• Integrating theory and practice in physical education: Preservice Teachers' views on practitioner research

      Jones, Luke; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2022-03-25)
      Practitioner enquiry is a well-established approach to professional learning that can facilitate teachers’ pedagogical knowledge and improve their educational practice. That said, practitioner enquiry is less frequently seen in physical education (PE) initial teacher education and in the general practice of PE teachers. This study examines the experiences and perceptions of 17 secondary PE preservice teachers (PTs) who completed a small-scale practitioner enquiry as part of their one-year postgraduate initial teacher education programme. A questionnaire and group interviews - conducted before, during, and at the end of the small-scale enquiry - were used to generate data. The findings revealed that the practitioner enquiry promoted greater collaboration between the PTs and their school-based mentors as they worked together to develop their shared understanding of the teaching and learning process. The practitioner enquiry also facilitated the PTs’ critical engagement with pedagogical research, enhanced their curricular knowledge and nurtured their independent professional identity.
    • Arts-Aided Recognition of Citizens’ Perceptions for Urban Open Space Management

      Suomalainen, Sari; orcid: 0000-0003-4839-841X; email: sari.suomalainen@student.lut.fi; Kahiluoto, Helena; email: helena.kahiluoto@lut.fi; Pässilä, Anne; email: anne.passila@lut.fi; Owens, Allan; email: a.owens@chester.ac.uk; Holtham, Clive; email: c.w.holtham@city.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-12-23)
      Urban open spaces of local natural environments can promote the health and well-being of both ecosystems and humans, and the management of the urban spaces can benefit from knowledge of individuals’/citizens’ perceptions of such environments. However, such knowledge is scarce and contemporary inquiries are often limited to cognitive observations and focused on built environmental elements rather than encouraged to recognize and communicate comprehensive perceptions. This paper investigates whether arts-based methods can facilitate recognition and understanding perceptions of urban open spaces. Two arts-based methods were used to capture perceptions: drifting, which is a walking method, and theatrical images, which is a still image method and three reflective methods to recognize and communicate the perceptions. The results show related sensations and perceptions enabled by arts-based methods comparing them to a sticker map method. The main findings were perceptions, which included information about human−environment interaction, about relations to other people and about ‘sense of place’ in urban open spaces. The hitherto unidentified perceptions about urban open space were associations, metaphors and memories. The methods used offer initial practical implications for future use.
    • An analysis of the common characteristics of intervention strategies used in secondary education

      Power, Michael; University of Chester (British Education Studies Association, 2021-12-01)
      This paper considers the question ‘what are the common characteristics of intervention strategies used in secondary education?’ This is an important question because understanding the characteristics of intervention strategies allows for a clearer understanding of the resource cost and unintended implications (Outhwaite, et al., 2020) of the use of intervention strategies in secondary schools. Although this paper doesn’t explore the resource cost or implications of these strategies it provides a framework through which practitioners can begin to analyse the intervention strategies used in their own settings. The study aims to identify the common characteristics of intervention strategies within a sample of intervention strategies taken from one comprehensive secondary school in the Northwest of England. This practitioner enquiry was conducted using thematic analysis to identify the characteristics of a sample of intervention strategies, alongside the study of commonality within the sample by looking at which characteristics are more prevalent when compared to the average number within the same sample. The research is situated within ‘post-positivism’ which “straddles both the positivist and interpretivist paradigms” (Grix, 2004) and makes use of both interpretivist and positivist methods through thematic analysis of characteristics and he statistical analysis of commonality. The two most common characteristics within the sample were found to be reactivity to a trigger or stimulus such as underperformance in a test, which was present in all 23 intervention strategies. Having a measurable outcome such as improving reading age, was present in 22 of the 23 intervention strategies in the sample making it the second most common characteristic from this sample. The least common characteristic was for intervention strategies to focus on child’s motivations – for example intervention strategies that make use of things students are interested in such as football. This was only present in 5 of the 23 intervention strategies.
    • Invisible but Exposed: The Lived Experience of Disabled Female Academics in Neoliberal Universities

      Bulkeley, Jane; Devarakonda, Chandrika; Brewer, Gayle (University of Chester, 2021-11)
      Neoliberal academia represents a challenging and competitive environment which privileges long working hours and performativity. Though previous research has addressed the experiences of female academics, there has been relatively little consideration of disabled faculty, who are often marginalised and poorly accommodated. In the present study, I focus on the lived experience of academics with long-term conditions that limit energy levels and / or impact on cognitive function. These conditions may be particularly inconsistent with the neoliberal academic culture and are not easily addressed by institutional accommodations. I interviewed ten female academics; all academics reported a condition that impacted on their energy levels and / or cognitive function (e.g., arthritis, depression). Academics were employed at British Higher Education Institutions, though institution type, role, and subject discipline varied. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, interviews were conducted online via the Zoom platform. Average length of interview was 55 minutes, ranging from 45 minutes to 69 minutes. I employed Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith, 1996) to analyse the interviews and six themes were identified. Identity and the Concept of Disability indicated that academics were often reluctant to describe themselves as disabled, with important consequences for the reporting and disclosure process. Dependence and Vulnerability highlighted a lack of institutional support and frequent dependence on individual Managers for access to appropriate accommodations. Legitimacy, Convention, and Conformity described the ‘hierarchy’ of health conditions that influences the acceptability of specific health issues and the privileging of specific forms of academic practice that may disadvantage those with disabilities. Workload, Intensification, and Marketisation focused on excessive academic workloads, the intensification of academic work, and the impact of this on faculty health and wellbeing. Insecurity, Competition, and Comparison highlighted the precarious and competitive nature of academia and the impact of this (e.g., on wellbeing, willingness to disclose), particularly when disabled academics are compared to those without disabilities. Perception, Othering, and Isolation described a lack of understanding of energy limiting conditions and / or those that impact on cognitive function and the extent to which the actions of individual colleagues were exacerbated by ableist policies and practice. I discuss each theme in relation to existing education and disability-oriented literature and make specific recommendations for education practice and policy.
    • The Mistress turned Medicant

      Poole, Simon; University of Chester; Storyhouse (Plant Heritage, 2021-10-01)
      A foundational piece explaining the principles and interests of the National Plant Collection of Mentha and it's cultural positionality in relation to education, folklore, biodiversity, sustainability, and wellbeing.
    • “Hey you there!” An autoethnographic exploration of the impact of neoliberalism on the role and identity of the primary school teacher

      Moran, Paul; Hulse, Bethan; Duncan, Susan J. (University of Chester, 2021-10)
      The purpose of this thesis is to explore the agency of teachers in the development of their professional identities. The research is grounded in my lived experience as a primary teacher, senior leader and mentor of trainee and newly qualified teachers during the tumultuous three decades that followed the 1988 Education Reform Act. It is the result of an extensive period of research into and reflection on my experiences, actions and compromises during this period. Teacher identity is often seen as a dynamic and fluid process; one that is influenced by a range of factors and contexts (Beijaard et al, 2004). I conceptualise the influence and effects of neoliberalism as an example of a dominant ideology on the role and identity of primary teachers through the utilisation of Althusser’s theory of the interpellation of the subject by ideology (1971/2001). Although, Althusser saw schools as the major ideological state apparatus (ISA), he did not provide any detail on what takes place within the classroom (Macris, 2014). This research applies Althusserian theory to the experiences of teachers and explores the extent to which ideology can be seen as constituting teacher-subjects who in turn take up their interpellative roles within the educational ISA. An autoethnographic methodology is adopted making the author’s voice and experience central to the research while also conducting dialogue with professionals at the start of their careers. Data, gathered from a wide range of sources, are presented in the form of a series of vignettes focussing on three main areas which emerged from analysis - centralised curriculum control, Ofsted and performativity. From this emerge questions about the scope and nature of agency exercised by teachers during the course of their professional and personal development which are explored through an Althusserian lens. The findings show how ideology exisiting in the material practices of twenty first century schools have shaped the way teachers construct and communicate their professional identity but also that there exists within this the possibility of retaining personal values and convictions and using the two-way process on subjection in ever changing and innovative ways.
    • Role of emotional intelligence in effective nurse leadership

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (RCN Publishing, 2021-09-13)
      Leaders who practice emotional leadership demonstrate a sensitivity to their own and other’s feelings, wellbeing and emotional health. In this style of leadership, the person leads with emotional intelligence, directing others to common goals while developing solid and effective personal relationships. This article explores emotional leadership and argues that it is not only a key quality of effective leaders but has a particular relevance with the emotional burden created within the healthcare workforce by the recent COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Empathic gaze: a study of human resource professionals

      Lambert, Steve; Dimitriadis, Nikolaos; Venerucci, Matteo; Taylor, Michael; University of Chester; University of York; Brain Propaganda (Emerald, 2021-09-02)
      The purpose of this research paper is to explore the fixation of the eyes of HR professionals’ when identifying emotions in the context of workplace research, and to propose measures that might support them in their role. This paper combines a contemporary literature review with reflections from practice to develop a more nuanced understanding of 39 HR professionals’ ability to recognise emotions. This paper used eye-tracking technology more commonly used in laboratory based studies to explore the fixation of the eye when identifying emotions. The preliminary findings suggest that HR professionals with higher levels of emotional recognition principally focus on the eyes of the recipient. Whereas those with lower levels of emotional recognition focus more so the nose or the randomly across the face, depending on the level of emotional recognition. The data suggests that women are better than men, in the sample group at recognising emotions, with some variations in recognising specific emotions such as disgust. This research paper proposes a number of implications for middle leaders and suggests that middle leaders should proactively seek out opportunities to be engaged in activities that support the default mode network (DMN) function of the brain and subsequently the relationship-orientated aspects of leadership, for example, coaching other staff members. However, it has to be recognised that the sample size is small and further work is needed before any generalisations can be made. This paper offers a contemporary review underpinned by a preliminary study into HR professionals’ ability to recognise emotions.
    • Higher education is dead? A Nietzschean critique of the neoliberal higher education system and an exploration into the impact on academe

      Atherton, Frances; Hulse, Bethan; Turner, Ella L. (University of Chester, 2021-09)
      This thesis explores how academic and professional staff experience higher education. This research embraces a creative, ethnographic methodology to open up, through conversations and observations, how staff encounter HE in one university in the North West of England. Conversations with participants and observations of their university environs intertwine to reveal the seemingly multiple contradictory values within HE. These are analysed using Friedrich Nietzsche’s three concepts of Übermensch, amor fati and eternal recurrence. Inspired by Friedrich Nietzsche’s imaginative and poetic writing style represented in Thus Spoke Zarathustra resulted in a retelling of my conversations and observations with participants in three narrative vignettes. The vignettes reveal and disturb the ideas of tradition and the neoliberal values that confront both academic and professional staff. The thesis offers insights into HE’s ‘will to truth’ (Nietzsche, 1886/2014), the structures that allow its convictions to flourish to form a beleaguered culture of oppositional values that serves to divide the academe. This thesis concludes by offering up the suffering of HE, as redemptive in this life, affirming an enduring joining together of multiplicities in the ring of existence (Nietzsche, 1883-5/1969). All this is necessary for HE to transcend itself in a constant becoming. I end the thesis with a call for the academe not to submit to a nihilistic looking back, nor to become the eager gravedigger (Nietzsche, 1874) for the death of HE, but to be the active, creative force in the revaluation of its values.
    • The ‘Teacher Research Group’ as a collaborative model of professional learning

      Jones, Luke; University of Chester (Routledge, 2021-08-10)
      In this study, we adopted a Teacher Research Group model, a collaborative approach to teacher education that draws on the principles of numerous action research models of enquiry. More specifically, a teacher educator worked alongside an experienced physical education teacher over a three-month period to plan, teach and evaluate a series of classroom-based lessons. The Teacher Research Group adopted five teaching strategies that were thought to be significantly related to optimal learning and then refined their use in response to an evaluation of pupils’ learning in the classroom. This article outlines the context for this model, describes its application and finally reviews its value as a means of promoting shared professional learning. Adopting the Teacher Research Group model did lead to changes in teaching strategies and improvements in pupils’ learning outcomes. Moreover, the model was an effective approach to shared professional learning, one that could lead to desirable change among education professionals elsewhere.
    • Exploring the involvement of Patients and Care Givers in Student Nurse Education in a Nursing College in India

      Owens, Allan; Bewley, Antoinette (University of Chester, 2021-08)
      India is the largest democracy in the world, but in contrast to other democracies, notably the UK, the role of patients and care givers in the formal education of student nurses appears to be less clear. The findings of this research demonstrated that despite there being little, or no formal education planned in India, to be delivered by patients and care givers, there is a lot of very useful informal education. A qualitative, case study methodology, was adopted with data collection methods including those of World Café style focus groups, art-based methods, semi structured interviews, and observational questioning. These approaches enabled student nurses across years one to four, in one nursing college, in India, to share their thoughts and reflect on their experiences of direct patient and care giver contact. Data was analysed using an inductive content analysis approach. The resultant overarching meta theme of ‘involvement’ acknowledged during data analysis, signifies not only that there is patient and care giver involvement in student nurse education in the nursing college, but that this is multi-faceted. This encompasses, a ‘tripartite identity’ with a mixed and interchanging role observed in the nurse, patient, and care giver. Education was enhanced by open access to care givers, constantly present in the clinical environment with the patient. The positive impact of this was multi fold, from the provision of assistance to nurses by care givers tending to the physical care of patients, and by enhancing and challenging nurses’ communication skills. This scaffolded the development of student’s emotional skill bases, acquired after reflection on and in situations with care givers, in which students at times felt harassed by care givers and even patients. The outcome, reach, impact, and value of this involvement is apparent by the transformative effect observed on student nurses learning, cultural sensitivity, and social consciousness. The educational philosophy of Paulo Freire underpinned this study, and findings concluded that by harnessing the naturalistic engagement with care givers in practice, student nurses can apply the Freirean pedagogy that states that education is a series of questioning. The findings indicate that it is important for students to recognise and acknowledge that their humanity and transformation is possible, if grounded in the reality of the social, economic, and political circumstances. The use of reflective activities associated with this, may in turn demonstrate how by the application of Freirean principles, students may transform themselves and others. Accordingly, it would be beneficial for student nurses to be tasked with listening to both patient and care givers experiences when they are in practice. This experience could be maximised in educational settings, by the student sharing their experiences with their peers, and reflecting on these.
    • Associate Teachers’ views on dialogic mentoring

      Jones, Luke; Tones, Steven; Foulkes, Gethin; Jones, Rhys C.; University of Chester; Bangor University (Routledge, 2021-06-02)
      The aim of this paper is to examine Associate Teachers’ (ATs) views on dialogic mentoring. More specifically it consider, the views of 48 ATs who were involved in an Initial Teacher Education (ITE) partnership that has emerged in response to several changes that have occurred in Welsh education. Educational reforms in Wales have highlighted the value of mentoring and the new ITE partnership is uniquely committed to a dialogic approach. A questionnaire and three focus group interviews were used to generate data from the 48 ATs who were completing a one-year postgraduate programme. Thematic analysis was then used to interrogate the data and identify patterns of response. Adopting a dialogic approach was found to remove some of the anxiety around formal observations and help establish trusting collaborative relationships where ATs were willing to take risks. The dialogic approach was more democratic and gave ATs a stronger voice, but this also created some conflict as mentors’ own beliefs were more likely to be questioned. The dialogic approach relied on mentors being fully invested in the process and being committed to open conversations about learning.
    • Mythical Performativity in Neoliberal Education: The Curse of Ofsted and Other Monstrous Tales

      Moran, Paul; Hanson, Diann (University of Chester, 2021-05)
      Mythical Performativity in Neoliberal Education: The Curse of Ofsted and Other Monstrous Tales conducts an innovative investigation into neoliberal educational policy and its enactment through Ofsted and school leadership practices. Through its focus on a secondary school requiring special measures intervention following an ‘unsatisfactory’ Ofsted inspection outcome, it examines the role of ‘super head’ leadership in embedding neoliberal identities of success in failing schools. The research takes an original theoretical and methodological approach by exploring the role of myth in such ideologically driven practices. This proposes that mythical performances are observable in the positioning of head teachers as ‘rescuing heroes’ in failing schools and questions the monstrous effects of Ofsted-driven transformational practices on lived experience in school communities. Through a novel reading of the research data through the concept of plasticity, the thesis considers the interdependent relationship between discourse and mythical performativity in informing and sustaining ideological principles and normative social structures. It investigates how claims made to objectivity and scientific method in educational practices are, paradoxically, bolstered through enactments of mythical archetype. The research further examines the role of myth in naturalising neoliberal frameworks, rendering alternative socio-economic forms as invisible and absent from collective consciousness. This qualitative study revitalises its ethnographic roots by engaging with plasticity as method, informing a textured analysis of interview and documentary data secured from teaching staff, pupils, and operational documents at the school. Pupil responses develop investigation of identity and the heroic, providing points of comparison with the fabricated identity of neoliberal success modelled through the school leadership and its strategies of improvement. By proposing an interdependent relationship between myth, discourse, mythical performativity and ideology, this thesis extends understanding of the process of transforming failing schools and offers wider insight into structures that sustain social and economic power structures and inequalities.
    • Understanding emotional empathy at postgraduate business programs: What does the use of EEG reveal for future leaders?

      Lambert, Steve; Dimitriadis, Nikolaos; Taylor, Michael; Venerucci, Matteo; University of Chester; University of York; Brain Propaganda (Emerald, 2021-04-29)
      This paper focuses on the leaders’ ability to recognise and empathise with emotions. This is important because leadership and particularly transformational leadership are principally focused on an individual’s social interactions and their ability to identify emotions and to react empathetically to the emotions of others (Psychogios and Dimitriadis, 2020). Many leadership theorists suggest the ability to have and display empathy is an important part of leadership (Bass, 1990; Walumbwa, et. al., 2008). Design/methodology/approach To examine the extent to which those who work in jobs with a significant element of leadership education can recognise and empathise with emotions, ninety-nine part-time postgraduate executive MBA students took part in an emotional recognition test. First, all participants were shown a sequence of pictures portraying different human facial expressions and the electrical activity in the brain as a result of the visual stimuli were recorded using an electroencephalogram (EEG). The second stage of the research was for the participants to see the same seven randomised images, but this time, they had to report what emotion they believed they had visualised and the intensity of it on a self-reporting scale. Findings This study demonstrated that the ability to recognise emotions is more accurate using EEG techniques compared to participants using self-reporting surveys. The results of this study provide academic departments with evidence that more work needs to be done with students to develop their emotional recognition skills. Particularly for those students who are or will go on to occupy leadership roles. Originality The use of neuroscientific approaches has long been used in clinical settings. However, few studies have applied these approaches to develop our understanding of their use in social sciences. Therefore, this paper provides an original and unique insight into the use of these techniques in higher education.
    • Trust, Efficacy and Ethicacy when testing prisoners for Covid19

      Lambert, Steve; Wilkinson, Dean J; University of Chester (Emerald, 2021-03-10)
      The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and subsequent Covid-19 illness has had a major impact on all levels of society internationally. The extent of the impact of Covid-19 on prison staff and prisoners in England and Wales is unknown. Testing for Covid-19 both asymptomatic and symptomatic, as well as for antibodies, to date, has been minimal. The widespread testing of Covid-19 in prisons poses philosophical and ethical questions around trust, efficacy and ethicacy. This paper is both descriptive, providing an overview of the widespread testing of Covid-19 in prisoners in England and Wales, and conceptual in that it discusses and argues the issues associated with large-scale testing. This paper provides philosophical discussion, using comparative studies, of the issues associated with large-scale testing of prisoners across the prison estate in England and Wales (120 prisons). The issues identified in this paper are contextualised through the lens of Covid-19, but they are equally transferrable to epidemiological studies of any pandemic. Given the prevalence of Covid-19 globally and the lack of information about its spread in prisons, at the time of writing this paper, there is a programme of asymptomatic testing of prisoners. However, there remains a paucity of data on the spread of Covid-19 in prisons due to the progress with the ongoing testing programme. We argue that the widespread testing of prisoners requires careful consideration of the details regarding who is included in testing, how consent is gained and how tests are administered. This paper outlines and argues the importance of considering the complex nuance of power relationships within the prison system, between prisoner officers, medical staff and prisoners, and the detrimental consequences. The widespread testing of Covid-19 presents ethical and practical challenges. Careful planning is required when considering the ethics of who should be included in Covid-19 testing, how consent will be gained, who and how tests will be administered as well as very practical challenges around the recording and assigning of Covid-19 test kits inside the prison. The current system for the general population requires scanning of barcodes and registration using a mobile number, these facilities are not permitted inside a prison. This paper looks at the issues associated with mass testing of prisoners for Covid-19. There has not been any research that looks at the issues of testing either in the UK or internationally. The literature available details countries responses to the pandemic rather and scientific papers on the development of vaccines. Therefore, this paper is an original review of some of the practicalities that need to be addressed to ensure that testing can be as successful as possible.
    • How can we engage mathematics ITE students with research?

      Bamber, Sally; Bokhove, Christian; University of Chester; University of Southampton (British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics, 2021-03-06)
      In the Erasmus+ Research in Teacher Education (RiTE) project, student teachers are stimulated to use evidence from educational and scientific research to experiment and innovate their teaching and learning processes. In two case studies we use Engestrom’s expansive learning cycle. The first case study reports on the design and implementation of materials designed to enhance student teachers’ critical review of literature in the context of the post-graduate study that is incorporated within their teacher education. The second case study presents the design of collaborative lesson research that aims to foster authentic connections between school-based learning (teaching practice) and research that informs mathematics teaching and learning. We discuss the aims of research-informed mathematics teacher education at each site, demonstrate some of the approaches used and discuss tensions within the design and early implementation of the projects.
    • PREOCCUPIED: The role of peacebuilding in formal education in the West Bank

      Evans, Martin; Wright, Anne-Marie; Arya-Manesh, Emma (University of Chester, 2021-01)
      This thesis is an ethnographic study of six teacher educators working in university settings in the West Bank, an Occupied Palestinian Territory. It explores these teacher educators’ perceptions, values, and attitudes about the role of peacebuilding in Formal Education (FE). It focuses particularly on the teacher educators’ practice, which is to train student teachers to be certified as competent to work in schools either managed or run by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MoEHE). The research shows that there are tensions surrounding the conceptualisation of the meaning of teacher competency among contributors to teacher education. The tension lies most noticeably between schools and universities. This thesis thus captures the (dis)continuities of an FE system caught between the conditions of colonial and military occupation and performative measures and strategies enforced by the MoEHE. These problems are compounded by the complex associations of FE with Palestinian liberation. From the expressions the teacher educators used to convey their ideas, metaphors provide a powerful analytical device. The thesis employs a narrative analysis to foreground these metaphors as more than a rhetorical device. The metaphors provide reflexive insight into the (extra)ordinary lives of the teacher educators and the specificities of the cultural and political context from which their understandings of peacebuilding arise. The data shows that the teacher educators have individual and shared tensions about the underlying principles of peace, which consequently inform the roles of peacebuilding in FE from complex and contradictory positions. These metaphors expose an FE system that is a victim and a perpetrator both of forms of violence, and of the complex conditions under which peacebuilding either thrives or is diminished. The data also shows that peacebuilding in FE is most contentious where there is a disconnect with social justice and a connection with tatbi’a (normalisation) and counterinsurgency. In its final analysis, this thesis draws on the perspectives of Johan Galtung, Paulo Freire and Pierre Bourdieu to disturb deep-rooted thinking about peacebuilding in the West Bank. As a consequence of exploring the data through these theoretical lenses, the thesis exposes deep fractures in thinking and beliefs which are perpetuated by deeply entrenched, competing discourses that cannot be easily resolved. This thesis encourages academics and policy makers in the fields of critical peace education and education in conflict to consider generative peacebuilding frameworks that focus on conflicts within Palestinian society as well as those arising from the Occupation, and see them as mutually reinforcing rather than treating them purely as separate issues.
    • An exploration of creativity in the lives of English teachers: Representing voices through found poetry

      Bamber, Sally; Jones, Luke; Matthews, Martin (University of Chester, 2020-10)
      This arts-based research sets out to explore the place of creativity in the lives of a group of English teachers in one secondary school in the north west of England. More specifically, it uses found poetry to examine creativity in the lives of English teachers who work within the context of an increasingly performative educational system. As well as interrogating the place of creativity in the lives of the participants, the study also explores how found poetry can be used as a research method to represent and analyse data and communicate research findings in a manner that is democratic and illuminating. The words that created the poems came from two semi-structured interviews with each participant. After the first interview, the participants were able to scrutinise and reflect upon the content of the found poems before returning for a second interview. This recursive process helped build confidence in the findings and gave a deeper understanding of the experiences of the participants in relation to creativity whilst eliciting further responses in the interview process itself. The findings suggest that English teachers have limited space to be creative, or to think differently in their teaching practice. The limited space to be creative comes from the normalising practices of a performance culture, but the restrictions are both real and self-imposed by the participants. There is perhaps a need to find a new space for English teachers to act, or think creatively and form notions of resistance in order to re-think English teacher identity.