• High strength and strain alginate fibers by a novel wheel spinning technique for knitting stretchable and biocompatible wound-care materials.

      Chen, Zhongda; Song, Jun; Xia, Yumin; Jiang, Yuwei; Murillo, Luis Larrea; Tsigkou, Olga; Wang, Tao; Li, Yi; email: henry.yili@manchester.ac.uk (2021-05-25)
      Alginate fibrous materials have been applied as wound dressing to enhance wound healing due to its nontoxic, biodegradable, and hemostatic nature. Conventional nonwoven fabrication tactics, however, showed weakness in inflammation, degradation stability and mechanical properties. Herein, the wet-spun alginate fibers were prepared by a novel wheel spinning technique, then knitted into wound dressing. Benefiting from optimized wet spinning parameters and the agglomeration of alginate multimers, the fibers were endowed with elevated mechanical performances and biodegradability, which allowed for the feasibility of knitting wound-care materials. Using the new wheel spinning technique, high strength alginate fibers with 173 MPa were produced with breaking strain up to 18% and toughness of 16.16 MJ*m . Meanwhile, alginate fibers with high breaking strain reaching 35% were produced with tensile strength of 135 MPa and toughness of 37.47 MJ*m . The overall mechanical performances of these alginate fibers with high breaking strain are significantly higher (up to 2 times) than those published in the literature in term of toughness. In vitro degradation evaluation revealed that this wet spun fibrous dressing had good aqueous absorbency (50%) and sustained biodegradation properties. Furthermore, the consequent cell viability study also proved that this alginate knitted fabric is biocompatible for being applied as wound dressing. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
    • High temperature magnetic characterisation of structural steels using Epstein frame

      Wilson, John W; orcid: 0000-0003-2139-1250; email: john.wilson@manchester.ac.uk; Zhou, Lei; Davis, Claire L; Peyton, Anthony J (IOP Publishing, 2021-08-23)
      Abstract: Electromagnetic non-destructive testing techniques provide an attractive solution to the problem of monitoring microstructural changes in steels undergoing heat treatment as they are non-contact, have a short response time and are relatively inexpensive. However, to take full advantage of these techniques it is necessary to be able accurately measure the magnetisation characteristics of the materials of interest at temperatures up to the Curie point. This paper details the development of a novel high temperature Epstein frame for installation in a furnace with the design informed and results validated by finite element modelling. Hysteresis loop characteristics are successfully measured for a dual phase steel up to the Curie point for heating and cooling. Results show the developed system has the potential to provide valuable data to inform online electromagnetic monitoring systems.
    • High temperature magnetic characterisation of structural steels using Epstein frame

      Wilson, John W; orcid: 0000-0003-2139-1250; email: john.wilson@manchester.ac.uk; Zhou, Lei; Davis, Claire L; Peyton, Anthony J (IOP Publishing, 2021-08-23)
      Abstract: Electromagnetic non-destructive testing techniques provide an attractive solution to the problem of monitoring microstructural changes in steels undergoing heat treatment as they are non-contact, have a short response time and are relatively inexpensive. However, to take full advantage of these techniques it is necessary to be able accurately measure the magnetisation characteristics of the materials of interest at temperatures up to the Curie point. This paper details the development of a novel high temperature Epstein frame for installation in a furnace with the design informed and results validated by finite element modelling. Hysteresis loop characteristics are successfully measured for a dual phase steel up to the Curie point for heating and cooling. Results show the developed system has the potential to provide valuable data to inform online electromagnetic monitoring systems.
    • High temperature supercapacitors using water-in-salt electrolytes: stability above 100 °C.

      Le Fevre, Lewis W; Ejigu, Andinet; Todd, Rebecca; Forsyth, Andrew J; Dryfe, Robert A W; orcid: 0000-0002-9335-4451 (2021-05-04)
      The high temperature performance of water-in-salt electrolytes was investigated using a carbon-based electrode with commercial cell components. Supercapacitors using 21 m Li bis(trifluoromethylsulphonyl)imide (TFSI) and 21 m LiTFSI + 7 m Li trifluoromethanesulphonyl electrolytes are shown to operate at a voltage of 2 V at 100 °C and 120 °C, respectively, with gravimetric capacitances exceeding 100 F g-1.
    • High-throughput molecular simulations reveal the origin of ion free energy barriers in graphene oxide membranes.

      Williams, Christopher D, ; email: christopher.williams@manchester.ac.uk; Siperstein, Flor R,; Carbone, Paola, (2021-07-22)
      Graphene oxide (GO) membranes are highly touted as materials for contemporary separation challenges including desalination, yet understanding of the interplay between their structure and salt rejection is limited. K ion permeation through hydrated GO membranes was investigated by combining structurally realistic molecular models and high-throughput molecular dynamics simulations. We show that it is essential to consider the complex GO microstructure to quantitatively reproduce experimentally-derived free energy barriers to K permeation for membranes with various interlayer distances less than 1.3 nm. This finding confirms the non-uniformity of GO nanopores and the necessity of the high-throughput approach for this class of material. The large barriers arise due to significant dehydration of K inside the membrane, which can have as few as 3 coordinated water molecules, compared to 7 in bulk solution. Thus, even if the membranes have an average pore size larger than the ion's hydrated diameter, the significant presence of pores whose size is smaller than the hydrated diameter creates bottlenecks for the permeation process.
    • Higher BMI is linked to an increased risk of heart attacks in European adults: a Mendelian randomisation study

      Adams, Benjamin; Jacocks, Lauren; Guo, Hui; orcid: 0000-0003-0282-6933; email: hui.guo@manchester.ac.uk (BioMed Central, 2020-05-29)
      Abstract: Background: BMI has been implicated as a risk factor for heart disease as a whole in multiple studies. Heart attack is one of the common complications of this disease. The aim of this study is to explore if elevated level of BMI causes an increase in the risk of heart attacks. Methods: We used two Mendelian randomisation (MR) methods: inverse variance weighted estimation and robust adjusted profile score (RAPS) on the basis of summary data of adulthood BMI from Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits consortium and heart attack data from the UK Biobank. BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used as instrumental variables. Results: Seventy-two independent SNPs were associated with BMI (P < 5 × 10− 8). Using these SNPs as instruments, BMI was found to be causally associated with heart attacks in inverse variance weighted MR analysis. The risk of heart attacks increased by 0.8% per 1-SD (or 4.5 kg/m2) increase in BMI (OR = 1.008 with 95% CI (1.003, 1.012), P = 0.001). RAPS provided concordant results (OR = 1.007 with 95% CI (1.002, 1.012), P = 0.004). Conclusions: This current study is the first to use MR to investigate causal relationship between BMI and heart attacks. Our findings suggest that high level of BMI may cause increased risk of heart attacks.
    • Higher Order Time Stepping Methods for Subdiffusion Problems Based on Weighted and Shifted Grünwald–Letnikov Formulae with Nonsmooth Data

      Wang, Yanyong; Yan, Yuyuan; Yan, Yubin; email: y.yan@chester.ac.uk; Pani, Amiya K. (Springer US, 2020-05-19)
      Abstract: Two higher order time stepping methods for solving subdiffusion problems are studied in this paper. The Caputo time fractional derivatives are approximated by using the weighted and shifted Grünwald–Letnikov formulae introduced in Tian et al. (Math Comput 84:2703–2727, 2015). After correcting a few starting steps, the proposed time stepping methods have the optimal convergence orders O(k2) and O(k3), respectively for any fixed time t for both smooth and nonsmooth data. The error estimates are proved by directly bounding the approximation errors of the kernel functions. Moreover, we also present briefly the applicabilities of our time stepping schemes to various other fractional evolution equations. Finally, some numerical examples are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the proven theoretical results.
    • Highly Synchronous Mitotic Progression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Upon Relief of Transient Cdc2-asM17 Inhibition.

      Singh, Pawan; Halova, Lenka; Hagan, Iain Michael; email: iain.hagan@cruk.manchester.ac.uk (2021)
      Synchronized progression of a cell population through the cell division cycle supports the biochemical and functional dissection of cell cycle controls and execution. The concerted behaviour of the population reflects the attributes of each cell within that population. The reversible imposition of a block to cell cycle progression at the G2-M boundary through transient inactivation of the Cdk1-Cyclin B activating phosphatase, Cdc25, with the temperature sensitive cdc25-22 mutant, has been widely used to study fission yeast mitosis and DNA replication. However, the biology of the compromised Cdc25-22 phosphatase generates significant division abnormalities upon release from mitotic arrest. We show how reversible inhibition of Cdc2-asM17, with the ATP analog 3-BrB-PP1, generates higher levels of synchrony with timing and morphology much more reminiscent of a normal division. We also describe a version of the H1 kinase assay of Cdk1-Cyclin B activity that is widely used to monitor mitotic progression which does not require radiolabeled ATP.
    • Hippocrates transformed: crafting a Hippocratic discourse of medical semiotics in English, 1850–1930

      Karimullah, Kamran I.; orcid: 0000-0003-4503-1153; email: Karimullah.kamran@manchester.ac.uk (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2020-07-09)
      Abstract: This study presents a methodology for adapting corpus linguistics to the genealogical analysis of translation’s role in the evolution of medical concepts. This methodology is exhibited by means of a case study that draws on a number of corpora to explore how two English translators—Francis Adams, a Scottish physician, and Williams H.S. Jones, a Cambridge philologist, classicist and ancient historian—translated a set of terms in Hippocratic medical texts that refer to how the body reveals illness. Drawing on the Genealogies of Knowledge subcorpora of ancient Greek and modern English, it examines some of the ways in which translation contributes to the creation of a Hippocratic semiotic discourse in English whose lexical features differ from those attested to in the subcorpus of Greek Hippocratic texts. A comparative analysis of keyword frequency and collocations of Greek semiotic terms such as sēmeion, and English terms such as sign and symptom reveals the different translation strategies Jones and Adams used to translate the text. The result of this process is a Hippocratic semiotic discourse in English whose lexical features do not reflect those in the Hippocratic texts in a straightforward way.
    • Histological and Somatic Mutational Profiles of Mismatch Repair Deficient Endometrial Tumours of Different Aetiologies

      Ryan, Neil A. J.; orcid: 0000-0003-3117-3257; email: neilryan@nhs.net; Walker, Thomas D. J.; orcid: 0000-0003-4607-7321; email: thomas.walker@manchester.ac.uk; Bolton, James; email: James.Bolton@mft.nhs.uk; ter Haar, Natalja; email: N.T.ter_Haar@lumc.nl; Van Wezel, Tom; orcid: 0000-0001-5773-7730; email: t.van_Wezel@lumc.nl; Glaire, Mark A.; email: mark.glaire@gtc.ox.ac.uk; Church, David N.; email: david.church@well.ox.ac.uk; Evans, D. Gareth; orcid: 0000-0002-8482-5784; email: Gareth.Evans@mft.nhs.uk; Bosse, Tjalling; email: T.Bosse@lumc.nl; Crosbie, Emma J.; orcid: 0000-0003-0284-8630; email: emma.crosbie@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-09-10)
      Background: Mismatch repair deficient (MMRd) tumours may arise from somatic events acquired during carcinogenesis or in the context of Lynch syndrome (LS), an inherited cancer predisposition condition caused by germline MMR pathogenic variants. Our aim was to explore whether sporadic and hereditary MMRd endometrial cancers (EC) display distinctive tumour biology. Methods: Clinically annotated LS-EC were collected. Histological slide review was performed centrally by two specialist gynaecological pathologists. Mutational analysis was by a bespoke 75- gene next-generation sequencing panel. Comparisons were made with sporadic MMRd EC. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to explore similarities and differences between the cohorts. Results: After exclusions, 135 LS-EC underwent independent histological review, and 64 underwent mutational analysis. Comparisons were made with 59 sporadic MMRd EC. Most tumours were of endometrioid histological subtype (92% LS-EC and 100% sporadic MMRd EC, respectively, p = NS). Sporadic MMRd tumours had significantly fewer tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (p ≤ 0.0001) and showed more squamous/mucinous differentiation than LS-EC (p = 0.04/p = 0.05). PTEN mutations were found in 88% sporadic MMRd and 61% LS-EC, respectively (p 0.001). Sporadic MMRd tumours had significantly more mutations in PDGFRA, ALK, IDH1, CARD11, CIC, MED12, CCND1, PTPN11, RB1 and KRAS, while LS-EC showed more mutations affecting SMAD4 and ARAF. LS-EC showed a propensity for TGF-β signalling disruption. Cluster analysis found that wild type PTEN associates predominantly with LS-EC, whilst co-occurring mutations in PTEN, PIK3CA and KRAS predict sporadic MMRd EC. Conclusions: Whilst MMRd EC of hereditary and sporadic aetiology may be difficult to distinguish by histology alone, differences in infiltrating immune cell counts and mutational profile may predict heterogenous responses to novel targeted therapies and warrant further study.
    • Home-based nursing care competencies: A scoping review.

      Rusli, Khairul Dzakirin Bin; orcid: 0000-0002-8096-0006; Tan, Apphia Jia Qi; orcid: 0000-0002-2422-1591; Ong, Shu Fen; orcid: 0000-0001-9179-1968; Speed, Shaun; orcid: 0000-0002-6133-7622; Lau, Ying; orcid: 0000-0002-8289-3441; Liaw, Sok Ying; orcid: 0000-0002-8326-4049 (2021-12-12)
      To identify and consolidate the available evidence about nursing-related competencies for home-based care. Over recent years, the demand for home-based nursing care has increased because of the need to meet the increasing need for chronic disease care to be delivered in patients' homes. However, knowledge is lacking about the expected competencies for home-based care nurses. A scoping review was conducted in accordance with Arksey and O'Malley's six-step scoping review framework and the PRISMA-ScR guidelines. The review identified literature using five electronic databases (CINAHL, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and Scopus) and a hand search for grey literature in relevant home-based care journals and online searches. Key search terms and inclusion and exclusion criteria were used as strategies to identify relevant articles. Sixty-four articles were eligible for inclusion. Mapping and narrative synthesis of 116 elements related to home-based nursing care competencies identified the following 10 competencies: (1) care assessments; (2) performance of nursing procedures; (3) management of health conditions; (4) critical thinking and problem-solving skills; (5) interpersonal relationships and communication; (6) interdisciplinary collaboration; (7) leadership and resource management; (8) professional development; (9) technological literacy; (10) quality and safety. This review provides insight into current knowledge about home-based nursing care competencies. These competencies could be used to evaluate nurses' competence level for home-based care or for development of appropriate professional education. The review also outlines the scope of nursing practice in home-based care, which provides support for some form of standardisation of home-based nursing care expectations across various stakeholders. [Abstract copyright: © 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.]
    • Homeworking, Well-Being and the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Diary Study

      Wood, Stephen James; email: s.j.wood@leicester.ac.uk; Michaelides, George; orcid: 0000-0002-4224-7728; email: G.Michaelides@uea.ac.uk; Inceoglu, Ilke; email: I.Inceoglu@exeter.ac.uk; Hurren, Elizabeth T.; email: eh140@leicester.ac.uk; Daniels, Kevin; orcid: 0000-0002-8620-886X; email: Kevin.Daniels@uea.ac.uk; Niven, Karen; email: karen.niven@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-07-16)
      As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments encouraged or mandated homeworking wherever possible. This study examines the impact of this public health initiative on homeworkers’ well-being. It explores if the general factors such as job autonomy, demands, social support and work–nonwork conflict, which under normal circumstances are crucial for employees’ well-being, are outweighed by factors specific to homeworking and the pandemic as predictors of well-being. Using data from four-week diary studies conducted at two time periods in 2020 involving university employees in the UK, we assessed five factors that may be associated with their well-being: job characteristics, the work–home interface, home location, the enforced nature of the homeworking, and the pandemic context. Multi-level analysis confirms the relationship between four of the five factors and variability in within-person well-being, the exception being variables connected to the enforced homeworking. The results are very similar in both waves. A smaller set of variables explained between-person variability: psychological detachment, loneliness and job insecurity in both periods. Well-being was lower in the second than the first wave, as loneliness increased and the ability to detach from work declined. The findings highlight downsides of homeworking, will be relevant for employees’ and employers’ decisions about working arrangements post-pandemic, and contribute to the debate about the limits of employee well-being models centred on job characteristics.
    • Home‐based nursing care competencies: A scoping review

      Rusli, Khairul Dzakirin Bin; orcid: 0000-0002-8096-0006; Tan, Apphia Jia Qi; orcid: 0000-0002-2422-1591; Ong, Shu Fen; orcid: 0000-0001-9179-1968; Speed, Shaun; orcid: 0000-0002-6133-7622; Lau, Ying; orcid: 0000-0002-8289-3441; Liaw, Sok Ying; orcid: 0000-0002-8326-4049 (Wiley, 2021-12-12)
    • Hospital length of stay for COVID-19 patients: Data-driven methods for forward planning

      Vekaria, Bindu; orcid: 0000-0001-6605-7956; email: bindu.vekaria@manchester.ac.uk; Overton, Christopher; email: christopher.overton@manchester.ac.uk; Wiśniowski, Arkadiusz; email: a.wisniowski@manchester.ac.uk; Ahmad, Shazaad; Aparicio-Castro, Andrea; Curran-Sebastian, Jacob; Eddleston, Jane; Hanley, Neil A; House, Thomas; Kim, Jihye; et al. (BioMed Central, 2021-07-22)
      Abstract: Background: Predicting hospital length of stay (LoS) for patients with COVID-19 infection is essential to ensure that adequate bed capacity can be provided without unnecessarily restricting care for patients with other conditions. Here, we demonstrate the utility of three complementary methods for predicting LoS using UK national- and hospital-level data. Method: On a national scale, relevant patients were identified from the COVID-19 Hospitalisation in England Surveillance System (CHESS) reports. An Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) survival model and a truncation corrected method (TC), both with underlying Weibull distributions, were fitted to the data to estimate LoS from hospital admission date to an outcome (death or discharge) and from hospital admission date to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission date. In a second approach we fit a multi-state (MS) survival model to data directly from the Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (MFT). We develop a planning tool that uses LoS estimates from these models to predict bed occupancy. Results: All methods produced similar overall estimates of LoS for overall hospital stay, given a patient is not admitted to ICU (8.4, 9.1 and 8.0 days for AFT, TC and MS, respectively). Estimates differ more significantly between the local and national level when considering ICU. National estimates for ICU LoS from AFT and TC were 12.4 and 13.4 days, whereas in local data the MS method produced estimates of 18.9 days. Conclusions: Given the complexity and partiality of different data sources and the rapidly evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is most appropriate to use multiple analysis methods on multiple datasets. The AFT method accounts for censored cases, but does not allow for simultaneous consideration of different outcomes. The TC method does not include censored cases, instead correcting for truncation in the data, but does consider these different outcomes. The MS method can model complex pathways to different outcomes whilst accounting for censoring, but cannot handle non-random case missingness. Overall, we conclude that data-driven modelling approaches of LoS using these methods is useful in epidemic planning and management, and should be considered for widespread adoption throughout healthcare systems internationally where similar data resources exist.
    • Hospital length of stay for COVID-19 patients: Data-driven methods for forward planning.

      Vekaria, Bindu; orcid: 0000-0001-6605-7956; email: bindu.vekaria@manchester.ac.uk; Overton, Christopher; email: christopher.overton@manchester.ac.uk; Wiśniowski, Arkadiusz; email: a.wisniowski@manchester.ac.uk; Ahmad, Shazaad; Aparicio-Castro, Andrea; Curran-Sebastian, Jacob; Eddleston, Jane; Hanley, Neil A; House, Thomas; Kim, Jihye; et al. (2021-07-22)
      <h4>Background</h4>Predicting hospital length of stay (LoS) for patients with COVID-19 infection is essential to ensure that adequate bed capacity can be provided without unnecessarily restricting care for patients with other conditions. Here, we demonstrate the utility of three complementary methods for predicting LoS using UK national- and hospital-level data.<h4>Method</h4>On a national scale, relevant patients were identified from the COVID-19 Hospitalisation in England Surveillance System (CHESS) reports. An Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) survival model and a truncation corrected method (TC), both with underlying Weibull distributions, were fitted to the data to estimate LoS from hospital admission date to an outcome (death or discharge) and from hospital admission date to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission date. In a second approach we fit a multi-state (MS) survival model to data directly from the Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (MFT). We develop a planning tool that uses LoS estimates from these models to predict bed occupancy.<h4>Results</h4>All methods produced similar overall estimates of LoS for overall hospital stay, given a patient is not admitted to ICU (8.4, 9.1 and 8.0 days for AFT, TC and MS, respectively). Estimates differ more significantly between the local and national level when considering ICU. National estimates for ICU LoS from AFT and TC were 12.4 and 13.4 days, whereas in local data the MS method produced estimates of 18.9 days.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Given the complexity and partiality of different data sources and the rapidly evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is most appropriate to use multiple analysis methods on multiple datasets. The AFT method accounts for censored cases, but does not allow for simultaneous consideration of different outcomes. The TC method does not include censored cases, instead correcting for truncation in the data, but does consider these different outcomes. The MS method can model complex pathways to different outcomes whilst accounting for censoring, but cannot handle non-random case missingness. Overall, we conclude that data-driven modelling approaches of LoS using these methods is useful in epidemic planning and management, and should be considered for widespread adoption throughout healthcare systems internationally where similar data resources exist.
    • Housing market spillovers through the lens of transaction volume: A new spillover index approach

      Yang, Jian; Tong, Meng; Yu, Ziliang (Elsevier, 2021-10-25)
      Proposing and applying a new spillover index approach based on data-determined structural vector autoregression to measure connectedness, we examine the daily housing market information transmission via transaction volume among Chinese city-level housing markets from 2009 to 2018. We document substantial information transmission on Chinese housing markets even within one day and find that the role a city-level housing market may play in the information transmission network resembles a pattern observed on other financial markets, which can be generally classified into three distinctive groups: prime senders, exchange centers, and prime receivers. City hierarchy and some fundamental economic factors, such as GDP per capita and average wage, appear to be significant determinants of such a pattern. The findings extend the existing voluminous literature solely based on housing prices or price volatility spillovers and shed new light on the China’s government intervention strategy on the housing market.
    • How do terminal modifications of short designed IIKK peptide amphiphiles affect their antifungal activity and biocompatibility?

      Zhang, Jing; Gong, Haoning; Liao, Mingrui; Li, Zongyi; Schweins, Ralf; Penny, Jeffrey; Lu, Jian R; email: j.lu@manchester.ac.uk (2021-10-06)
      The widespread and prolonged use of antifungal antibiotics has led to the rapid emergence of multidrug resistant Candida species that compromise current treatments. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) offer potential alternatives but require further development to overcome some of their current drawbacks. AMPs kill pathogenic fungi by permeabilising their membranes but it remains unclear how AMPs can be designed to maximise their antifungal potency whilst minimising their toxicity to host cells. We have designed a group of short (IIKK) AMPs via selective terminal modifications ending up with different amphiphilicities. Their antifungal performance was assessed by minimum inhibition concentration (MICs) and dynamic killing to 4 Candida strains and Cryptococcus neoformans, and the minimum biofilm-eradicating concentrations to kill 95% of the C. albicans biofilms (BEC ). Different antifungal actions were interpreted on the basis of structural disruptions of the AMPs to small unilamellar vesicles from fluorescence leakage, Zeta potential, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). AMPs possess high antifungal activities against the Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans; some of them displayed faster dynamic killing than antibiotics like amphotericin B. G(IIKK) I-NH and (IIKK) II-NH were particularly potent against not only planktonic microbes but also fungal biofilms with low cytotoxicity to host cells. It was found that their high selectivity and fast action were well correlated to their fast membrane lysis, evident from data measured from Zeta potential measurements, SANS and MD, and also consistent with the previously observed antibacterial and anticancer performance. These studies demonstrate the important role of colloid and interface science in further developing short, potent and biocompatible AMPs towards clinical treatments via structure design and optimization. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.]
    • How do women experience a false-positive test result from breast screening? A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

      Long, Hannah; orcid: 0000-0001-7306-8987; email: hannah.long@manchester.ac.uk; Brooks, Joanna M.; Harvie, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0001-9761-3089; Maxwell, Anthony; orcid: 0000-0001-8344-4958; French, David P.; orcid: 0000-0002-7663-7804 (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2019-07-23)
      Abstract: Background: This is the first review to identify, appraise and synthesise women’s experiences of having a false-positive breast screening test result. Methods: We systematically searched eight databases for qualitative research reporting women’s experiences of receiving a false-positive screening test result. Two reviewers independently screened articles. Eight papers reporting seven studies were included. Study quality was appraised. Data were thematically synthesised. Results: Women passively attended screening in order to prove their perceived good health. Consequently, being recalled was unexpected, shocking and disempowering: women felt without options. They endured great uncertainty and stress and sought clarity about their health (e.g. by scrutinising the wording of recall letters and conversations with healthcare professionals). Their result was accompanied by relief and welcome feelings of certainty about their health, but some received unclear explanations of their result, contributing to lasting breast cancer-related worry and an ongoing need for further reassurance. Conclusion: The organisation of breast screening programmes may constrain choice for women: they became passive recipients. The way healthcare professionals verbally communicate results to women may contribute to lasting breast cancer-related worry. Women need more reassurance, emotional support and answers to their questions before and during screening assessment, and after receiving their result.
    • How downplaying or exaggerating crime severity in a confession affects perceived guilt

      Holt, Glenys A.; Palmer, Matthew A. (Informa UK Limited, 2020-12-14)