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dc.contributor.authorMcLennan, Krista M.*
dc.date.accessioned2018-08-22T09:08:22Z
dc.date.available2018-08-22T09:08:22Z
dc.date.issued2018-08-11
dc.identifier.citationMcLennan, K.M. (2018) Why Pain is Still a Welfare Issue for Farm Animals, and How Facial Expression Could be the Answer. Agriculture, 8(8), 127, https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture8080127
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/agriculture8080127
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/621352
dc.description.abstractPain is a sensory and emotional experience that significantly affects animal welfare and has negative impacts on the economics of farming. Pain is often associated with common production diseases such as lameness and mastitis, as well as introduced to the animal through routine husbandry practices such as castration and tail docking. Farm animals are prey species which tend not to overtly express pain or weakness, making recognizing and evaluating pain incredibly difficult. Current methods of pain assessment do not provide information on what the animal is experiencing at that moment in time, only that its experience is having a long term negative impact on its behavior and biological functioning. Measures that provide reliable information about the animals’ affective state in that moment are urgently required; facial expression as a pain assessment tool has this ability. Automation of the detection and analysis of facial expression is currently in development, providing further incentive to use these methods in animal welfare assessment.
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherMDPIen_US
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/2077-0472/8/8/127en_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States*
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectPain; production animals; facial expression; welfareen_US
dc.titleWhy pain is still a welfare issue for farm animals, and how facial expression may be the answeren_US
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.eissn2077-0472
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Chester
dc.identifier.journalAgricultureen_US
dc.date.accepted2018-08-08
or.grant.openaccessYesen
rioxxterms.funderUnfundeden_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUnfundeden_US
rioxxterms.versionAMen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2018-08-11


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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States