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dc.contributor.authorMcLennan, Krista M.
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Amy, L.
dc.contributor.authorDalla Costa, Emanuela
dc.contributor.authorStucke, Diana
dc.contributor.authorCorke, Murray J.
dc.contributor.authorBroom, Donald M.
dc.contributor.authorLeach, Matthew C.
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-05T08:18:22Z
dc.date.available2019-09-05T08:18:22Z
dc.date.issued2019-06-12
dc.identifier.citationMcLennan, K.M., Miller, A. L., Dalla Costa, E., Stucke, D., Corke, M.J., Broom, D.M., and Leach, M.C. (2019) Conceptual and methodological issues relating to pain assessment in mammals: the development and utilisation of pain facial expression scales. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 217, 1-15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2019.06.001en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.applanim.2019.06.001
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/622559
dc.description.abstractEffective management of pain is critical to the improvement of animal welfare. For this to happen, pain must be recognised and assessed in a variety of contexts. Pain is a complex phenomenon, making reliable, valid, and feasible measurement challenging. The use of facial expressions as a technique to assess pain in non-verbal human patients has been widely utilised for many years. More recently this technique has been developed for use in a number of non-human species: rodents, rabbits, ferrets, cats, sheep, pigs and horses. Facial expression scoring has been demonstrated to provide an effective means of identifying animal pain and in assessing its severity, overcoming some of the limitations of other measures for pain assessment in animals. However, there remain limitations and challenges to the use of facial expression as a welfare assessment tool which must be investigated. This paper reviews current facial expression pain scales (“Grimace Scales"), discussing the general conceptual and methodological issues faced when assessing pain, and highlighting the advantages of using facial expression scales over other pain assessment methods. We provide guidance on how facial expression scales should be developed so as to be valid and reliable, but we also provide guidance on how they should be used in clinical practice.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168159118305240en_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectFacial expressionen_US
dc.subjectPainen_US
dc.subjectWelfareen_US
dc.subjectMethodsen_US
dc.subjectClinical practiceen_US
dc.titleConceptual and methodological issues relating to pain assessment in mammals: the development and utilisation of pain facial expression scales.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Chester; Newcastle University; c Università degli Studi di Milano; Havelland Equine Clinic; University of Cambridge; University of Cambridge; Newcastle Universityen_US
dc.identifier.journalApplied Animal Behaviour Scienceen_US
dc.date.accepted2019-06-06
or.grant.openaccessYesen_US
rioxxterms.funderEU VII Framework program FP7-KBBE-2010-4en_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectFP7-KBBE-2010-4en_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectNC3R'sen_US
rioxxterms.versionAMen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2020-06-12
refterms.dateFCD2019-09-04T13:39:41Z
refterms.versionFCDAM


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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International