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dc.contributor.authorAlwan, Nura
dc.contributor.authorMoss, Samantha L.
dc.contributor.authorElliott-Sale, Kisrty
dc.contributor.authorDavies, Ian
dc.contributor.authorKevin, Enright
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-24T11:02:38Z
dc.date.available2019-07-24T11:02:38Z
dc.date.issued2019-06-13
dc.identifier.citationAlwan, N., Moss, S.L., Elliott-Sale, K.J., Davies, I.G., & Enright, K. (2019). A narrative review on female physique athletes: The physiological and psychological implication of weight management practices.International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 29(6), 682-689. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0037en_US
dc.identifier.issn1523-484X
dc.identifier.doi10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0037
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/622424
dc.descriptionAccepted author manuscript version reprinted, by permission, from International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. 2019, http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0037. © Human Kinetics, Inc.
dc.description.abstractPhysique competitions are events in which aesthetic appearance and posing ability are valued above physical performance. Female physique athletes are required to possess high lean body mass and extremely low fat mass in competition. As such, extended periods of reduced energy intake and intensive training regimens are utilised with acute weight loss practices at the end of the pre-competition phase. This represents an increased risk for chronic low energy availability and associated symptoms of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, compromising both psychological and physiological health. Available literature suggests that a large proportion of female physique athletes report menstrual irregularities (e.g., amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea), which are unlikely to normalise immediately post-competition. Furthermore, the tendency to reduce intakes of numerous essential micronutrients is prominent among those using restrictive eating patterns. Following competition reduced resting metabolic rate, and hyperphagia, are also a concern for these female athletes, which can result in frequent weight cycling, distorted body image and disordered eating/eating disorders. Overall, female physique athletes are an understudied population and the need for more robust studies to detect low energy availability and associated health effects is warranted. This narrative review aims to define the natural female physique athlete, explore some of the physiological and psychological implications of weight management practices experienced by female physique athletes and propose future research directions.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherHuman Kineticsen_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31141414en_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectFat lossen_US
dc.subjectLow energy availabilityen_US
dc.subjectPhysique eventsen_US
dc.subjectBody compositionen_US
dc.subjectNutritionen_US
dc.titleA Narrative Review on Female Physique Athletes: The Physiological and Psychological Implications of Weight Management Practicesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentLiverpool John Moores University; University of Chester; Nottingham Trent Universityen_US
dc.identifier.journalInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolismen_US
or.grant.openaccessYesen_US
rioxxterms.funderN/Aen_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectN/Aen_US
rioxxterms.versionAMen_US
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0037
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-06-13
refterms.dateFCD2019-07-16T15:45:29Z
refterms.versionFCDAM
refterms.dateFOA2020-03-17T14:01:04Z
rioxxterms.publicationdate2019-06-13
dc.dateAccepted2019-05-14
dc.date.deposited2019-07-24


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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International