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dc.contributor.authorRebelo, Neville
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Huayong
dc.contributor.authorNadal, Francois
dc.contributor.authorGarner, Colin
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Andy
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-02T10:33:05Z
dc.date.available2019-09-02T10:33:05Z
dc.date.issued2019-08-22
dc.identifier.citationRebelo, N., Zhao, H., Nadal, F., Garner, C. & Williams, A. (2019). Evaporation of liquid nitrogen droplets in superheated immiscible liquids. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 143, 118575en_US
dc.identifier.issn0017-9310
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118575
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/622553
dc.description.abstractLiquid nitrogen or other cryogenic liquids have the potential to replace or augment current energy sources in cooling and power applications. This can be done by the rapid evaporation and expansion processes that occur when liquid nitrogen is injected into hotter fluids in mechanical expander systems. In this study, the evaporation process of single liquid nitrogen droplets when submerged into n-propanol, methanol, n-hexane, and n-pentane maintained at 294 K has been investigated experimentally and numerically. The evaporation process is quantified by tracking the growth rate of the resulting nitrogen vapour bubble that has an interface with the bulk liquid. The experimental data suggest that the bubble volume growth is proportional to the time and the bubble growth rate is mainly determined by the initial droplet size. A comparison between the four different bulk liquids indicates that the evaporation rate in n-pentane is the highest, possibly due to its low surface tension. A scaling law based on the pure diffusion-controlled evaporation of droplet in open air environment has been successfully implemented to scale the experimental data. The deviation between the scaling law predictions and the experimental data for 2-propanol, methanol and n-hexane vary between 4% and 30% and the deviation for n-pentane was between 24% and 65%. The more detailed bubble growth rates have been modelled by a heuristic one-dimensional, spherically symmetric quasi-steady-state confined model, which can predict the growth trend well but consistently underestimate the growth rate. A fixed effective thermal conductivity is then introduced to account for the complex dynamics of the droplet inside the bubble and the subsequent convective processes in the surrounding vapour, which leads to a satisfactory quantitative prediction of the growth rate.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0017931019321878en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectliquid nitrogenen_US
dc.subjectcryogenicen_US
dc.subjectheat transferen_US
dc.subjectmultiphaseen_US
dc.subjectdropleten_US
dc.subjectevaporationen_US
dc.titleEvaporation of liquid nitrogen droplets in superheated immiscible liquidsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentLoughborough University; University of Chesteren_US
dc.identifier.journalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transferen_US
dc.date.accepted2019-08-12
or.grant.openaccessYesen_US
rioxxterms.funderunfundeden_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectunfundeden_US
rioxxterms.versionAMen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2021-08-22
refterms.dateFCD2019-08-23T10:28:58Z
refterms.versionFCDAM


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