• The prognostic value of emergency department measured hypertension: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

      Reynard, Charles; orcid: 0000-0002-7534-2668; email: Charles.reynard@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; van den Berg, Patricia; orcid: 0000-0001-8148-1130; Oliver, Govind; orcid: 0000-0001-6051-6090; Naguib, Mina Peter; Sammut‐Powell, Camilla; McMillan, Brian; orcid: 0000-0002-0683-3877; Heagerty, Anthony; orcid: 0000-0002-9043-2119; Body, Richard; orcid: 0000-0001-9089-8130 (2021-09-22)
      Abstract: Objectives: The objective was to assess the prognostic value of hypertension detected in the emergency department (ED). Methods: The ED presents a unique opportunity to predict long‐term cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes with its potential for high‐footfall, and large‐scale routine data collection applied to underserved patient populations. A systematic review and meta‐analyses were conducted to assess the prognostic performance and feasibility of ED‐measured hypertension as a risk factor for long‐term CVD outcomes. We searched MEDLINE and Embase databases and gray literature sources. The target populations were undifferentiated ED patients. The prognostic factor of interest was hypertension. Feasibility outcomes included prevalence, reliability, and follow‐up attendance. Meta‐analyses were performed for feasibility using a random effect and exact likelihood. Results: The searches identified 1072 studies after title and abstract review, 53 studies had their full text assessed for eligibility, and 26 studies were included. Significant heterogeneity was identified, likely due to the international populations and differing study design. The meta‐analyses estimate of prevalence for ED‐measured hypertension was 0.31 (95% confidence interval 0.25–0.37). ED hypertension was persistent outside the ED (FE estimate of 0.50). The proportion of patients attending follow‐up was low with an exact likelihood estimate of 0.41. Three studies examined the prognostic performance of hypertension and demonstrated an increased risk of long‐term CVD outcomes. Conclusion: Hypertension can be measured feasibly in the ED and consequently used in a long‐term cardiovascular risk prediction model. There is an opportunity to intervene in targeted individuals, using routinely collected data.
    • The promise and challenges of cell therapy for psoriasis

      Lwin, S.M.; orcid: 0000-0002-3325-3675; Snowden, J.A.; orcid: 0000-0001-6819-3476; Griffiths, C.E.M.; orcid: 0000-0001-5371-4427; email: christopher.griffiths@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-27)
      Summary: The management of moderate‐to‐severe psoriasis has been transformed by the introduction of biological therapies. These medicines, particularly those targeting interleukin (IL)‐17 and IL‐23p19, can offer clear or nearly clear skin for the majority of patients with psoriasis, with good long‐term drug survival. However, as currently used, none of these therapies is curative and disconcertingly there is a small but increasing number of patients with severe psoriasis who have failed all currently available therapeutic modalities. A similar scenario has occurred in other immune‐mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) where treatment options are limited in severely affected patients. In these cases, cell therapy, including haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), has been utilized. This review discusses the various forms of cell therapy currently available, their utility in the management of IMIDs and emerging evidence for efficacy in severe psoriasis that is unresponsive to biological therapy. Balancing the risks and benefits of treatment vs. the underlying disease is key; cell therapy carries significant risks, costs, regulation and other complexities, which must be justified by outcomes. Although HSCT has anecdotally been reported to benefit severe psoriasis, sometimes with apparent cure, this has mainly been in the setting of other coincidental ‘routine’ indications. In psoriasis, cell therapies, such as MSC and regulatory T cells, with a lower risk of complications are likely to be more appropriate. Well‐designed controlled trials coupled with mechanistic studies are warranted if advanced cell therapies are to be developed and delivered as a realistic option for severe psoriasis.
    • The Pseudokinase TRIB3 Negatively Regulates the HER2 Receptor Pathway and Is a Biomarker of Good Prognosis in Luminal Breast Cancer

      Orea-Soufi, Alba; email: albaorea@ucm.es; Castillo-Lluva, Sonia; orcid: 0000-0001-5357-7178; email: sonica01@ucm.es; Salvador-Tormo, Nélida; email: nsalvado@ucm.es; Martín-Cabrera, Paola; email: paolmart@ucm.es; Recuero, Silvia; email: silviarda97@gmail.com; Gabicagogeascoa, Estíbaliz; email: egabicag@ucm.es; Moreno-Valladares, Manuel; email: MANUEL.MORENOVALLADARES@osakidetza.eus; Mendiburu-Eliçabe, Marina; orcid: 0000-0003-2573-8709; email: marinamendiburu@usal.es; Blanco-Gómez, Adrián; orcid: 0000-0002-1956-088X; email: adrian.blancogomez@cruk.manchester.ac.uk; Ramos-Pittol, José Miguel; orcid: 0000-0003-3753-5394; email: Jose.Ramos-Pittol@uibk.ac.at; et al. (MDPI, 2021-10-22)
      Background: Tribbles pseudokinase 3 (TRIB3) has been proposed to both promote and restrict cancer generation and progression. However, the precise mechanisms that determine this dual role of TRIB3 in cancer remain to be understood. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of TRIB3 in luminal breast cancer, the most frequent subtype of this malignancy. Methods: We genetically manipulated TRIB3 expression in a panel of luminal breast cancer cell lines and analyzed its impact on cell proliferation, and the phosphorylation, levels, or subcellular localization of TRIB3 and other protein regulators of key signaling pathways in luminal breast cancer. We also analyzed TRIB3 protein expression in samples from luminal breast cancer patients and performed bioinformatic analyses in public datasets. Results: TRIB3 enhanced the proliferation and AKT phosphorylation in luminal A (HER2-) but decreased them in luminal B (HER2+) breast cancer cell lines. TRIB3 negatively regulated the stability of HER2 in luminal B breast cancer cell lines. TRIB3 expression was associated with increased disease-free survival and a better response to therapy in luminal breast cancer patients. Conclusions: Our findings support the exploration of TRIB3 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in luminal breast cancer.
    • The Recognition of Excessive blood loss At ChildbirTh (REACT) Study: a two‐phase exploratory, sequential mixed methods inquiry using focus groups, interviews and a pilot, randomised crossover study

      Hancock, A; orcid: 0000-0002-2057-3303; email: angela.hancock@manchester.ac.uk; Weeks, AD; orcid: 0000-0002-1909-337X; Furber, C; Campbell, M; Lavender, T (2021-05-27)
      Objectives: To explore how childbirth‐related blood loss is evaluated and excessive bleeding recognised; and to develop and test a theory of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) diagnosis. Design: Two‐phase, exploratory, sequential mixed methods design using focus groups, interviews and a pilot, randomised crossover study. Setting: Two hospitals in North West England. Sample: Women (following vaginal birth with and without PPH), birth partners, midwives and obstetricians. Methods: Phase 1 (qualitative): 8 focus groups and 20 one‐to‐one, semi‐structured interviews were conducted with 15 women, 5 birth partners, 11 obstetricians, 1 obstetric anaesthetist and 19 midwives (n = 51). Phase 2 (quantitative): 11 obstetricians and ten midwives (n = 21) completed two simulations of fast and slow blood loss using a high‐fidelity childbirth simulator. Results: Responses to blood loss were described as automatic, intuitive reactions to the speed, nature and visibility of blood flow. Health professionals reported that quantifying volume was most useful after a PPH diagnosis, to validate intuitive decisions and guide ongoing management. During simulations, PPH treatment was initiated at volumes at or below 200 ml (fast mean blood loss 79.6 ml, SD 41.1; slow mean blood loss 62.6 ml, SD 27.7). All participants treated fast, visible blood loss, but only half treated slow blood loss, despite there being no difference in volumes (difference 18.2 ml, 95% CI −5.6 to 42.2 ml, P = 0.124). Conclusions: Experience and intuition, rather than blood loss volume, inform recognition of excessive blood loss after birth. Women and birth partners want more information and open communication about blood loss. Further research exploring clinical decision‐making and how to support it is required. Tweetable abstract: During a PPH, clinical decision‐making is intuitive with clinicians treating as soon as excessive loss is recognised.
    • The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Mammographic Density during a Premenopausal Weight Loss Intervention Study

      Atakpa, Emma C.; email: e.c.atakpa@qmul.ac.uk; Brentnall, Adam R.; email: a.brentnall@qmul.ac.uk; Astley, Susan; email: Sue.astley@manchester.ac.uk; Cuzick, Jack; email: j.cuzick@qmul.ac.uk; Evans, D. Gareth; orcid: 0000-0002-8482-5784; email: Gareth.Evans@mft.nhs.uk; Warren, Ruth M. L.; email: rmlw2@cam.ac.uk; Howell, Anthony; email: Anthony.Howell@manchester.ac.uk; Harvie, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0001-9761-3089; email: michelle.harvie@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-06-29)
      We evaluated the association between short-term change in body mass index (BMI) and breast density during a 1 year weight-loss intervention (Manchester, UK). We included 65 premenopausal women (35–45 years, ≥7 kg adult weight gain, family history of breast cancer). BMI and breast density (semi-automated area-based, automated volume-based) were measured at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years after study entry (1 year post intervention). Cross-sectional (between-women) and short-term change (within-women) associations between BMI and breast density were measured using repeated-measures correlation coefficients and multivariable linear mixed models. BMI was positively correlated with dense volume between-women (r = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.17, 0.61), but less so within-women (r = 0.08, 95%CI: −0.16, 0.28). There was little association with dense area (between-women r = −0.12, 95%CI: −0.38, 0.16; within-women r = 0.01, 95%CI: −0.24, 0.25). BMI and breast fat were positively correlated (volume: between r = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.69, 0.84, within r = 0.58, 95%CI: 0.36, 0.75; area: between r = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.63, 0.82, within r = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.63). Multivariable models reported similar associations. Exploratory analysis suggested associations between BMI gain from 20 years and density measures (standard deviation change per +5 kg/m2 BMI: dense area: +0.61 (95%CI: 0.12, 1.09); fat volume: −0.31 (95%CI: −0.62, 0.00)). Short-term BMI change is likely to be positively associated with breast fat, but we found little association with dense tissue, although power was limited by small sample size.
    • The Relationship between Online Dating and Islamic Identity among British Muslims

      de Rooij, Laurens; email: drlaurensderooij@gmail.com (Brill, 2020-05-01)
      In Europe and the US, young Muslims are using online matchmaking in growing numbers. Online dating has increasingly become a mainstream activity, in Europe and North America at least. Western Muslims have adapted the idea to suit their needs. For many, online dating offers a low-stress solution to the daunting challenge of finding a partner for marriage in countries where few share their faith and in communities where matchmaking is considered a family affair. This paper will discuss the relationship between Muslim online matchmaking for British Muslims and their Islamic identities with regards to marriage and romantic relationships.
    • The Relationship between the Therapeutic Alliance and Suicidal Experiences in People with Psychosis Receiving Therapy

      Huggett, Charlotte; orcid: 0000-0002-7566-6224; email: charlotte.huggett@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Gooding, Patricia; email: Patricia.A.Gooding@manchester.ac.uk; Haddock, Gillian; email: gillian.haddock@manchester.ac.uk; Pratt, Daniel; orcid: 0000-0001-8843-1224; email: daniel.pratt@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-10-12)
      Few studies have examined the relationship between the therapeutic alliance in therapy and suicidal experiences. No studies have examined this relationship with people with non-affective psychosis. The present study sought to redress this gap in the literature. Sixty-four participants with non-affective psychosis and suicidal experiences who were receiving a suicide-focused cognitive therapy were recruited. Self-reported suicidal ideation, suicide plans, suicide attempts, depression, and hopelessness were collected from participants prior to starting therapy. Suicidal experience measures were collected again post-therapy at 6 months. Therapeutic alliance ratings were completed by clients and therapists at session 4 of therapy. Dose of therapy was documented in number of minutes of therapy. Data were analyzed using correlation coefficients, independent samples t-tests, a multiple hierarchical regression, and a moderated linear regression. There was no significant relationship found between suicidal ideation prior to therapy and the therapeutic alliance at session 4, rated by both client and therapist. However, there was a significant negative relationship between the client-rated therapeutic alliance at session 4 and suicidal ideation at 6 months, after controlling for pre-therapy suicidal ideation, depression, and hopelessness. Furthermore, the negative relationship between the client-rated alliance and suicidal ideation was the strongest when number of minutes of therapy was 15 h or below. A stronger therapeutic alliance developed in the first few sessions of therapy is important in ameliorating suicidal thoughts in people with psychosis. Nevertheless, it is not necessarily the case that more hours in therapy equates to a cumulative decrease in suicidal ideation of which therapists could be mindful. A limitation of the current study was that the alliance was analyzed only at session 4 of therapy, which future studies could seek to redress.
    • The role of attachment, coping style and reasons for substance use in substance users with psychosis

      Berry, Katherine; orcid: 0000-0002-7399-5462; Haddock, Gillian; orcid: 0000-0001-6234-5774; Barrowclough, Christine; orcid: 0000-0001-9037-6201; Gregg, Lynsey; orcid: 0000-0001-5683-5574; email: lynsey.gregg@manchester.ac.uk (2021-09-02)
      Abstract: Seventy substance users with psychosis who were participating in a clinical trial of a psychological therapy for psychosis were additionally assessed for attachment, coping styles and self‐reported reasons for substance use in order to test a hypothesized sequential mediation model. In this model the relationship between insecure attachment and problematic substance use was assumed to be sequentially mediated by dysfunctional coping and the use of substances to cope with distress. Hypothesized associations between insecure‐avoidant attachment and substance use were not supported, but the relationship between insecure‐anxious attachment and problematic substance use was confirmed and found to be fully mediated by dysfunctional coping and coping reasons for use. Findings suggest that fostering secure attachments in people with psychosis might promote more successful coping and could prevent or reduce substance use related problems in this group.
    • The role of clinical pharmacists in general practice in England: Impact, perspectives, barriers and facilitators.

      Claire, Mann; email: claire.mann@manchester.ac.uk; Claire, Anderson; email: claire.anderson@nottingham.ac.uk; Matthew, Boyd; email: matthew.boyd@nottingham.ac.uk (2021-10-29)
      By 2020/1 NHS England plans to invest over 100 m to ensure that there is one clinical pharmacist post in primary care for every 30,000 patients. A recent realist review identified key questions in the literature related to the implementation of a clinical pharmacist (CP) in a general practice role. These relate to the impact of the role, perspectives on the role (patients, GPs and pharmacists), and barriers and facilitators to the implementation process. The data collected in the national evaluation of the pilot scheme provides data to answer the realist questions identified. This paper examines the experience of implementing the clinical pharmacist in general practice role, in relation to the areas identified above. The research took a mixed methods approach to understanding the scheme implementation and this research draws on both survey and qualitative interview data from a wide range of stakeholders. Pharmacists in the pilot phase are motivated to develop clinical skills and make a positive impact on patients. Data suggests that clinical pharmacists have a positive impact, in particular on health outcomes related to polypharmacy and long-term conditions. GPs have a broadly positive response to the CPs, in particular when they save time and money for the practice. However, GPs have to invest time in mentoring and building relationships to realise the benefits of the role. Patients appreciate the CP role for increasing access to a practitioner and providing expertise in medications. There are some barriers to successful implementation of the role, including policy and funding, lack of clarity around the role and lack of quantitative and economic validation of the role. Facilitators of success include supportive working relationships, integration and mentoring. The pilot implementation of this new role was successful but there are lessons which can be learned for the success of future iterations and more work is required to economically validate the role which is likely to in turn generate positive relationships with GPs. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.]
    • The role of dark adaptation in understanding early AMD.

      Murray, Ian J; email: ian.j.murray@manchester.ac.uk; Rodrigo-Diaz, Elena; Kelly, Jeremiah M F; Tahir, Humza J; Carden, David; Patryas, Laura; Parry, Neil Ra (2021-10-06)
      The main aim of the paper is to discuss current knowledge on how Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) affects Dark Adaptation (DA). The paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, we outline some of the molecular mechanisms that control DA. Secondly, we review the psychophysical issues and the corresponding analytical techniques. Finally, we characterise the link between slowed DA and the morphological abnormalities in early AMD. Historically, DA has been regarded as too cumbersome for widespread clinical application. Yet the technique is extremely useful; it is widely accepted that the psychophysically obtained slope of the second rod-mediated phase of the dark adaptation function is an accurate assay of photoreceptor pigment regeneration kinetics. Technological developments have prompted new ways of generating the DA curve, but analytical problems remain. A simple potential solution to these, based on the application of a novel fast mathematical algorithm, is presented. This allows the calculation of the parameters of the DA curve in real time. Improving current management of AMD will depend on identifying a satisfactory endpoint for evaluating future therapeutic strategies. This must be implemented before the onset of severe disease. Morphological changes progress too slowly to act as a satisfactory endpoint for new therapies whereas functional changes, such as those seen in DA, may have more potential in this regard. It is important to recognise, however, that the functional changes are not confined to rods and that building a mathematical model of the DA curve enables the separation of rod and cone dysfunction and allows more versatility in terms of the range of disease severity that can be monitored. Examples are presented that show how analysing the DA curve into its constituent components can improve our understanding of the morphological changes in early AMD. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.]
    • The role of specific biomarkers, as predictors of post-operative complications following flexible ureterorenoscopy (FURS), for the treatment of kidney stones: a single-centre observational clinical pilot-study in 37 patients

      Hughes, Stephen Fôn; orcid: 0000-0001-6558-9037; email: Stephen.hughes6@wales.nhs.uk; Moyes, Alyson Jayne; Lamb, Rebecca May; Ella-tongwiis, Peter; Bell, Christopher; Moussa, Ahmed; Shergill, Iqbal (BioMed Central, 2020-08-14)
      Abstract: Background: The number of patients diagnosed and subsequently treated for kidney stones is increasing, and as such the number of post-operative complications is likely to increase. At present, little is known about the role of specific biomarkers, following flexible ureterorenoscopy (FURS) for the surgical treatment of kidney stones. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the role of kidney and infection biomarkers, in patients undergoing FURS. Methods: Included were 37 patients (24 males, 13 females), who underwent elective FURS, for the treatment of kidney stones. Venous blood samples were collected from each patient: pre-operatively, and at 30 min, 2 and 4 h post-operatively. Changes to kidney (NGAL, Cystatin-C) and infection (MPO, PCT) biomarkers was quantified by means of ELISA, Biomerieux mini-vidas and Konelab 20 analysers. Results: Four patients developed post-operative complications (3 - UTIs with urinary retention, 1 - urosepsis. NGAL concentration increased significantly following FURS (p = 0.034). Although no significant changes were seen in Cystatin C, MPO and PCT (p ≥ 0.05) some key clinical observation were noted. Limiting factors for this study were the small number of patients recruited and restriction in blood sampling beyond 4 h. Conclusions: Although not confirmative, changes seen to biomarkers such as Cystatin C, NGAL and MPO in our observational clinical pilot-study may warrant further investigation, involving larger cohorts, to fully understand the role of these biomarkers and their potential association with post-operative complications which can develop following FURS.
    • The Role of the Body Clock in Asthma and COPD: Implication for Treatment

      Krakowiak, Karolina; Durrington, Hannah J.; orcid: 0000-0002-9990-9446; email: hannah.durrington@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Healthcare Communications, 2018-06-01)
      Abstract: Asthma exhibits a marked time of day variation in symptoms, airway physiology, and airway inflammation. This is also seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but to a lesser extent. Our understanding of how physiological daily rhythms are regulated by the circadian clock is increasing, and there is growing evidence that the molecular clock is important in the pathogenesis of these two airway diseases. If time of day is important, then it follows that treatment of asthma and COPD should also be tailored to the most efficacious time of the day, a concept known as ‘chronotherapy’. There have been a number of studies to determine the optimal time of day at which to take medications for asthma and COPD. Some of these agents are already used ‘chronotherapeutically’ in practice (often at night-time). However, several studies investigating systemic and inhaled corticosteroids have consistently shown that the best time of day to take these medications for treating asthma is in the afternoon or early evening and not in the morning, when these medications are often prescribed. Future, large, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of systemic and inhaled corticosteroids in asthma and COPD are needed to inform clinical practice. Digital Features: This article is published with a graphical abstract to facilitate understanding of the article. To view digital features for this article go to the Supplementary Information of the article.
    • The Role of the European Society of Human Genetics in Delivering Genomic Education

      Tobias, Edward S.; Avram, Elena; Calapod, Patricia; Cordier, Christophe; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Ding, Can; Dolzan, Vita; Houge, Sofia Douzgou; Lynch, Sally Ann; O’Byrne, James; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-09-03)
      The European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) was founded in 1967 as a professional organisation for members working in genetics in clinical practice, research and education. The Society seeks the integration of scientific research and its implementation into clinical practice and the education of specialists and the public in all areas of medical and human genetics. The Society works to do this through many approaches, including educational sessions at the annual conference; training courses in general and specialist areas of genetics; an online resource of educational materials (EuroGEMS); and a mentorship scheme. The ESHG Education Committee is implementing new approaches to expand the reach of its educational activities and portfolio. With changes in technology, appreciation of the utility of genomics in healthcare and the public’s and patients’ increased awareness of the role of genomics, this review will summarise how the ESHG is adapting to deliver innovative educational activity.
    • The SCCS Scientific Advice on the Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetics

      Bernauer, Ulrike; Bodin, Laurent; Chaudhry, Qasim; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Dusinska, Maria; Gaffet, Eric; Panteri, Eirini; Rogiers, Vera; Rousselle, Christophe; Stepnik, Maciej; et al.
      The Cosmetic Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 specifically covers the risk of nanomaterials used in cosmetic products. If there are concerns regarding the safety of a nanomaterial, the European Commission refers it to the SCCS for a scientific opinion. The Commission mandated the SCCS to identify the scientific basis for safety concerns that could be used as a basis for identifying and prioritising nanomaterials for safety assessment, and to revisit previous inconclusive SCCS opinions on nanomaterials to identify any concerns for potential risks to the consumer health. The SCCS Scientific Advice identified the key general aspects of nanomaterials that should raise a safety concern for a safety assessor/manager, so that the nanomaterial(s) in question could be subjected to safety assessment to establish safety to the consumer. The Advice also developed a list of the nanomaterials notified to the Commission for use in cosmetics in an order of priority for safety assessment, and revisited three previous inconclusive opinions on nanomaterials to highlight concerns over consumer safety that merited further safety assessment.
    • The SCCS scientific advice on the safety of nanomaterials in cosmetics

      Bernauer, Ulrike; Bodin, Laurent; orcid: 0000-0002-6900-8874; Chaudhry, Qasim; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; orcid: 0000-0001-9458-7129; Dusinska, Maria; Gaffet, Eric; orcid: 0000-0002-6451-3011; Panteri, Eirini; orcid: 0000-0003-3190-0127; Rogiers, Vera; Rousselle, Christophe; orcid: 0000-0003-0460-6192; Stepnik, Maciej; orcid: 0000-0003-1586-2482; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-09-28)
      The Cosmetic Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 specifically covers the risk of nanomaterials used in cosmetic products. If there are concerns regarding the safety of a nanomaterial, the European Commission refers it to the SCCS for a scientific opinion. The Commission mandated the SCCS to identify the scientific basis for safety concerns that could be used as a basis for identifying and prioritising nanomaterials for safety assessment, and to revisit previous inconclusive SCCS opinions on nanomaterials to identify any concerns for potential risks to the consumer health. The SCCS Scientific Advice identified the key general aspects of nanomaterials that should raise a safety concern for a safety assessor/manager, so that the nanomaterial(s) in question could be subjected to safety assessment to establish safety to the consumer. The Advice also developed a list of the nanomaterials notified to the Commission for use in cosmetics in an order of priority for safety assessment, and revisited three previous inconclusive opinions on nanomaterials to highlight concerns over consumer safety that merited further safety assessment.
    • The SCCS scientific advice on the safety of nanomaterials in cosmetics.

      SCCS members. Electronic address: SANTE-C2-SCCS@ec.europa.eu; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bodin, Laurent; Chaudhry, Qasim; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Dusinska, Maria; Gaffet, Eric; Panteri, Eirini; Rogiers, Vera; Rousselle, Christophe; et al. (2021-09-22)
      The Cosmetic Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 specifically covers the risk of nanomaterials used in cosmetic products. If there are concerns regarding the safety of a nanomaterial, the European Commission refers it to the SCCS for a scientific opinion. The Commission mandated the SCCS to identify the scientific basis for safety concerns that could be used as a basis for identifying and prioritising nanomaterials for safety assessment, and to revisit previous inconclusive SCCS opinions on nanomaterials to identify any concerns for potential risks to the consumer health. The SCCS Scientific Advice identified the key general aspects of nanomaterials that should raise a safety concern for a safety assessor/manager, so that the nanomaterial(s) in question could be subjected to safety assessment to establish safety to the consumer. The Advice also developed a list of the nanomaterials notified to the Commission for use in cosmetics in an order of priority for safety assessment, and revisited three previous inconclusive opinions on nanomaterials to highlight concerns over consumer safety that merited further safety assessment. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • The supervisor conundrum

      Knight, Kate H; Leigh, Jacqueline; Whaley, Victoria; Rabie, Gay; Matthews, Marie; Doyle, Kate (Mark Allen Group, 2021-11-11)
    • The supervisor conundrum.

      Knight, Kate H; Leigh, Jacqueline; Whaley, Victoria; Rabie, Gay; Matthews, Marie; Doyle, Kate (2021-11-11)
    • The T cell receptor repertoire of tumor infiltrating T cells is predictive and prognostic for cancer survival

      Valpione, Sara; Mundra, Piyushkumar A.; Galvani, Elena; Campana, Luca G.; orcid: 0000-0002-8466-8459; Lorigan, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-8875-2164; De Rosa, Francesco; orcid: 0000-0003-0511-1298; Gupta, Avinash; Weightman, John; Mills, Sarah; Dhomen, Nathalie; et al. (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021-07-02)
      Abstract: Tumor infiltration by T cells is paramount for effective anti-cancer immune responses. We hypothesized that the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes could therefore be indicative of the functional state of these cells and determine disease course at different stages in cancer progression. Here we show that the diversity of the TCR of tumor infiltrating T cell at baseline is prognostic in various cancers, whereas the TCR clonality of T cell infiltrating metastatic melanoma pre-treatment is predictive for activity and efficacy of PD1 blockade immunotherapy.