AffiliationUniversity of Chester
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AbstractIt can often appear to Police officers that they are damned if they do make decisions, and damned if they don’t in mental health cases. A culture has evolved that triggers decision apathy and defensive decisions that arguably do not benefit the Police, public, or the mental health arrestee. Decisions of this presenting complexity in whatever profession must be made and firmly rooted within the current evidence base, lawful, and also be reasonable in the given situation. It is therefore not unreasonable to expect officers to explain and account for how and why they acted as they did, and the frameworks (statutes/ codes) which should underpin such practice decisions. It is of paramount importance that Police officers are kept appraised of developments in mental health cases and how this crucially will inform, and sometimes correct custom and practice. This article in three parts aims firstly to refresh officer’s knowledge. Second, inform current practice and address practice from recent cases involving the police and mental health patients. Thirdly, and perhaps the most crucial through case examples offer a decision making framework to support operational staff in the right direction for mental health practice and defend practice challenges that may arise at all levels.
CitationWilliams, B. & Jones, S. (2012) Mental Health Decisions; what every officer should consider. Police Professional., July executive feature, 20-24
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Establishing community mental health clinics increased the number of patients receiving care in rural Western UgandaKuule, Yusufu; Dobson, Andrew E.; Mutahunga, Birungi; Stewart, Alex G.; Wilkinson, Ewan; Bwindi Community Hospital; University of Exeter; University of Chester (Frontiers Media, 2023-07-18)Background: Mental, neurological, and substance-use disorders cause medium to long term disability in all countries. They are amenable to treatment but often treatment is only available in hospitals, as few staff feel competent to give treatment. The WHO developed the “Mental Health GAP” (mhGAP) course to train non-specialist clinical staff in basic diagnosis and treatment. At Bwindi Community Hospital, in south-west Uganda, mental health care was initially only provided at the hospital. It was extended outside the hospital in two implementation phases, initially by establishing 17 clinics in the community, run by qualified mental health staff from the hospital. In the second implementation phase staff in 12 health centers were trained using mhGAP and ran their own clinics under supervision. Methods: Using routine data the defined data variables for the individuals attending the clinics was extracted. Results: A total of 2,617 people attended a mental health care clinic in the study period between January 2016 and March 2020. Of these 1,051 people attended more than once. The number of patients attending clinics increased from 288 during the baseline to 693 in the first implementation phase then to 839 patients in the second implementation phase. After mhGAP training, about 30% of patients were seen locally by mhGAP trained healthcare personnel. The average number of mental health patients seen each month increased from 12 to 65 over the time of the study. The number of patients living >20 km from the hospital increased from 69 in the baseline to 693 in the second implementation phase. The proportion of patients seen at the hospital clinic dropped from 100% to 27%. Conclusions: Providing mental health care in the community at a distance from the hospital substantially increased the number of people accessing mental health care. Training health center-based staff in mhGAP contributed to this. Not all patients could appropriately be managed by non-specialist clinical staff, who only had the five-day training in mhGAP. Supplies of basic medicines were not always adequate, which probably contributed to patients being lost to follow-up. About 50% of patients only attend the clinic once. Further work is required to understand the reasons.
Cashing in on curiosity and spectacle: The forensic patient and news mediaMorley, Sharon; Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-24)Health and social care professionals are gatekeepers to, and custodians of, confidential service user information. In the United Kingdom (UK), police investigations have unveiled cases of payments being made to public service officials by journalists in return for service user information. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate such cases in the context of high security forensic care. This paper provides a discussion drawing upon two UK-based case studies of prosecutions of public service workers relating to the sale of confidential information. The analysis presented here illuminates upon the salient and connected issues at work that have led to the transgression of legal obligations and professional responsibilities/principles of confidentiality. A fuller reading of the context in which these transgressions occur, and motivations that exist, may well serve to inform policy, training, guidance or vigilance in relation to the preserving of service user information in the future.
Mental Toughness DevelopmentWall, Tony; Strycharczyk, Doug; Clough, Peter; University of Chester; University of Huddersfield (Springer, 2019-11-29)Though there are different conceptions of mental toughness, there are a number of important commonalities, including: self-belief, attentional control, resilience, a success mindset, optimistic thinking, emotional awareness and regulation, ability to deal with perceived challenge, and contextual awareness and understanding (Crust and Clough 2011). As such, mental toughness has been conceptualised as a personality trait which describes the mindset that is engaged by people across extreme events as well as everyday events (Clough and Strycharczyk 2015; Stokes et al, 2018). It is closely related to qualities such as character, resilience, and grit, but whereas most personality models and measures assess the behavioural aspects of personality (how we act), mental toughness differs in that it assesses something more fundamental, that is, ‘how we think’, or why we act (and respond emotionally) to events (Clough and Strycharczyk, 2015).