The business department is based at both the Queen's Park and Warrington campuses and is well placed for students who wish to study in the North West. The department of Business was established at the University in 1999 and offers a range of Business and Management degrees at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. University of Chester Business School also has a solid portfolio of Research and Knowledge Transfer Projects with a range of organisations. These projects are intended to give mutual benefits for students and the region’s business community by providing access to the University’s resources, knowledge and expertise. The majority of the School’s research is applied in a practical context and it is committed to constructing and improving sustainable relationships with external organisations and businesses.

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Recent Submissions

  • Understanding Lived Experiences of Food Insecurity through a Paraliminality Lens

    Moraes, Caroline; McEachern, Morven G.; Gibbons, Andrea; Scullion, Lisa; University of Bristol; University of Chester; University of Salford; University of Salford (Sage Publications, 2021-04-30)
    This article examines lived experiences of food insecurity in the United Kingdom as a liminal phenomenon. Our research is set within the context of austerity measures, welfare reform and the precarity experienced by increasing numbers of individuals. Drawing on original qualitative data, we highlight diverse food insecurity experiences as transitional, oscillating between phases of everyday food access to requiring supplementary food, which are both empowering and reinforcing of food insecurity. We make three original contributions to existing research on food insecurity. First, we expand the scope of empirical research by conceptualising food insecurity as liminal. Second, we illuminate shared social processes and practices that intersect individual agency and structure, co-constructing people’s experiences of food insecurity. Third, we extend liminality theory by conceptualising paraliminality, a hybrid of liminal and liminoid phenomena that co-generates a persistent liminal state. Finally, we highlight policy implications that go beyond short-term emergency food access measures.
  • The Role of Community-led Food Retailers in Enabling Urban Resilience

    McEachern, Morven; Warnaby, Gary; Moraes, Caroline; University of Chester; University of Huddersfield; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Birmingham (MDPI, 2021-07-06)
    Our research examines the extent to which community-led food retailers (CLFRs) contribute to the resilience and sustainability of urban retail systems and communities in the UK, contributing to existing debates on the sustainability and resilience of the UK’s urban retail sector. While this literature has predominantly focused on the larger retail multiples, we suggest more attention be paid to small, independent retailers as they possess a broader, more diffuse spatiality and societal impact than that of the immediate locale. Moreover, their local embeddedness and understanding of the needs of the local customer base, provide a key source of potentially sustainable competitive advantage. Using spatial and relational resilience theories, and drawing on 14 original qualitative interviews with CLFRs, we establish the complex links between community, place, social relations, moral values, and resilience that manifest through CLFRs. In doing so, we advance the conceptualization of community resilience by acknowledging that to realize the networked, resilient capacities of a community, the moral values and behavior of the retail community needs to be ascertained. Implications and relevant recommendations are provided to secure a more sustainable set of capacities needed to ensure resilient, urban retail systems, which benefit local communities.
  • Action research to reassess the acceptance and use of technology in a blended learning approach amongst postgraduate business students

    Sanusi, Muhammad S.; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2022-11-18)
    Although the pedagogy of blended learning in higher education has been well-accepted since 2000, its dimension has been changing, mainly due to the incessant technological innovations. The impact recorded on students’ experience has been reliant on various factors. Some of these factors are cultural diversity, technical abilities, level of organisational support, language difficulties, educational background, learning environment, and instructional design, among others. In this study, the acceptance and use of technology by international MBA students have been reassessed in the blended learning environment. The motivation for the selection of the cohort of international MBA students as a sample was to enable the inclusion of diversity as one of the focal points of the study. A two-cycle model of action research was adopted to reassess the use of technology and compare the attainment of learning outcomes between the blended and traditional learning approaches. Moreover, multiple regressions were employed using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to test the significance of each variable collected from the survey on the students’ learning experience and engagement. Our results have suggested that students’ engagement is determined by positive learning experience without any bias toward traditional or blended learning approach. Students’ age group was found to be relevant in the determination of behavioural intention, social influence, effort expectancy, performance expectancy and facilitating conditions towards the effective use of technology and blended learning. Students’ gender was an irrelevant factor in the success of a blended learning approach.
  • Determinants of user's intentions to book hotels: a comparison of websites and mobile apps

    Ali, Faizan; Ali, Laiba; Gao, Zhaoyu; Terrah, Abraham; Turktarhan, Gozde; University of South Florida; Eastern Meditarrenean University; University of International Business and Economics; Oklahoma State University; University of Chester (Emerald, 2022-11-18)
    This empirical study uses the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework to examine the interrelationships amongst hotel websites and app quality, flow, telepresence, user engagement and booking intentions. Design/methodology/approach Data from two different datasets, including users of hotel websites (N sample 1 = 257) and hotel mobile apps (N sample 2 = 292), were collected. Partial least squares (PLS-SEM) was used to test the research model. Findings Findings indicate that the quality of the hotel websites and mobile apps positively influences telepresence, flow and engagement. Telepresence and flow positively affect the users booking intentions for both the samples. However, for hotel website users, engagement has a no-significant effect on booking intentions. Finally, telepresence has a non-significant effect on flow, and flow has a non-significant effect on engagement for both the users of hotel websites and mobile apps. Originality/value This study uses two datasets to understand how hotel booking channel (hotel website and mobile app) quality leads to booking intentions by tapping into telepresence, flow and engagement.
  • Progress on green technology research in hotels: a literature review

    Gunduz Songur, Aysegul; Turktarhan, Gozde; Cobanoglu, Cihan; University of Central Florida; University of Chester; University of South Florida (Emerald, 2022-10-28)
    The aim of this research, which is based on a literature review and bibliometric analysis, is to reveal the development of green technologies in hotels, based on the articles published in tourism and hospitality journals between 1999 and 2020. Design/methodology/approach Based on five conditions and five databases, 64 journal papers were retrieved and reviewed. Among the surveyed publications pertinent to the eco-friendly/green technology practices at hotels, the majority focus was on the need for eco-friendly/green technology practices at hotels and the schemes implemented to achieve sustainable development. Findings The research findings especially from the last decade report that today's guests generally prefer green hotels based on their increased awareness of environmental degradation and an ever-growing need for conservation and sustainability. Practical implications The environmental responsibility which is inherent in the hospitality and tourism industry due to the environmental burden generated by the combined effect of both industries on Mother Earth, brings forth a substantial sense of commitment on the part of hotel companies. In that regard, a set of corporate initiatives in the form of green technology practices are implemented by hotels, toward the development of new product and service offerings, management of processes and corporate policy formation. Originality/value This research focuses on green technologies aimed at sustainability in the field of accommodation and tourism, consisting of a systematic literature search on the subject. It is important in the way that it provides a general overview to researchers in terms of the theoretical implications of green technologies while also offering a road map with respect to green technology applications to the practitioners of the field.
  • Antecedents of destination advocacy using symmetrical and asymmetrical modeling techniques

    Ali, Faizan; Turktarhan, Gozde; Chen, Xianglan; Ali, Murad; University of South Florida; University of Chester; Beijing Language and Culture University; Northumbria University (Taylor and Francis, 2022-12-16)
    This study uses a multi-method approach to examine antecedents of destination advocacy. Data were collected from 549 respondents via Amazon MTurk. A symmetrical analysis based on partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and asymmetrical analysis based on fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis explore how combinations of various antecedents, including hospitality, perceived authenticity, destination experience quality, and destination love lead to high and low levels of destination advocacy. Findings indicate that hospitality and authenticity significantly impact destination experience quality. Moreover, destination experience quality and destination love have a significant impact on destination advocacy. Finally, fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) results reveal that a high level of hospitality and destination quality leads to destination advocacy.
  • Liminal Consumption within Nigerian wedding rituals: The interplay between bridal identity and Liminal Gatekeepers

    Fagbola, Ladipo; McEachern, Morven; Raftopoulou, Christina; University of Chester; Nottingham Trent University; Grenoble Ecole de Management (Sage Publications, 2023-01-05)
    This article combines the theoretical lenses of bridal identity and liminal consumption to illustrate the processes of problem-solving, negotiation and reconciliation through which the bride creates her bridal identity, in the Global South context of Nigeria. Most wedding ritual studies typically emphasise the processes of creating and negotiating a successful bridal identity, but few acknowledge the possibilities of failure and its effect upon the liminars. In addition, within liminal consumption studies, the role of liminars’ mentors is often under-theorised. Thus, we contribute to the field by expanding on the concept of ‘liminal gatekeepers’ as the individuals and institutions who control and enforce certain norms associated with the liminal experience. Following an interpretivist approach, the article also advances our understanding of the ways in which the demands of liminal gatekeepers affect the liminars’ experiences and identifies three novel bridal identity outcomes, namely: i) Embedded Bridal Identity; ii) Synthesised Bridal Identity; and iii) Marginalisation. In this way, we advance marketing research around how a liminal consumer identity such as bridal identity is co-constructed between liminars and gatekeepers.
  • How to Use the Six-Step Digital Ethnography Framework to Develop Buyer Personas: The Case of Fan Fit

    Fenton, Alex; Heinze, Aleksej; Osborne, McVal; Ahmed, Wasim (2022-11-25)
    One of the key features of digital marketing is customer centricity, which can be applied to the domain of health. This is expressed through the ability to target specific customer segments with relevant content using appropriate channels and having data to track and understand each interaction. In order to do this, marketers create buyer personas based on a wide spectrum of quantitative and qualitative data. Digital ethnography is another established method for studying web-based communities. However, for practitioners, the complexity, rigor, and time associated with ethnographical work are sometimes out of reach. This paper responds to the gaps in the practically focused method of using social media for digital ethnography to develop buyer personas. This paper aims to demonstrate how digital ethnography can be used as a way to create and refine buyer personas. Using a case study of the Fan Fit smartphone app, which aimed to increase physical activity, a digital ethnography was applied to create a better understanding of customers and to create and refine buyer personas. We propose two buyer personas, and we develop a 6-step digital ethnography framework designed for the development of buyer personas. The key contribution of this work is the proposal of a 6-step digital ethnography framework designed for the development of buyer personas. We highlight that the 6-step digital ethnography could be a robust tool for practitioners and academicians to analyze digital communications for the process of creating and updating data-driven buyer personas to create deeper insights into digital and health marketing efforts. [Abstract copyright: ©Alex Fenton, Aleksej Heinze, McVal Osborne, Wasim Ahmed. Originally published in JMIR Formative Research (, 25.11.2022.]
  • What Business Managers Should Know About Quantum Computing?

    Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; University of Chester (Organization for Research Development and Training, 2022-10-31)
    Business management requires rapid reactions to the changes of business environment effectively. Given quantum computing’s game-changing power will bring huge transformation, therefore managers should be aware of how to take the advantage of quantum computing and recognize its potential impacts to the business world. In fact, quantum computing will deliver exponential advantages for various problems, such as factoring very large numbers within very short time, therefore it has dramatic impacts on existing business issues, such as cybersecurity practice, business optimization, investment decision making, search from unstructured data, etc. However, although the topic is emerging, only very limited studies have been conducted with specific focus on the potential impacts of quantum computing on business management. Accordingly, this study was conducted to fill this knowledge gap. In this study, we began with analyzing quantum related investment markets, trends in scholarly publication and keyword search on the internet about quantum computing. In addition, we provided an introduction on what is quantum computing and discussed related quantum algorithms. Finally, we summarized four major potential applications of quantum computing in business management. Hopefully this paper can serve as a reference for researchers, industrial participators and policy makers engaged in future research or practical applications on related topics.
  • A Study of Preferred Learning Time of Online Learner in Multimedia Microlearning in Higher Education Context

    Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Au, Robin; Lee, Ching; University of Chester; The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 2022-09-30)
    This study aims to explore when would online learners prefer to interact with multimedia microlearning†in higher education context. Although microlearning is an emerging topic, most of the previous studies were focus on reporting the application results of microlearning, only very few of previous works were specifically conducted on discussing when would online learners prefer to interact with multimedia microlearning. Total population sampling approach was adopted and questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total, 77 participants attempted the survey, the response rate is 32.6%. The findings from this study indicate that more learners prefer to study during morning or afternoon time rather than evening or midnight time (H2) (p<0.05). On the other hand, there is no significant difference on when to attempt assessment (H1) and on gender issue (H3, H4). The findings from this study generates knowledge to fill the research gap in the field of microlearning. According to the researchers' best knowledge, this is the first time that a study like this had been conducted to review and discuss the online learners' preferences on interacting multimedia learning. Hopefully, this study could shed some lights on future directions of the development of microlearning.
  • A study of learners’ interactive preference on multimedia microlearning

    Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Au, Robin; Lee, Ching; University of Chester; The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Emerald, 2022-09-13)
    This study aims to explore how learners prefer to interact with microlearning video. Microlearning is an emerging topic in work-based learning and the benefits of using video in supporting learning have been widely discussed. However, only very few of previous works were conducted on discussing how learners prefer to interact with microlearning video. This paper aims to fill this knowledge gap. A questionnaire was used in this study for data collection purposes. In total, the invitation had been sent to 236 enrolled learners from the 3 targeted modules through emails. 77 participants completed the survey with the response rate 32.6%. Chi-square is used in this study in order to conclude whether the findings from the sample related to hypotheses are statistically significant. By analysing primary data collected from a UK University, our findings suggest that: i) the perceived usefulness of the control functions and the expression functions of multimedia microlearning videos are generally high, ii) More participants prefer to have more control in their multiple-choice question’s arrangement and open-ended question’s arrangement, On the other hand, there is no significant difference on the preference of when to attempt assessment. This is the first time that a study like this had been conducted to review and discuss the interactive preferences between learners and multimedia microlearning. This study could shed some lights on future research in the field of microlearning and work-based learning.
  • Understanding tourists’ policing attitudes and travel intentions towards a destination during an on-going social movement

    Lai, Michael; Yeung, Emmy; Leung, Rosanna; Macau University of Science and Technology; University of Chester; I-Shou University (Emerald, 2022-05-11)
    Purpose Policing activities aim to provide a safe environment for tourists. With the recent major protests that have erupted around the world, and the novel use of excessive police force against protestors, people may wonder if the policing deployment is for destination safety or to deter tourists from visiting. This paper aims to investigate anti-police and pro-police attitudes and tourists' behavioural responses towards a popular destination experiencing an ongoing social movement. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected between December 2019 and January 2020 (during the social movement). An online survey with a snowball sampling method was adopted to reach international tourists who were aware of the social movement in Hong Kong. Findings The results revealed that an individual with an anti-police attitude was found to be related to cognitive and affective destination images and perceived risks while those holding a pro-police attitude were more concerned with destination images only. No significant correlation was found between attitudes towards policing and travel intention. Originality/value This research presents a first attempt to investigate the relationship between tourists' policing attitudes and their behavioural responses during an ongoing social movement in a popular destination city.
  • A Review of the Publication Trend of Data Analytics

    Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Au, Robin; Lee, Ching; University of Chester; The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Lincoln University College, 2022-04-01)
    Data Analytics has been considered as a promising topic. This paper aims to review the trends of Data Analytics in terms of related publications. More specifically, in this study we analysed 18-years real-world data obtained from Web of Science database for the purpose. These data include the first relevant publication found in the database. In total, 18610 relevant publications have been identified during 2004 to 2021. According to the findings from analysing the identified publications, we suggest that Data Analytics is a glowing global topic involving affiliations and funding sponsors from different countries. On top of the industrial voice saying Data Analytics is an emerging topic, the findings from this paper can provide an additional reference for the education sector, government, and academia, to conduct, promote and support the Data Analytics related research. We believe this is the first time that a study has been conducted to comprehensively review the development trends of Data Analytics. Hopefully, this study can shed some light on related research.
  • Retraining and Reskilling Financial Participators in the Digital Age

    Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; University of Chester
    In recent years, coding is an emerging topic in the financial industry. The concepts behind these topics are reskilling and retraining, that is, financial professionals need to be equipped with new knowledge and skills. This chapter will introduce the latest changes in the financial industry, particularly with a focus on the development of FinTech (Financial Technology) and Data Analytics and then will explore what skills do finance workforce are needed in the digital age. Furthermore, discussions will be given on various types of technology that learners may encounter and potential challenges of their learning in the digital age. What follows is a review of how do people learn. Finally, a discussion about microlearning will be given as a solution and recommendation.
  • A Comparative Study on Students’ Learning Expectations of Entrepreneurship Education in the UK and China

    Lam, Wing; Harris, Phil; Ullah, Farid; Li, Lan (University of Chester, 2022-03)
    Entrepreneurship education has become a critical subject in academic research and educational policy design, occupying a central role in contemporary education globally. However, a review of the literature indicates that research on entrepreneurship education is still in a relatively early stage. Little is known about how entrepreneurship education learning is affected by the environmental context to date. Therefore, combining the institutional context and focusing on students’ learning expectations as a novel perspective, the main aim of the thesis is to address the knowledge gap by developing an original conceptual framework to advance understanding of the dynamic learning process of entrepreneurship education through the lens of self-determination theory, thereby providing a basis for advancing understanding of entrepreneurship education. The author adopted an epistemological positivism philosophy and a deductive approach. This study gathered 247 valid questionnaires from the UK (84) and China (163). It requested students to recall their learning expectations before attending their entrepreneurship courses and to assess their perceptions of learning outcomes after taking the entrepreneurship courses. It was found that entrepreneurship education policy is an antecedent that influences students' learning expectations, which is represented in the difference in student autonomy. British students in active learning under a voluntary education policy have higher autonomy than Chinese students in passive learning under a compulsory education policy, thus having higher learning expectations, leading to higher satisfaction. The positive relationship between autonomy and learning expectations is established, which adds a new dimension to self-determination theory. Furthermore, it is also revealed that the change in students’ entrepreneurial intentions before and after their entrepreneurship courses is explained by understanding the process of a business start-up (positive), hands-on business start-up opportunities (positive), students’ actual input (positive) and tutors’ academic qualification (negative). The thesis makes contributions to both theory and practice. The findings have far reaching implications for different parties, including policymakers, educators, practitioners and researchers. Understanding and shaping students' learning expectations is a critical first step in optimising entrepreneurship education teaching and learning. On the one hand, understanding students' learning expectations of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education can help the government with educational interventions and policy reform, as well as improving the quality and delivery of university-based entrepreneurship education. On the other hand, entrepreneurship education can assist students in establishing correct and realistic learning expectations and entrepreneurial conceptions, which will benefit their future entrepreneurial activities and/or employment. An important implication is that this study connects multiple stakeholders by bridging the national-level institutional context, organisational-level university entrepreneurship education, and individual level entrepreneurial learning to promote student autonomy based on an understanding of students' learning expectations. This can help develop graduates with their ability for autonomous learning and autonomous entrepreneurial behaviour. The results of this study help to remind students that it is them, the learners, their expectations and input that can make the difference between the success or failure of their study. This would not only apply to entrepreneurship education but also to other fields of study. One key message from this study is that education can be encouraged and supported but cannot be “forced”. Mandatory entrepreneurship education is not a quick fix for the lack of university students’ innovation and entrepreneurship. More resources must be invested in enhancing the enterprise culture, thus making entrepreneurship education desirable for students.
  • The ambidextrous interaction of RBV-KBV and Regional Social Capital and their impact on SME management

    Kraus, Patrick; Stokes, Peter; Tarba, Shlomo Y.; Rodgers, Peter; Dekel-Dachs, Ofer; Britzelmaier, Bernd; Moore, Neil; Pforzheim University; De Montfort University; University of Birmingham; University of Southampton; Loughborough University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2022-01-18)
    This paper argues that regional culture, encompassed within intricate forms of social capital, is inextricably linked to the resource-based view (RBV) concept - focused on inimitable resources possessed by a firm. These resources encompass knowledge (pertaining to the knowledge-based view (KBV)) – including the cultural knowledge and understandings that reside in a given region - as a key resource that is available to a firm, creating resources in order to render it competitive. The paper conceptually develops RBV-KBV within an organizational ambidexterity framework and highlights how regional context, RBV-KBV and firm dynamics inter-operate. This responds to an important gap in the literature, underscoring the vital role of regional contextualised RBV-KBV. Rather than viewing these contexts as taken-as-given artefacts it is important to see them as culturally, socially, and historically constructed and rooted phenomena. Drawing empirically on a series of semi-structured interviews conducted with German manufacturing SMEs in the Baden-Württemberg (BW) region (SW Germany), this paper provides novel insights into how SMEs manage resources and regional social capital in order to expand judiciously into international (emerging) markets. In so doing, the paper presents a novel organizational ambidextrous conceptual framework showing how companies move from traditional exploitative and conservative regional cultural RBV-KBV bases to more explorative and innovative internationalising ones. Within this, the paper also contributes fresh insights into the explorative ‘hidden champions’ phenomenon by showing how the latent BW conservative RBV-KBV and its regional social capital-informed exploitative postures act as persistent moderating drivers of explorative internationalisation.
  • How can the Organisational Ambidexterity concept be applied to the automotive industry as it aims to exploit current vehicles sales profit pools and explore autonomous electric mobility services?

    Manning, Paul; Moore, Neil; Moore, Andy (University of Chester, 2022-03-24)
    The Automotive Industry is facing unprecedented disruption from electrification, connectivity, autonomous driving, and diverse mobility. Throughout its 130-year history, the industry has been built on increment change and could now be facing an existential crisis if it does not respond to these disruptors. Organisational Ambidexterity (OA) is the dual challenge of exploiting current profit pools whilst also exploring future revenue streams. The literature presented four antecedent themes that will form the basis of this research (Differentiation vs Integration, Individual vs Organisation, Static vs Dynamic and Internal vs External). The most recent a priori body of knowledge is set against a backdrop of mergers and acquisitions within the automotive industry to achieve globalisation, scale and explore new markets. The current backdrop of facing disruption has received very little attention to date, which this thesis has set out to redress. OA is a social construct, created by the perceptions and actions of the actors within the research site. The nature of disruption is also a mutually constructed reality, assessed by the actors according to their own beliefs on the scale and impact on their organisations and themselves. A subjectivist ontological approach is taken, with an interpretivist epistemology viewing the world as assimilated through perception and discourse. This research is qualitative, using semi-structured in-depth elite interviews to gather data, and represents privileged access. Analysis will be using the Constant Comparative Method, with the coding steps carried out manually. The researcher is embedded in the research setting and will take a participant-observer approach. This methodology of elite interviews, reinforced with emic indwelling and manual coding, delivered rich insights in the current context of the automotive industry. This thesis makes contributions on three fronts. The contribution to theory provides an upto-date view of OA within the automotive industry, assesses the relevance of the four antecedent themes, and identifies three emergent themes – Collaboration, Speed and Scale. The contribution to practice is to provide managers and organisations insights and guidance on how OA could be applied. The findings provide privileged insights into how collaboration operates, identifies some of the challenges, and empathises with the Traditional and Contemporary OEM’s and their different stances. Outside of the Automotive industry, any industry that is facing disruption can gain transferrable insights. The contribution to methodology is demonstrating that elite interviews, underpinned by emic indwelling, can deliver rich insights from a privileged setting.
  • Inclusive policy-working with minority ethnic young people for decent work

    Wall, Tony; Hindley, Ann; Luong, Minh Phuong; Ngo, Nga; Ho, Thi Hanh Tien; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester; Tay Bac University; Phu Xuan University; Hanoi University
    Young people are one of the most significant assets in policy making. They contribute insight from the perspective of those affected by a policy or policy change, and as our future community and business leaders. Despite this, the involvement of young people in policy making remains relatively rare in many countries, including Vietnam. Although Vietnam is one of the world’s fastest growing economies, young people experience relatively low wages, job insecurity, job informality and poor working conditions. Policy involvement can raise the awareness and motivation of those involved in policy making, but is challenging because long-standing marginalisation that can make people feel they do not have a voice worthy of consideration by government and other policy makers. Even creative and participatory methods need to be adapted to help young people to feel able to share their voice with those who are older and more powerful in society. This policy briefing outlines how the creative, participatory method of appreciative inquiry can be used to enable policy makers to work successfully with younger people in the context of policies to expand ‘Decent Work’. ‘Decent Work’ is particular category of work which is described by the International Labour Organization as work which is productive and delivers a fair income, security in the workplace and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom for people to express their concerns, organize and participate in the decisions that affect their lives and equality of opportunity and treatment for all women and men. Participation of minority ethnic young people in policy making related to Decent Work is critical because of the complex distribution of governmental policy working across the fields of education, work, and culture. Young people offer rich, first-hand insight into the efficacy of policy which in turn should enable all parts of society to contribute economically and socially. Specifically, the briefing pinpoints the preparation needs of younger people, especially those who typically are disadvantaged in economic, educational or other social terms, to engage in such participatory methods, as well as the adaptations needed to enable them to participate and contribute to policy activities. This policy briefing draws from a study examining the empowerment of minority ethnic young people (aged 18-25) to re-vision Decent Work in Vietnam with policy-makers, employers, and university leaders (see overview of study below). This particular brief draws from appreciative inquiry groups which aimed to explore new ways of working and the strategies the project needed to develop to enable the young people to feel they were able to share their voice and contribute (see context of study below). The policy briefing outlines practical ways to facilitate an inclusive approach to engaging minority ethnic young people in dialogue with policy makers and other stakeholders at national or local governmental levels. Whilst the recommendations in this report are directly relevant to national and local governmental policy makers across the policy fields of education and work in Vietnam and similar developing countries, the underlying principles may have a wider resonance and applicability to policy makers across other geographic contexts with similar characteristics. For example, the rising occurrence of informal and unstable work opportunities which do not provide sufficient wage ‘to live’ has been noted for over two decades in the UK and US. Similarly, although the project focuses on policyworking related to Decent Work, the principles have a wider applicability to other policy fields. We invite all national and local government and non-governmental policy makers to consider the practical value of the recommendations and principles within this brief.
  • Policy interventions for minority ethnic young people and Decent Work

    Wall, Tony; Hindley, Ann; Ngo, Nga; Ho, Thi Hanh Tien; Luong, Minh Phuong; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester; Tay Bac University; Phu Xuan University; Hanoi University
    Minority ethnic young people in most countries are some of the most likely to be unemployed or be in unstable or badly paid employment. Vietnam is a case in point where its minority ethnic young people face relatively low rates of employment, wages, job insecurity, job informality and poor working conditions. To address these employment issues, Vietnam’s educational policy interventions have included the provision of minority ethnic boarding schools and foundational programmes, differentiated access arrangements and specialised vocational or training programmes for minority ethnic young people. But how do these relate to the aspects of ‘Decent Work’ for students and graduates of higher education, that is, opportunities described by the International Labour Organization describes as productive and delivers a fair income, security in the workplace and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom for people to express their concerns, organize and participate in the decisions that affect their lives and equality of opportunity and treatment for all women and men. This policy briefing draws from a study examining the empowerment of minority ethnic young people (aged 18-25) to re-vision Decent Work in Vietnam with policy-makers, employers and university leaders (see the overview of study below). The briefing pinpoints key lessons and insights from Vietnam, one of the world’s fastest growing economies, where policy initiatives have attempted to enable greater access to employment opportunities for the diverse communities of minority ethnic people living across the country (see context of study below). Specifically, the briefing identifies the range of impacts that the various initiatives seem to have on the young people, in terms of their sense of empowerment to be able to access and participate in Decent Work. The briefing outlines practical ways policy interventions might change to deepen access to Decent Work for minority ethnic young people. Whilst the recommendations in this report are directly relevant to policy makers across the fields of education and work in Vietnam and similar developing countries, the underlying principles have a wider resonance and applicability to policy makers across other geographic contexts with similar characteristics. For example, the rising occurrence of informal and unstable work opportunities which do not provide sufficient wage ‘to live’ has been noted for over two decades in the UK and US. We invite all policy makers in the fields of education and work to consider the practical value of the recommendations and principles within this brief.

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