• The Impact of the Performance Appraisal Process on Job Satisfaction of the Academic Staff in Higher Educational Institutions

      Dasanayaka, Chamila H.; email: chamila.dasanayaka@uni.cumbria.ac.uk; Abeykoon, Chamil; orcid: 0000-0002-6797-776X; email: chamil.abeykoon@manchester.ac.uk; Ranaweera, R. A. A. S.; orcid: 0000-0002-7404-196X; email: achala@kln.ac.lk; Koswatte, Isuru; orcid: 0000-0002-1807-1996; email: isuru.k@nsbm.ac.lk (MDPI, 2021-10-11)
      Performance appraisal is one of the key management tools which identifies employees’ strengths and weaknesses. Usually, this is the major mechanism of gathering information for rewarding/training employees based on their performance, and hence a key to achieve organisational goals by creating a satisfied workforce. Therefore, this study was aimed at examining the effects of the Performance Appraisal Process on job satisfaction of the university academic staff. The information collected within one of the largest universities in the UK via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews showed that the existing appraisal process majorly aligned with the requirements of the research-excellence-framework of the UK, which is greatly concerned with research rather than teaching. Furthermore, it was found that there is no clear link between promotions, salary increments, and rewards, etc. with staff performance within the current appraisal process. Eventually, it was realised that the majority of the academic staff of the source university were dissatisfied with the current performance appraisal process, and this could be the situation in the majority of universities in the UK. Therefore, further research in this area is highly recommended to explore extensive information to create a favourable work/study environment for both staff and students within the universities.
    • The impacts of the early outset of the COVID-19 pandemic on climate change research: Implications for policy-making.

      Leal Filho, Walter; Wall, Tony; Alves, Fatima; Nagy, Gustavo J; Fernández Carril, Luis Ricardo; Li, Chunlan; Mucova, Serafino; Platje Joost, Johannes; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez; Totin, Edmond; et al. (2021-06-16)
      Since January 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has dominated the media and exercises pressure on governments worldwide. Apart from its effects on economies, education systems and societies, the pandemic has also influenced climate change research. This paper examines the extent to which COVID-19 has influenced climate change research worldwide during the first wave at the beginning of 2020 and how it is perceived to exploit it in the future. This study utilised an international survey involving those dedicated to climate change science and management research from Academia, Government, NGOs, and international agencies in 83 countries. The analysis of responses encompasses four independent variables: Institutions, Regions, Scientific Areas, and the level of economic development represented by the Human Development Index (HDI). Results show that: (1) COVID-19 modified the way the surveyed researchers work, (2) there are indicators that COVID-19 has already influenced the direction of climate change and adaptation policy implementation, and (3) respondents perceived (explicitly concerning the COVID-19 lockdowns of March-April 2020), that the pandemic has drawn attention away from climate policy. COVID- 19 has influenced the agenda of climate change research for more than half of the respondents and is likely to continue in the future, suggesting that the impacts on their research will still be felt for many years. The paper concludes by outlining critical implications for policy-making. [Abstract copyright: © 2021 The Authors.]
    • The impacts of the early outset of the COVID-19 pandemic on climate change research: Implications for policy-making.

      Leal Filho, Walter; orcid: 0000-0002-1241-5225; Wall, Tony; Alves, Fatima; Nagy, Gustavo J; Fernández Carril, Luis Ricardo; Li, Chunlan; Mucova, Serafino; Platje Joost, Johannes; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez; Totin, Edmond; et al. (2021-06-16)
      Since January 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has dominated the media and exercises pressure on governments worldwide. Apart from its effects on economies, education systems and societies, the pandemic has also influenced climate change research. This paper examines the extent to which COVID-19 has influenced climate change research worldwide during the first wave at the beginning of 2020 and how it is perceived to exploit it in the future. This study utilised an international survey involving those dedicated to climate change science and management research from Academia, Government, NGOs, and international agencies in 83 countries. The analysis of responses encompasses four independent variables: Institutions, Regions, Scientific Areas, and the level of economic development represented by the Human Development Index (HDI). Results show that: (1) COVID-19 modified the way the surveyed researchers work, (2) there are indicators that COVID-19 has already influenced the direction of climate change and adaptation policy implementation, and (3) respondents perceived (explicitly concerning the COVID-19 lockdowns of March-April 2020), that the pandemic has drawn attention away from climate policy. COVID- 19 has influenced the agenda of climate change research for more than half of the respondents and is likely to continue in the future, suggesting that the impacts on their research will still be felt for many years. The paper concludes by outlining critical implications for policy-making.
    • The implementation of family‐focused practice in adult mental health services: A systematic review exploring the influence of practitioner and workplace factors

      Gregg, Lynsey; orcid: 0000-0001-5683-5574; email: lynsey.gregg@manchester.ac.uk; Adderley, Hope; Calam, Rachel; Wittkowski, Anja (2021-04-01)
      Abstract: There is increased recognition of the need for greater and more appropriate support to be offered to families in which a parent experiences mental illness and has dependent children. One way of meeting this need is for adult mental health services to take a more family‐focused approach. However, there are recognized difficulties in facilitating family‐focused practice (FFP). The current review systematically synthesized quantitative and qualitative literature of practitioner perspectives and experiences of FFP in adult mental health settings to identify modifiable factors associated with its successful implementation. Five databases were searched systematically leading to the inclusion and quality assessment of 19 papers, ten of which were quantitative and nine qualitative. Analysis was guided by a narrative synthesis approach. Factors shown to influence FFP functioned at both practitioner and workplace levels and included personal attitudes, beliefs about job role, and perceptions of workplace support. Practitioners who felt that a family‐focussed approach was inappropriate or detrimental to service users or outside of their remit as mental health professionals were less likely to adopt this approach. For those who saw the potential benefits of FFP, lack of confidence in their ability to deliver such an approach and lack of training can be barriers, as can lack of support and resources within services. This review highlights the need for actions to boost the awareness of adult mental health practitioners working with parents and to increase their confidence. It also makes the case for broader organizational support if family‐focussed practice is to be implemented successfully.
    • The Implementation of Preconditioned Epidermal Neural Crest Stem Cells to Combat Ischemic Stroke. Comment on Othman, F.A.; Tan, S.C. Preconditioning Strategies to Enhance Neural Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Ischemic Stroke. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 893.

      Pandamooz, Sareh; orcid: 0000-0002-6877-7102; email: sareh.pandamooz@gmail.com; Jurek, Benjamin; email: Benjamin.Jurek@vkl.uni-regensburg.de; Salehi, Mohammad Saied; email: saied_salehi@sums.ac.ir; Mostaghel, Mandana; email: mandana.mostaghel@gmail.com; Miyan, Jaleel A.; orcid: 0000-0002-1835-0143; email: j.miyan@manchester.ac.uk; Dianatpour, Mehdi; email: mdianatpur@gmail.com; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; email: Neuro.ab@gmail.com (MDPI, 2021-05-17)
      In the recent review published in Brain Sciences, Othman and Tan suggested several preconditioning strategies to improve stem cell therapy after ischemic brain injury [...]
    • The implications of outcome truncation in reproductive medicine RCTs: a simulation platform for trialists and simulation study

      Wilkinson, Jack; orcid: 0000-0003-3513-4677; email: jack.wilkinson@manchester.ac.uk; Huang, Jonathan Y.; Marsden, Antonia; Harhay, Michael O.; Vail, Andy; Roberts, Stephen A. (BioMed Central, 2021-08-06)
      Abstract: Background: Randomised controlled trials in reproductive medicine are often subject to outcome truncation, where the study outcomes are only defined in a subset of the randomised cohort. Examples include birthweight (measurable only in the subgroup of participants who give birth) and miscarriage (which can only occur in participants who become pregnant). These outcomes are typically analysed by making a comparison between treatment arms within the subgroup (for example, comparing birthweights in the subgroup who gave birth or miscarriages in the subgroup who became pregnant). However, this approach does not represent a randomised comparison when treatment influences the probability of being observed (i.e. survival). The practical implications of this for the design and interpretation of reproductive trials are unclear however. Methods: We developed a simulation platform to investigate the implications of outcome truncation for reproductive medicine trials. We used this to perform a simulation study, in which we considered the bias, type 1 error, coverage, and precision of standard statistical analyses for truncated continuous and binary outcomes. Simulation settings were informed by published assisted reproduction trials. Results: Increasing treatment effect on the intermediate variable, strength of confounding between the intermediate and outcome variables, and the presence of an interaction between treatment and confounder were found to adversely affect performance. However, within parameter ranges we would consider to be more realistic, the adverse effects were generally not drastic. For binary outcomes, the study highlighted that outcome truncation could cause separation in smaller studies, where none or all of the participants in a study arm experience the outcome event. This was found to have severe consequences for inferences. Conclusion: We have provided a simulation platform that can be used by researchers in the design and interpretation of reproductive medicine trials subject to outcome truncation and have used this to conduct a simulation study. The study highlights several key factors which trialists in the field should consider carefully to protect against erroneous inferences. Standard analyses of truncated binary outcomes in small studies may be highly biassed, and it remains to identify suitable approaches for analysing data in this context.
    • The implications of outcome truncation in reproductive medicine RCTs: a simulation platform for trialists and simulation study.

      Wilkinson, Jack; orcid: 0000-0003-3513-4677; email: jack.wilkinson@manchester.ac.uk; Huang, Jonathan Y; Marsden, Antonia; Harhay, Michael O; Vail, Andy; Roberts, Stephen A (2021-08-06)
      <h4>Background</h4>Randomised controlled trials in reproductive medicine are often subject to outcome truncation, where the study outcomes are only defined in a subset of the randomised cohort. Examples include birthweight (measurable only in the subgroup of participants who give birth) and miscarriage (which can only occur in participants who become pregnant). These outcomes are typically analysed by making a comparison between treatment arms within the subgroup (for example, comparing birthweights in the subgroup who gave birth or miscarriages in the subgroup who became pregnant). However, this approach does not represent a randomised comparison when treatment influences the probability of being observed (i.e. survival). The practical implications of this for the design and interpretation of reproductive trials are unclear however.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed a simulation platform to investigate the implications of outcome truncation for reproductive medicine trials. We used this to perform a simulation study, in which we considered the bias, type 1 error, coverage, and precision of standard statistical analyses for truncated continuous and binary outcomes. Simulation settings were informed by published assisted reproduction trials.<h4>Results</h4>Increasing treatment effect on the intermediate variable, strength of confounding between the intermediate and outcome variables, and the presence of an interaction between treatment and confounder were found to adversely affect performance. However, within parameter ranges we would consider to be more realistic, the adverse effects were generally not drastic. For binary outcomes, the study highlighted that outcome truncation could cause separation in smaller studies, where none or all of the participants in a study arm experience the outcome event. This was found to have severe consequences for inferences.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We have provided a simulation platform that can be used by researchers in the design and interpretation of reproductive medicine trials subject to outcome truncation and have used this to conduct a simulation study. The study highlights several key factors which trialists in the field should consider carefully to protect against erroneous inferences. Standard analyses of truncated binary outcomes in small studies may be highly biassed, and it remains to identify suitable approaches for analysing data in this context.
    • The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in patients receiving voriconazole therapy for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

      Kosmidis, Chris; orcid: 0000-0003-0662-1265; email: chris.kosmidis@manchester.ac.uk; Mackenzie, Anna; Harris, Chris; Hashad, Rola; Lynch, Fiona; Denning, David W. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-08-21)
      Abstract: Voriconazole has been associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in transplant patients but less is known about the risk in less severely immunosuppressed patients. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of cSCC after voriconazole exposure in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis on a background of chronic lung disease. The notes of patients seen at a tertiary referral centre from 2009 to 2019 with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis were reviewed for the diagnosis of cSCC and voriconazole use documented. Among 1111 patients, 668 (60.1%) received voriconazole for longer than 28 days. Twelve patients received a diagnosis of cSCC; nine had used voriconazole. Mean duration of voriconazole use was 36.7 months. The crude incidence rate was 4.88 in 1000 person/years in those who had voriconazole and 2.79 in 1000 patient/years in those who did not receive voriconazole for longer than 28 days. On Cox regression, age (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.16, p = 0.01) and male gender (HR 3.97, 95% CI 0.84–18.90, p = 0.082) were associated with cSCC. Voriconazole use was associated with a slightly increased risk, which was not significant (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.35–5.20, p = 0.659). Voriconazole use beyond 28 days did not lead to a significantly increased risk of cSCC in a large cohort of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.
    • The influence of warm-up duration on simulated rugby league interchange match performance

      Williams, Robert D.; Gillham, Scott; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig; orcid: 0000-0001-6168-0378 (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-10)
    • The Interdependency and Co-Regulation of the Vitamin D and Cholesterol Metabolism

      Warren, Tara; email: tarawarren96@hotmail.co.uk; McAllister, Roisin; email: rm.mcallister@ulster.ac.uk; Morgan, Amy; email: amy.morgan@chester.ac.uk; Rai, Taranjit Singh; email: t.rai@ulster.ac.uk; McGilligan, Victoria; email: v.mcgilligan@ulster.ac.uk; Ennis, Matthew; email: Ennis-M4@ulster.ac.uk; Page, Christopher; email: Page-C7@ulster.ac.uk; Kelly, Catriona; email: c.kelly@ulster.ac.uk; Peace, Aaron; orcid: 0000-0001-9556-7509; email: Aaron.Peace@westerntrust.hscni.net; Corfe, Bernard M.; email: Bernard.Corfe@newcastle.ac.uk; et al. (MDPI, 2021-08-06)
      Vitamin D and cholesterol metabolism overlap significantly in the pathways that contribute to their biosynthesis. However, our understanding of their independent and co-regulation is limited. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death globally and atherosclerosis, the pathology associated with elevated cholesterol, is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to understand vitamin D metabolism as a contributory factor. From the literature, we compile evidence of how these systems interact, relating the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved to the results from observational studies. We also present the first systems biology pathway map of the joint cholesterol and vitamin D metabolisms made available using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN) Markup Language (SBGNML). It is shown that the relationship between vitamin D supplementation, total cholesterol, and LDL-C status, and between latitude, vitamin D, and cholesterol status are consistent with our knowledge of molecular mechanisms. We also highlight the results that cannot be explained with our current knowledge of molecular mechanisms: (i) vitamin D supplementation mitigates the side-effects of statin therapy; (ii) statin therapy does not impact upon vitamin D status; and critically (iii) vitamin D supplementation does not improve cardiovascular outcomes, despite improving cardiovascular risk factors. For (iii), we present a hypothesis, based on observations in the literature, that describes how vitamin D regulates the balance between cellular and plasma cholesterol. Answering these questions will create significant opportunities for advancement in our understanding of cardiovascular health.
    • The Interdependency and Co-Regulation of the Vitamin D and Cholesterol Metabolism.

      Warren, Tara; McAllister, Roisin; Morgan, Amy; Rai, Taranjit Singh; McGilligan, Victoria; Ennis, Matthew; Page, Christopher; Kelly, Catriona; Peace, Aaron; orcid: 0000-0001-9556-7509; Corfe, Bernard M; et al. (2021-08-06)
      Vitamin D and cholesterol metabolism overlap significantly in the pathways that contribute to their biosynthesis. However, our understanding of their independent and co-regulation is limited. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death globally and atherosclerosis, the pathology associated with elevated cholesterol, is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to understand vitamin D metabolism as a contributory factor. From the literature, we compile evidence of how these systems interact, relating the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved to the results from observational studies. We also present the first systems biology pathway map of the joint cholesterol and vitamin D metabolisms made available using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN) Markup Language (SBGNML). It is shown that the relationship between vitamin D supplementation, total cholesterol, and LDL-C status, and between latitude, vitamin D, and cholesterol status are consistent with our knowledge of molecular mechanisms. We also highlight the results that cannot be explained with our current knowledge of molecular mechanisms: (i) vitamin D supplementation mitigates the side-effects of statin therapy; (ii) statin therapy does not impact upon vitamin D status; and critically (iii) vitamin D supplementation does not improve cardiovascular outcomes, despite improving cardiovascular risk factors. For (iii), we present a hypothesis, based on observations in the literature, that describes how vitamin D regulates the balance between cellular and plasma cholesterol. Answering these questions will create significant opportunities for advancement in our understanding of cardiovascular health.
    • The introduction of risk stratified screening into the NHS breast screening Programme: views from British-Pakistani women

      Woof, Victoria G.; orcid: 0000-0003-4069-5188; email: victoria.woof@manchester.ac.uk; Ruane, Helen; French, David P.; orcid: 0000-0002-7663-7804; Ulph, Fiona; orcid: 0000-0003-3590-6542; Qureshi, Nadeem; orcid: 0000-0003-4909-0644; Khan, Nasaim; Evans, D. Gareth; orcid: 0000-0002-8482-5784; Donnelly, Louise S.; orcid: 0000-0002-6570-7272 (BioMed Central, 2020-05-20)
      Abstract: Background: UK national guidelines suggest women at high-risk of breast cancer should be offered more frequent screening or preventative medications. Currently, only 1 in 6 high-risk women are identified. One route to identify more high-risk women is via multifactorial risk assessment as part of the UK’s NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). As lower socioeconomic and minority ethnic populations continue to experience barriers to screening, it is important that any new service does not exacerbate issues further. To inform service development, this study explored views of women from underserved backgrounds regarding the introduction of risk stratification into the NHSBSP. Methods: Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with British-Pakistani women from low socioeconomic backgrounds from East Lancashire, UK. Fourteen interviews were conducted via an interpreter. Results: Thematic analysis produced three themes. Attitudes toward risk awareness concerns the positive views women have toward the idea of receiving personalised breast cancer risk information. Anticipated barriers to accessibility emphasises the difficulties associated with women’s limited English skills for accessing information, and their I.T proficiency for completing an online risk assessment questionnaire. Acceptability of risk communication strategy highlights the diversity of opinion regarding the suitability of receiving risk results via letter, with the option for support from a healthcare professional deemed essential. Conclusions: The idea of risk stratification was favourable amongst this underserved community. To avoid exacerbating inequities, this new service should provide information in multiple languages and modalities and offer women the opportunity to speak to a healthcare professional about risk. This service should also enable completion of personal risk information via paper questionnaires, as well as online.
    • The LEGATOS technique: A new tissue‐validated dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI method for whole‐brain, high‐spatial resolution parametric mapping

      Li, Ka‐Loh; orcid: 0000-0002-6051-9248; email: ka-loh.li-2@manchester.ac.uk; Lewis, Daniel; Coope, David J.; Roncaroli, Federico; Agushi, Erjon; Pathmanaban, Omar N.; King, Andrew T.; Zhao, Sha; Jackson, Alan; Cootes, Timothy; et al. (2021-05-15)
      Purpose: A DCE‐MRI technique that can provide both high spatiotemporal resolution and whole‐brain coverage for quantitative microvascular analysis is highly desirable but currently challenging to achieve. In this study, we sought to develop and validate a novel dual‐temporal resolution (DTR) DCE‐MRI‐based methodology for deriving accurate, whole‐brain high‐spatial resolution microvascular parameters. Methods: Dual injection DTR DCE‐MRI was performed and composite high‐temporal and high‐spatial resolution tissue gadolinium‐based‐contrast agent (GBCA) concentration curves were constructed. The high‐temporal but low‐spatial resolution first‐pass GBCA concentration curves were then reconstructed pixel‐by‐pixel to higher spatial resolution using a process we call LEGATOS. The accuracy of kinetic parameters (Ktrans, vp, and ve) derived using LEGATOS was evaluated through simulations and in vivo studies in 17 patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) and 13 patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Tissue from 15 tumors (VS) was examined with markers for microvessels (CD31) and cell density (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E]). Results: LEGATOS derived parameter maps offered superior spatial resolution and improved parameter accuracy compared to the use of high‐temporal resolution data alone, provided superior discrimination of plasma volume and vascular leakage effects compared to other high‐spatial resolution approaches, and correlated with tissue markers of vascularity (P ≤ 0.003) and cell density (P ≤ 0.006). Conclusion: The LEGATOS method can be used to generate accurate, high‐spatial resolution microvascular parameter estimates from DCE‐MRI.
    • The lexicon of antimicrobial peptides: a complete set of arginine and tryptophan sequences

      Clark, Sam; orcid: 0000-0002-6865-4452; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Harris, Lynda K.; Knight, Christopher G.; orcid: 0000-0001-9815-4267; Dobson, Curtis B.; orcid: 0000-0002-6483-4608; email: curtis.dobson@manchester.ac.uk (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021-05-21)
      Abstract: Our understanding of the activity of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) has focused on well-characterized natural sequences, or limited sets of synthetic peptides designed de novo. We have undertaken a comprehensive investigation of the underlying primary structural features that give rise to the development of activity in AMPs. We consider a complete set of all possible peptides, up to 7 residues long, composed of positively charged arginine (R) and / or hydrophobic tryptophan (W), two features most commonly associated with activity. We found the shortest active peptides were 4 or 5 residues in length, and the overall landscapes of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and a yeast were positively correlated. For all three organisms we found a single activity peak corresponding to sequences with around 40% R; the presence of adjacent W duplets and triplets also conferred greater activity. The mechanistic basis of these activities comprises a combination of lipid binding, particularly to negatively charged membranes, and additionally peptide aggregation, a mode of action previously uninvestigated for such peptides. The maximum specific antimicrobial activity appeared to occur in peptides of around 10 residues, suggesting ‘diminishing returns’ for developing larger peptides, when activity is considered per residue of peptide.
    • The lexicon of antimicrobial peptides: a complete set of arginine and tryptophan sequences.

      Clark, Sam; orcid: 0000-0002-6865-4452; Jowitt, Thomas A; Harris, Lynda K; Knight, Christopher G; orcid: 0000-0001-9815-4267; Dobson, Curtis B; orcid: 0000-0002-6483-4608; email: curtis.dobson@manchester.ac.uk (2021-05-21)
      Our understanding of the activity of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) has focused on well-characterized natural sequences, or limited sets of synthetic peptides designed de novo. We have undertaken a comprehensive investigation of the underlying primary structural features that give rise to the development of activity in AMPs. We consider a complete set of all possible peptides, up to 7 residues long, composed of positively charged arginine (R) and / or hydrophobic tryptophan (W), two features most commonly associated with activity. We found the shortest active peptides were 4 or 5 residues in length, and the overall landscapes of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and a yeast were positively correlated. For all three organisms we found a single activity peak corresponding to sequences with around 40% R; the presence of adjacent W duplets and triplets also conferred greater activity. The mechanistic basis of these activities comprises a combination of lipid binding, particularly to negatively charged membranes, and additionally peptide aggregation, a mode of action previously uninvestigated for such peptides. The maximum specific antimicrobial activity appeared to occur in peptides of around 10 residues, suggesting 'diminishing returns' for developing larger peptides, when activity is considered per residue of peptide.
    • The life of Christian doctrine

      Graham, Elaine; orcid: 0000-0002-0358-0624 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-08-18)
    • The life of Christian doctrine

      Graham, Elaine; orcid: 0000-0002-0358-0624 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-08-18)
    • The Long-Term Effects of Developmental Hypoxia on Cardiac Mitochondrial Function in Snapping Turtles

      Galli, Gina L. J.; email: gina.galli@manchester.ac.uk; Ruhr, Ilan M.; Crossley, Janna; Crossley, Dane A., II (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-06-28)
      It is well established that adult vertebrates acclimatizing to hypoxic environments undergo mitochondrial remodeling to enhance oxygen delivery, maintain ATP, and limit oxidative stress. However, many vertebrates also encounter oxygen deprivation during embryonic development. The effects of developmental hypoxia on mitochondrial function are likely to be more profound, because environmental stress during early life can permanently alter cellular physiology and morphology. To this end, we investigated the long-term effects of developmental hypoxia on mitochondrial function in a species that regularly encounters hypoxia during development—the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Turtle eggs were incubated in 21% or 10% oxygen from 20% of embryonic development until hatching, and both cohorts were subsequently reared in 21% oxygen for 8 months. Ventricular mitochondria were isolated, and mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured with a microrespirometer. Compared to normoxic controls, juvenile turtles from hypoxic incubations had lower Leak respiration, higher P:O ratios, and reduced rates of ROS production. Interestingly, these same attributes occur in adult vertebrates that acclimatize to hypoxia. We speculate that these adjustments might improve mitochondrial hypoxia tolerance, which would be beneficial for turtles during breath-hold diving and overwintering in anoxic environments.