisfaction, personal and professional growth and a climate of team collegiality which were found to be the three most important work related factors which positively influenced engagement. This research contributes by bringing a new dimension to employee engagement, motivation, resilience and leadership, adding to the existing literature relating to these four concepts. Three different perspectives are presented and one conceptual approach, relating to these four concepts. Each perspective and approach contains elements which can be applied by HR professionals and organisational leaders to create a culture of employee engagement. This study provides a questionnaire that may be used by other organisations to determine engagement strategies and policies.
    • English professional football clubs: Can business parameters of small and medium-sized enterprises be applied?

      Moore, Neil; Levermore, Roger; University of Chester ; University of Liverpool (Emerald, 2012-10-05)
      Purpose ‐ In the last two decades sports studies and sports management journals have called for there to be research in sports management that explores sports links to mainstream management analyses. The purpose of this paper is to argue that in many ways the sports sector is dominated by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), which have a different dynamic to larger entities and therefore should be analysed accordingly. This paper applies an SME perspective on English professional football clubs. Design/methodology/approach ‐ This paper, drawn from 22 semi-structured interviews with key individuals in the English professional football (soccer) industry, employs an interpretivist approach of semi-structured interviews of key personnel to provide an account of the business practices prevalent in the English football industry. Findings ‐ The findings are as follows: that the sports industry can be regarded as one that is largely constituted of elements that are ascribed with characteristics associated with SMEs called archetypal SMEs, either in entity size, turnover or mentality; that much analysis of the administration and management of the sports industry fails to assess the sector through the prism of SME "modelling"; there are areas of engagement with SME literature that could be useful to the analysis of the management of the sports industry. Originality/value ‐ This paper does what few other papers have achieved by outlining that the sports industry can be effectively examined by applying "SME perspectives" to help explain what might appear to be their idiosyncratic characteristics.
    • Entrepreneurial opportunities recognition in Sub-Saharan Africa: a proposed model for investigation

      Bello, Moshood; Allman, Kurt; Udagedara, Susantha; University of Keele; University of Salford; University of Chester
      Earlier studies have predominantly investigated entrepreneurial opportunities recognition from either the discovery or creation perspectives in the developed economies of America and Europe respectively. These efforts have mostly generated contradictory theories or models, which are not suitable for universal investigation of entrepreneurial opportunities. This paper uses the principles of metatheory to integrate the two dominant theories of entrepreneurial opportunities to propose a Multiple Opportunities Recognition Universal Framework (MORUF), then used it to study entrepreneurial opportunities recognition process within an entirely new context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Qualitative data collected from 38 nascent entrepreneurs in Nigeria were used to test the model. Findings reveal that opportunity exists in more than one form, can transit from one state to another and be recognised either through the discovery or creation process. This paper offers an alternative framework to study multiple entrepreneurial opportunities and provides practical relevance for doing so, for practitioners.
    • The Entrepreneurial Personality: A Social Construction, 2nd ed., Book Review

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      Book Review
    • Entrepreneurial stories, narratives and reading – Their role in building entrepreneurial being and behaviour

      Manning, Paul; Stokes, Peter; Rodgers, Peter; Shlomo Yedidia, Tarba; University of Chester; De Montfort University; University of Birmingham; The University of Leicester (Sage, 2019-12-03)
      The article undertakes an innovative study focusing on the choices and manners of entrepreneur reading as a means of developing resilience and responding to the challenges and crises that entrepreneurial activity presents. The article explores predominant patterns of entrepreneurial learning and challenges the assumptions on which these are grounded. This allows original insights and perspectives to be developed with which to enhance understanding of entrepreneurial sense-making. The study employs a qualitative methodology involving purposive semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs to determine the ways in which they identify, engage with and operationalize entrepreneurial behaviour based on their reading. The ensuing fieldwork provided a range of findings and discussion themes centred on dynamic and non-linear behaviour, reading and transformative learning events, and social interaction and reading. The study concludes with a range of observations on the power of reading in assisting entrepreneurs to develop resilience and behaviours for coping with the challenges and crises which are an integral aspect of entrepreneurial activity.
    • Entrepreneurialism and Digital Business in China, Business & Management Video Collection, Sage Publications

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Sage, 2016-08-01)
      Professor Phil Harris discusses entrepreneurship and digital business in China. The Chinese market is constantly growing and advancing in digital business by adapting to change
    • Entrepreneurs and Friendship: the ties of Mutuality

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      The purpose of this paper is to present theoretically informed research into the significance of business friendships for entrepreneurs. The importance of social ties for economic success has been examined in depth from a number of academic perspectives. For example from a business ethics perspective, Jonathan Schonsheck has taken Aristotle’s classical analysis to argue that business friendships are an example of ‘incomplete friendships for utility’ (2000, pp. 897-910). Laura Spence has also argued that business friendships offer a positive contribution to the well-being of actors (2004). Network theory literature, which is extensive (see Nitin & Eccles, 1990, for an overview), has also considered business friendships and there is a further subset of network research focusing on entrepreneurial processes from a social network viewpoint (Blundel & Smith, 2001; O’Donnel, 2004; Shaw & Conway, 2000, pp. 367-383). Moreover, Mark Granovetter’s seminal article ‘The strength of weak ties’ (1973) can be thought of as theorising business friendships in network terms. Additional related research fields, such as social capital theory (Castiglione et al, 2008), have also considered the significance of social ties (business friendships) for success in the marketplace.
    • Essentials of marketing research

      Proctor, Tony (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2005-07-27)
      This book discusses marketing research, planning a research project, sampling, surveys, questionnaires, qualitative research, observations and experiments, quantitative data analysis, and marketing decision-support systems. There are also several case studies.
    • The ethical challenge of Big Tech’s “disruptive philanthropy”

      Manning, Paul; Baker, Nigel Timothy; Stokes, Peter; The University of Chester, The Thomson Institute, De Montfort University (Taylor and Francis, 2020-08-31)
      This article provides a review of research into global philanthropy and the disruptive practices of new technology companies. In this article we detail how “Big Tech” has created a new marketization of philanthropy, based on its sectoral values of innovation, entrepreneurialism and focus on financial and performance metrics. Consequently, we argue for a new ontology of philanthropy that acknowledges marketization as its guiding principle. The study examines and compares different market-focused, philanthropic paradigms, which have evolved through the business values of Big Tech and examines their moral motivations. The topic is viewed through the lens of ‘hybrid organizations’; a model for non-profit entities and social businesses which, in turn, are seeking a market-oriented pathway of balancing the twin demands of managing mission and money. A conceptual framework is then provided to inform practitioners in non-profit organizations about the issues and risks of engaging with the new types of philanthropy, to which we collectively refer as ‘disruptive philanthropy’. The article concludes by recommending further research into the ethics of Big Tech to understand the true motivations behind its philanthropic practices at a time when the sector is under intense governmental and media scrutiny.