The business department is based at both the Queen's Park and Warrington campuses and is well placed for students who wish to study in the North West. The department of Business was established at the University in 1999 and offers a range of Business and Management degrees at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. University of Chester Business School also has a solid portfolio of Research and Knowledge Transfer Projects with a range of organisations. These projects are intended to give mutual benefits for students and the region’s business community by providing access to the University’s resources, knowledge and expertise. The majority of the School’s research is applied in a practical context and it is committed to constructing and improving sustainable relationships with external organisations and businesses.

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  • Soft Power and International Political Marketing

    Sun, Henry; harris, Phil; University of Chester
    Joseph Nye defines soft power as the ability of “getting others to want the outcomes that you want” through persuasion and attraction of one’s ideas or the ability to set the political agenda to shape the preferences of others. Nye further argues that in the international arena, besides the military and economic power, there is a third dimension which is characterized as indirect power, cooptive power, and intangible power in contrary to direct power, coercive power, and tangible power. Nye states, “The ability to establish references tends to be associated with intangible power resources such as culture, ideology and institutions. This dimension can be thought of as soft power, in contrast to the hard command power usually associated with tangible resources like military and economic strength.” Henry Sun defines international political marketing as following: International Political Marketing seeks to establish, maintain and enhance long-term relations among nation-states, political actors and organizations, so that the objectives of stakeholders involved are met. This is done by mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises through cross-border and cross-culture marketing strategy and management
  • Family-owned businesses in the global marketplace: A taxonomy for generational evolution and directions for future research

    Ozdemir, Ozlem; harris, Phil; University of Chester; Regents University, London
    The words “global company” often conjure up images of large, publicly-traded organizations, while the words “family-owned business” may evoke images of small, tightly held companies. However, some of the world’s largest global companies are actually family-owned businesses. Global marketing research has paid little attention to investigating decision making and behavior in family-owned businesses. It has paid even less attention to the important role that women play in leading family-owned businesses. This chapter illuminates these gaps. The current study builds on extant theory about family business cultural impacts on succession using a multidimensional model of succession that adapts stewardship theory while including the previously under-researched perspectives of family-owned businesses. Keywords: Family-Owned Business, Succession, Women
  • The management of continuing professional development in General Further Education Colleges when intentionally aiming to improve Ofsted inspection from an ‘inadequate’ or ‘requires improvement’ grading to ‘good’.

    Flanda, Wilfrid, T (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2018-09)
    The area of teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) is in the spotlight. This study considers the range of CPD opportunities that are implemented for teachers in General Further Education Colleges (GFECs) following an “inadequate” or “requires improvement” Ofsted inspection in order to achieve a future grading of “good”. The study draws on specific theoretical insights from the literature concerned with teacher professional development in the Further Education (FE) sector. In doing so, the study evaluates the spectrum of CPD models that were on offer within eleven GFECs that took part in the study by using a constant comparative approach. Using data generated from the eleven GFECs and also Kennedy’s (2014b) framework of CPD models as a lens for analysis, I identified five CPD models, which I then classified in relation to their top-down or developmental approach, and also the extent to which the activities identified underpinned professional autonomy and transformative practice. Using CPD as the point of analysis, the study investigates eleven GFECs, and whether the approach taken by the various colleges, prioritises individual or collective development. It then goes on to examine the contribution of resources, roles and responsibilities of individuals and teams within the particular context in which they operated. The findings generated from this study argue that continuous improvement is the result of a change in culture that is initiated by the Senior Leadership Team (SLT) and middle managers, and the success of this cultural change hinges on a series of mechanisms that support the achievement of “higher standards” in teaching and learning.
  • Shaping the future : A study using scenario analysis

    Pownall, Ian; University of Chester (SAGE, 2019-12-31)
    Scenario analysis requires the integration of a diversity of concepts, views, data and practices for organisations. It is an analysis that draws upon current understanding of organizational and environmental contexts but also one that reflects creativity in the construction of future scenarios within which organisations could compete. This case study explores the application of scenario analysis using the ‘Field Anomaly Relaxation’ (FAR) technique by a group of regional stakeholders to understand and prioritize emergent futures in a UK seaside town. The discussion is focused on two phases of that research project; the series of stakeholder meetings to prioritize emergent futures and the factors shaping them; final analytical and interpretive phase that generated four distinctive scenarios which were used to frame ongoing strategic planning by local and regional organisations.
  • Machiavelli at 550 — Reflections on his contribution to management, marketing, and public affairs

    Harris, Phil; University of Chester
    With the U.K. Elections upon us and manoeuvring for the U.S. Presidential Elections in November 2020 already started, it is time to reflect on power. It is always good to call upon Machiavelli to help make sense of the issues and people in the political arena. It is 550 years since Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence in 1469 of a very old Tuscan family. The young Machiavelli had a vigorous humanist education, was taught Latin by good teachers, and had access to the best of classical history and ideas. Little is known about the rest of his life until at the surprisingly young age of 29 in 1498, he was recognised by the Signory for his administrative talents and was elected to the responsible post of Chancellor of the Second Chancery. He is also given duties in the Council of the Ten of Liberty and Peace (formerly Ten of War), which dealt with Florentine foreign affairs.
  • Stereotypical Notions of the Entrepreneur: An Analysis from a Perspective of Gender

    Hancock, Connie; University of Chester, University of Barcelona
    The principal objective of this paper is an analysis of the stereotypical figure of the entrepreneur in the Spanish context, from a perspective of gender. We provide evidence that the characteristics largely associated with an entrepreneurial individual are stereo-typically male or androgynous, with a notable absence of female typologies. Our findings suggest that this relationship has an influence on the continued predominance of male entrepreneurial activity. This study contributes to the growing empirical literature on female entrepreneurship from an understudied perspective; gender stereotyping, demonstrating that socially constructed gender stereotyping persists in contemporary Spanish culture.
  • Primogeniture in Turkish Family Owned Businesses: An examination of daughter succession, the impact of national culture on gendered norms and leadership challenge.

    Harris, Phil; Ozdemir, Ozlem; University of Chester; Regents University, London
    Family owned and controlled businesses, which may be owned, controlled or operated by various family members, account for an enormous percentage of global employment, revenues and GDP. Although the majority of well-known companies are family owned, research indicates that unfortunately, only thirty percent of family businesses survive to the second generation. Therefore, successful transfer of the business to the next generation is an important issue for the family business literature. However, although succession is a vital issue for Family Owned Businesses (FOBs), the process is unfortunately very gender biased in most societies, with boys being generally favoured over girls so daughters are always excluded as candidates and other women are seldom considered as successors in family businesses. In many cases, especially in certain cultures, female members of the next generation are not even perceived as a viable option. Even in today’s rapidly changing business climate, primogeniture continues to dominate the value system of family businesses. Primogeniture is an accepted approach to family business succession planning; daughters are only considered for family business succession when all descendants are female or the daughter is the first born. This study aims to identify the reasons behind the primogeniture in Turkish FOBs. The objectives of the study were to examine the key factors identified by the incumbents related with the primogeniture. In this research study, an interpretive methodology was adopted to explore, interpret and to understand meanings of knowledge. For this research, qualitative data were gathered via in-depth open-ended interviews with 20 male FOB owners who have at least one daughter and 20 daughters working at their FOB with their fathers. The questions were designed to measure different facets of FOB demographics and culture to understand their effects on the selection process within Turkish FOBs and gender norms in the context of FOB norms, which influence both family members and the business it. This study investigated daughters’ succession in FOBs in Turkey, a developing country where women are less likely than men to engage in entrepreneurial activities and show that gendered norms are still considered when choosing the successor, in other word, primogeniture still dominates the family business succession process.
  • Accounting and Sustainable Development: A Case of Poverty Reduction in an Emerging Economy

    Nagirikandalage, Padmi; University of Chester
    Accounting has been widely used in both public and private sectors across the globe for the sustainable development of corporates as well as economies. However, in the recent past, there has been a wide discussion on poverty reduction and public sector accounting reforms especially in emerging economies in order to enhance the transparency in government expenditure, auditing and accountability as well. Since the governments are responsible on providing essential public services which have a greater impact on poverty, adequate measures in place to monitor the spending is vital for any country with an emerging economy. Moreover, according to the United Nations Millennium Development goals (MDGs) especially on reducing poverty, governments may require to recruit more employees for public sector to fill the gaps in the service in many essential areas such as education, health, and agriculture. Additionally, the recent past financial crisis and recession also have impacted on poverty reduction programs within emerging economies especially which are prone to corruption, fraud, and lack of transparency on government expenditures as well. Due to these various reasons, some emerging economies such as that of Sri Lanka are struggling to minimize the huge budget deficit of the government while leaving with less money for poverty reduction within the country as well. Therefore, unless these gaps are filled, many people in emerging economies will continue to live in poverty (Tridico 2009).
  • Reflections on 20 years of the Journal of Public Affairs: Public affairs in a rapidly changing and globalising world

    Harris, Phil; Moss, Danny; University of Chester
    As we commence the twentieth year of publication of the Journal of Public Affairs [JPA],we reflect on having published 20 volumes of the journal, comprising 80 issues with over 1000 academic articles and close to 10 million words of text and illustrations. This endeavour has been superbly supported by a network of 1500 authors and 2000 reviewers contributing from across the world. This remarkable body of work has been generated by an international collection of academics, aficionados, businesses, experts, governments, interest groups, practitioners associated with the vast industry of public affairs. The editorial team would like to acknowledge and thank all our contributors and reviewers for their support over the past two decades.
  • Turkish delight a public affairs study on family business: The influence of owners in the entrepreneurship orientation of family-owned businesses

    Ozdemir, Ozlem; Harris, Phil; University of Chester; Regents University, London
    Family-owned businesses (FOBs) are as unique as the families that own and control them. As reported by Miller, Steier, and Le Breton-Miller (2003, p.513), the founders of many of these businesses try to continue their legacy and ensure continued family control via intergenerational succession, as when they hand over leadership to their children. The initial statistics suggest only approximately one third of FOBs survive into the second generation, with just 12% remaining “viable” by the third, and only about 3% operating into the fourth generation or beyond. Thus, one of the central problems for FOBs is this inability to ensure competent cross-generational family leadership through successful transfer of ownership and management to the next family generation. This is a core issue for the modern public affairs practitioner and policy maker, nationally and internationally, and the Turkish case is a good example of the multicomplex issues evident in succession planning and leadership for business founders and leaders in these organisations. A firm's strategic orientation is an indicator of the processes developed to integrate new information, to coordinate decisions, to examine the evolution of environmental factors, and to assess new projects (Escriba-Esteve, Sanchez-Peinado & Sanchez-Pei- nado, 2009). However, few studies have provided a framework that jointly analyses the FOB owner characteristics, the mediating processes and attitudes by which owners shape the direction of their family firms, and the effect of these postures on firm performance. This paper addresses the influence of family business owner, over the behaviour of FOBs. By treating FOB owners' characteristics as predictors of a firm's strategic ori- entation, we seek to provide a deeper understanding of how the characteristics of FOB owners shape decision making process and FOBs' behaviours in order to suc- cessfully survive in generations. This study introduced the concept of FOB's entre- preneurship orientation (EO) as a variable that mediates between FOB owners' characteristics and business performance. The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to identify the demographic predictors FOBs' EO and (b) to analyse the role of EO as a mediator of the relationship between FOB owners' characteristics and FOBs' performance.
  • Intellectual capital and new ventures: the entrepreneur's cognizance of company management

    Hancock, Connie; Hormiga, Esther; Valls-Pasola, Jaume; University of Chester; University of Barcelona
    The purpose of this research is to analyse the intellectual capital gauges most often utilized by entrepreneurs in the management of new ventures and to relate the use of these gauges to business performance. On the basis of interview data collected from 103 entrepreneurs, we provide evidence that the use of such measuring techniques impacts positively on overall business performance. Moreover, the results indicate that those entrepreneurs utilizing some form of intellectual capital (IC) measurement have superior results. Consequently, we highlight the importance of detecting, measuring and utilizing IC for new ventures stressing the potential benefits that such analysis can have on the initial steps taken by an entrepreneur in venture formation and business development.
  • Going it Alone or Working as Part of a Team: The Impact of Human Capital on Entrepreneurial Decision Making

    Hancock, Connie; Hormiga, Esther; Jaría-Chacón, Natalia; University of Chester; University of Barcelona
    This paper endeavours to measure the effect that human capital has on the decision taken by the entrepreneur to pursue new venture creation either in a lone capacity or collaboratively. This study applies a logit model to investigate the research relationships. The results show that three factors (experience, social perception and extrinsic motivation) are relevant in the decision to initiate a new venture either in a lone capacity or as part of a collaborative undertaking. The results indicate that previous experience holds the greatest significance on the decision taken by entrepreneurs to ‘go it alone’, with factors relating to social perception and extrinsic motivation chiefly predicting a decision to work collaboratively. The findings of this study provide new insight and evidence with regard to the factors that influence a key decision in the start-up process: that of continuing in a lone capacity, or proceeding as part of an entrepreneurial team.
  • Pictures, Colors and Emotions: Shaping the UK's E-Tourism Experience

    Schneider, Anke; Loibl, Wilhelm; Hindley, Ann; Vienna University of Economics and Business; University of Chester; University of Chester (Routledge, 2020-03-27)
    The role of online media has become more important for tourism as DMOs try to differentiate through the use of pictures on digital channels, such as websites. The aim is to provide a positive image that has a positive impact on the consumer buying decision. Pictures draw significant amounts of attention and a pictures colour characteristics are critical in maintaining interest through emotional connections. These colour characteristics concern hue, saturation and luminance, which create a positive or negative emotional response in the prospective user. Due to this importance of a pictures colour characteristics on websites, this chapter explores these colour characteristics of pictures on UK DMO websites, in order to determine the positive or negative emotions conveyed to the viewer. Results show that most pictures are neutral but the amount of negatively perceived pictures is very high. It was found that the overall visual e-tourism experience can be improved with only small post-processing changes with minimal danger of distorting reality.
  • Understanding UK Rewards-based Crowdfunding as an Alternative Source of Entrepreneurial Finance

    Harris, Phil; Lam, Wing; Zhao, Ying (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-06)
    Entrepreneurial financing plays a vital role in the survival and viability of businesses (Crosetto & Regner, 2018; Mason & Harrison, 1991; Signori & Vismara, 2017; Zhao et al., 2019). Research studies and financial commentators have suggested that reward-based crowdfunding (RBC) plays an increasingly important role in the process of business start-ups (Baeck et al., 2014; Bilau & Pires, 2018; Lelo de Larrea et al., 2019; Mollick, 2014). However, a review of literature indicates that little is known about the field of RBC from a theoretical perspective. Therefore, the main aim of the thesis is to address the knowledge gap by developing a conceptual framework to advance understanding of the RBC funding process through using a signalling theory lens. The author adopted a pragmatist epistemological stance. This study collected publicly available data of 636 UK start-up projects on a RBC platform, Kickstarter, from September to December in 2017 and repeated this for the same period in 2018. It was found that signal observability (the size and quality of the fundraiser’s network) play a significant role in crowdfunding success across all projects. Whereas, prosocial intention (charitable purpose) plays a stronger role in predicting the likelihood of the success of projects with a medium goal. This study identifies and evaluates how the key factors (project quality, project intention and signal observability) impact on crowdfunding’s success, as well as investigates the interplay between different actors (signallers, receivers and signals) in the RBC market. A further important contribution of this work arises from the use of rich qualitative data in addition to the quantitative research approaches previously utilised by others (Bi, Liu and Usman, 2017; Kunz et al., 2017). The thesis makes contributions to both theory and practice. The findings have major implications for different parties including: policy makers, practitioners, researchers and educators. It provides an insight for practitioners considering the adoption of a crowdfunding approach and the knowledge and recommendations in running a successful RBC campaign. It also helps nascent entrepreneurs to reconstruct their financing strategy through the better understanding of the position of RBC in entrepreneurial financing. An important implication is that this study can help policy makers to better understand the RBC industry, which is essential in developing relevant policies in this under-governed area. Finally, this research contributes to growing knowledge and interest in entrepreneurial finance, especially in the online alternative finance market, which is beneficial for both researchers and educators.
  • Investor Regret, Share Performance and the role of Corporate Agreeableness

    Vohra, Shalini; Davies, Gary; Sheffield Hallam University and University of Chester
    Drawing on regret and reputation literatures, the authors demonstrate how positive corporate associations can mitigate the effects of share performance on investor regret. Three studies are presented, the first involved the observation of six investment club meetings. The second is a survey of investors exploring some of the findings of the first study, specifically the relationship between investor regret and corporate associations. The final study uses an experimental design to test whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) messaging can influence regret in the context of disappointing share performance by influencing corporate agreeableness. The main findings are that a range of corporate associations are important to investors, more so than actual share performance, in their decision-making. Specifically, the more agreeable (e.g. trustworthy, supportive) the company is perceived to be, the lower will be any regret felt over share performance. Finally, CSR information was found to affect regret via an influence on agreeableness.
  • Managers Managing Stress at Work: Exploring the experiences of managers managing employee stress in the social housing sector

    Wall, Tony; Foster, Scott; Parkyn, Matthew (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-07)
    This research has explored how seventeen middle managers in the social housing sector manage employee stress and the reasons they take the approach they do. The research has been conducted in response to the increased prevalence of workplace stress. While workplace stress and mental well-being continues to rise up the political and business agenda; the most recent statistics from national and international organisations identify that the management of stress in the workplace needs to be improved. Workplace stress is a global issue for which the related direct and indirect costs are only beginning to be quantified, although the estimated cost of work-related depression in Europe is €617 billion per year. Furthermore, there is a trend towards devolving responsibility for managing workplace stress to individual managers. Despite their increasing responsibilities for managing stress at work, middle managers often lack the authority, skills and capacity to make the changes required to prevent workplace stress. Evidence suggests that middle managers are in a complex and challenging position between their superiors and more junior staff which can exposes them to role related stressors. The United Kingdom (UK) social housing sector is a particularly complex and vital one, comprising of a variety of private, public and charitable enterprises that build, manage and maintain housing stock. The complexities, political and financial challenges facing the sector expose middle managers and their staff to an increased risk of work-related stress. This study adopted a constructivist philosophy, relativist ontology and subjectivist epistemological position. Semi structured interviews were conducted with seventeen middle managers working in the social housing sector in an attempt to explore and better understand how they approach managing work-related stress experienced by the employees. The findings of this study are that, in contrast to what the extant literature recommends, participants adopt predominantly reactive approaches to managing employee stress and deploy mostly secondary and tertiary stress management interventions. The study also found that the participants tend to focus on managing stress caused by workload, relationships at work and home-work interface. Furthermore, this study contributes new insights into how middle managers are managing stress in practice such as, using their personal experiences of managing their own stress and by observing the behaviours and practices of other managers. This study also highlights a number of contemporary stressors in the context of the social housing sector. These contributions provide new practical insights into how middle managers might more effectively manage stress in the workplace. The need and focus of this research arose from the researcher’s practice as an occupational health and safety consultant working with social housing providers across the UK. His work involves advising housing providers and their middle managers on matters of employee stress and health. Often this advice is sought when the employee is already unwell and needs help to recover. This reactive approach to workplace stress is contrary to what UK health and safety (H&S) law requires and is known to be ineffective in tackling stress at work. The researcher’s professional experience in the housing sector and the trend in devolving responsibility for managing stress at work to middle managers, provided the initial spark for this research.
  • Globalization and International Students: Re-modelling Micro-international Aspects for the Entrepreneurial University

    Hancock, Connie; Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; University of Chester
    In the highly competitive higher education (HE) market for international students, the adoption of entrepreneurial approaches to internationalization by universities and higher education institutions (HEIs) is imperative in order to ensure a sustainable organizational future. Due to program popularity, HEI business schools often find themselves at the forefront of internationalization. While an appreciation of the need for ‘entrepreneurial’ behavior with regards to macro-aspects of internationalization (for example, international recruitment and market development) is longstanding, a developed understanding of, and the extension of ‘entrepreneurial’ approaches into the micro-contexts (i.e. student experience in the classroom setting) remains surprisingly understudied, particularly at the micro-operational level. This chapter adopts an inductive case study approach, focusing on a HEI business school undergraduate cohort in the United Kingdom (UK). The study collected data via semi-structured interviews, focus groups and questionnaires conducted with students and academic staff involved in internationalization. Overall, the study generates a micro-portrayal of the issues faced by a UK HEI business school as it attempts to develop ‘entrepreneurial’ approaches to, and models for, its internationalization strategy. Specifically, the chapter develops insights into the challenges associated with student experience and linguistic engagement, program design and delivery and highlights areas of potential development. These findings and their implications enable HEI business schools to rethink and remodel ways in which issues originating in macro-aspects of internationalization can be successfully addressed at the micro-level.
  • Exploring the lived experiences of owner-managers who thrive at work

    Wild, Wendy (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-06)
    This thesis explores how owner-managers of scale-up companies thrive at work and aims to explore the experiences of owner-managers of these companies who are thriving at work. Empirical research to date is primarily conceptual and quantitative and conducted outside the UK with employees. This research addressed the literature gap by undertaking interpretative phenomenological analysis with owner-managers in the UK. Key findings both support and challenge the existing thriving at work construct proposed by Spreitzer, Sutcliffe, Dutton, Sonenshein & Grant (2005). Whilst this study was a based on a small number of atypical individuals, this appreciative inquiry extended existing knowledge by describing the insights and experience of owner-managers who were thriving at work using their own taxonomy, clearly expressing their need for self-development and energy, but combining these with a third dimension of being happy on a daily basis. For some, the number of participants might suggest that the findings have to be interpreted cautiously, however the underpinning methodology provided a robust rationale for such numbers to gain a deeper understanding of the idiographic experience ownermanagers have when they thrive at work. This research also contributes to the body of knowledge on spill-over, between home and work, as owner-managers were happy to have, and accepted, that their work-life and home-life would be intertwined. In the UK the Scale-up Institute report of 2014 recommended that an eco-system be developed to support these companies, and the findings of this thesis produce practical insights for stakeholders within this eco-system. Educationalists in particular should be facilitators who focus on the strengths of owner-managers, recognise that owner-managers are paratelic learners, so enable them to spot and respond to challenges to support their thriving, but importantly recognise that the speed of change could be gender specific. It is incumbent on stakeholders in the ecosystem to invest in external peer groups as a place in which owner-managers can be authentic, as inside their organisation they see themselves as role models to their staff, recognising the contagious effect their mood could have on those around them.
  • Entrepreneurial stories, narratives and reading – Their role in building entrepreneurial being and behaviour

    Manning, Paul; Stokes, Peter; Rodgers, Peter; Shlomo Yedidia, Tarba; University of Chester; De Montfort University; University of Birmingham; The University of Leicester
    The article undertakes an innovative study focusing on the choices and manners of entrepreneur reading as a means of developing resilience and responding to the challenges and crises that entrepreneurial activity presents. The article explores predominant patterns of entrepreneurial learning and challenges the assumptions on which these are grounded. This allows original insights and perspectives to be developed with which to enhance understanding of entrepreneurial sense-making. The study employs a qualitative methodology involving purposive semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs to determine the ways in which they identify, engage with and operationalize entrepreneurial behaviour based on their reading. The ensuing fieldwork provided a range of findings and discussion themes centred on dynamic and non-linear behaviour, reading and transformative learning events, and social interaction and reading. The study concludes with a range of observations on the power of reading in assisting entrepreneurs to develop resilience and behaviours for coping with the challenges and crises which are an integral aspect of entrepreneurial activity.
  • The relationship between employee propensity to innovate and their decision to create a company

    Hancock, Connie; Hormiga, Esther; Jaume, Valls-Pasola; University of Chester; University of Barcelona
    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the decision by employees’ to initiate a new venture, whilst continuing in employment. Based on survey data collected from employees working for a public organization, we provide evidence that an analysis of individuals’ propensity to innovate, provides an insight into entrepreneurial intention which increases in probability where there is a lower opportunity cost. This study contributes to the growing empirical literature on entrepreneurial intentions which currently lacks focus on employed potential entrepreneurs.

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