• ‘Radial force’ of colonic stents: A parameter without consistency, definition or standard

      Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; orcid: 0000-0003-3109-6933; Milward, Graham D.; orcid: 0000-0002-0980-6567; Edwards, Derek W.; orcid: 0000-0001-6192-5056 (Society of Gastrointestinal Intervention, 2020-07-31)
    • Radical hydroxymethylation of alkyl iodides using formaldehyde as a C1 synthon.

      Caiger, Lewis; orcid: 0000-0001-5156-9684; Sinton, Conar; orcid: 0000-0002-5588-7548; Constantin, Timothée; orcid: 0000-0001-5376-1557; Douglas, James J; Sheikh, Nadeem S; Juliá, Fabio; orcid: 0000-0001-8903-4482; Leonori, Daniele; orcid: 0000-0002-7692-4504 (2021-07-06)
      Radical hydroxymethylation using formaldehyde as a C1 synthon is challenging due to the reversible and endothermic nature of the addition process. Here we report a strategy that couples alkyl iodide building blocks with formaldehyde through the use of photocatalysis and a phosphine additive. Halogen-atom transfer (XAT) from α-aminoalkyl radicals is leveraged to convert the iodide into the corresponding open-shell species, while its following addition to formaldehyde is rendered irreversible by trapping the transient O-radical with PPh . This event delivers a phosphoranyl radical that re-generates the alkyl radical and provides the hydroxymethylated product. [Abstract copyright: This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.]
    • Radical hydroxymethylation of alkyl iodides using formaldehyde as a C1 synthon.

      Caiger, Lewis; orcid: 0000-0001-5156-9684; Sinton, Conar; orcid: 0000-0002-5588-7548; Constantin, Timothée; orcid: 0000-0001-5376-1557; Douglas, James J; Sheikh, Nadeem S; Juliá, Fabio; orcid: 0000-0001-8903-4482; Leonori, Daniele; orcid: 0000-0002-7692-4504 (2021-07-06)
      Radical hydroxymethylation using formaldehyde as a C1 synthon is challenging due to the reversible and endothermic nature of the addition process. Here we report a strategy that couples alkyl iodide building blocks with formaldehyde through the use of photocatalysis and a phosphine additive. Halogen-atom transfer (XAT) from α-aminoalkyl radicals is leveraged to convert the iodide into the corresponding open-shell species, while its following addition to formaldehyde is rendered irreversible by trapping the transient O-radical with PPh<sub>3</sub>. This event delivers a phosphoranyl radical that re-generates the alkyl radical and provides the hydroxymethylated product.
    • Raising the bar? The impact of the UNISON ethical care campaign in UK domiciliary care

      Johnson, Mathew; email: Mathew.johnson@manchester.ac.uk; Rubery, Jill; Egan, Matthew (SAGE Publications, 2021-07-15)
      This article critically analyses a major trade union initiative in the United Kingdom to raise standards in public contracts for domiciliary care, and in turn to improve wages and working conditions for outsourced care workers. The campaign successfully built alliances with national employer representatives, and around 25 per cent of commissioning bodies in England, Scotland and Wales have signed a voluntary charter that guarantees workers an hourly living wage, payment for travel time and regular working hours. The campaign overall, however, has had only limited effects on standards across the sector, in which low wages, zero-hours contracts and weak career paths predominate. Furthermore, the campaign has not yet yielded significant gains in terms of union recruitment, although there are signs of sporadic mobilisations of care workers in response to localised disputes.
    • Rapid compensatory evolution can rescue low fitness symbioses following partner switching.

      Sørensen, Megan E S; Wood, A Jamie; Cameron, Duncan D; Brockhurst, Michael A; email: michael.brockhurst@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-01)
      Partner switching plays an important role in the evolution of symbiosis, enabling local adaptation and recovery from the breakdown of symbiosis. Because of intergenomic epistasis, partner-switched symbioses may possess novel combinations of phenotypes but may also exhibit low fitness due to their lack of recent coevolutionary history. Here, we examine the structure and mechanisms of intergenomic epistasis in the Paramecium-Chlorella symbiosis and test whether compensatory evolution can rescue initially low fitness partner-switched symbioses. Using partner-switch experiments coupled with metabolomics, we show evidence for intergenomic epistasis wherein low fitness is associated with elevated symbiont stress responses either in dark or high irradiance environments, potentially owing to mismatched light management traits between the host and symbiont genotypes. Experimental evolution under high light conditions revealed that an initially low fitness partner-switched non-native host-symbiont pairing rapidly adapted, gaining fitness equivalent to the native host-symbiont pairing in less than 50 host generations. Compensatory evolution took two alternative routes: either hosts evolved higher symbiont loads to mitigate for their new algal symbiont's poor performance, or the algal symbionts themselves evolved higher investment in photosynthesis and photoprotective traits to better mitigate light stress. These findings suggest that partner switching combined with rapid compensatory evolution can enable the recovery and local adaptation of symbioses in response to changing environments. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Rare GATA6 variants associated with risk of congenital heart disease phenotypes in 200,000 UK Biobank exomes.

      Williams, Simon G; Byrne, Dominic J F; Keavney, Bernard D; orcid: 0000-0001-9573-0812; email: bernard.keavney@manchester.ac.uk (2021-09-07)
      Congenital heart disease (CHD) has a complex and largely uncharacterised genetic etiology. Using 200,000 UK Biobank (UKB) exomes, we assess the burden of ultra-rare, potentially pathogenic variants in the largest case/control cohort of predominantly mild CHD to date. We find an association with GATA6, a member of the GATA family of transcription factors that play an important role during heart development and has been linked with several CHD phenotypes previously. Several identified GATA6 variants are previously unreported and their roles in conferring risk to CHD warrants further study. We demonstrate that despite limitations regarding detailed familial phenotype information in large-scale biobank projects, through careful consideration of case and control cohorts it is possible to derive important associations. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Author(s).]
    • Rates of turnover among general practitioners: a retrospective study of all English general practices between 2007 and 2019.

      Parisi, Rosa; Lau, Yiu-Shing; Bower, Peter; Checkland, Kath; Rubery, Jill; Sutton, Matt; Giles, Sally J; Esmail, Aneez; Spooner, Sharon; orcid: 0000-0001-6965-3673; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; orcid: 0000-0001-6450-5815; email: e.kontopantelis@manchester.ac.uk (2021-08-22)
      <h4>Objective</h4>To quantify general practitioners' (GPs') turnover in England between 2007 and 2019, describe trends over time, regional differences and associations with social deprivation or other practice characteristics.<h4>Design</h4>A retrospective study of annual cross-sectional data.<h4>Setting</h4>All general practices in England (8085 in 2007, 6598 in 2019).<h4>Methods</h4>We calculated turnover rates, defined as the proportion of GPs leaving a practice. Rates and their median, 25th and 75th percentiles were calculated by year and region. The proportion of practices with persistent high turnover (>10%) over consecutive years were also calculated. A negative binomial regression model assessed the association between turnover and social deprivation or other practice characteristics.<h4>Results</h4>Turnover rates increased over time. The 75th percentile in 2009 was 11%, but increased to 14% in 2019. The highest turnover rate was observed in 2013-2014, corresponding to the 75th percentile of 18.2%. Over time, regions experienced increases in turnover rates, although it varied across English regions. The proportion of practices with high (10% to 40%) turnover within a year almost doubled from 14% in 2009 to 27% in 2019. A rise in the number of practices with persistent high turnover (>10%) for at least three consecutive years was also observed, from 2.7% (2.3%-3.1%) in 2007 to 6.3% (5.7%-6.9%) in 2017. The statistical analyses revealed that practice-area deprivation was moderately associated with turnover rate, with practices in the most deprived area having higher turnover rates compared with practices in the least deprived areas (incidence rate ratios 1.09; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.13).<h4>Conclusions</h4>GP turnover has increased in the last decade nationally, with regional variability. Greater attention to GP turnover is needed, in the most deprived areas in particular, where GPs often need to deal with more complex health needs. There is a large cost associated with GP turnover and practices with very high persistent turnover need to be further researched, and the causes behind this identified, to allow support strategies and policies to be developed.
    • Rates of turnover among general practitioners: a retrospective study of all English general practices between 2007 and 2019.

      Parisi, Rosa; Lau, Yiu-Shing; Bower, Peter; Checkland, Kath; Rubery, Jill; Sutton, Matt; Giles, Sally J; Esmail, Aneez; Spooner, Sharon; orcid: 0000-0001-6965-3673; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; orcid: 0000-0001-6450-5815; email: e.kontopantelis@manchester.ac.uk (2021-08-22)
      To quantify general practitioners' (GPs') turnover in England between 2007 and 2019, describe trends over time, regional differences and associations with social deprivation or other practice characteristics. A retrospective study of annual cross-sectional data. All general practices in England (8085 in 2007, 6598 in 2019). We calculated turnover rates, defined as the proportion of GPs leaving a practice. Rates and their median, 25th and 75th percentiles were calculated by year and region. The proportion of practices with persistent high turnover (>10%) over consecutive years were also calculated. A negative binomial regression model assessed the association between turnover and social deprivation or other practice characteristics. Turnover rates increased over time. The 75th percentile in 2009 was 11%, but increased to 14% in 2019. The highest turnover rate was observed in 2013-2014, corresponding to the 75th percentile of 18.2%. Over time, regions experienced increases in turnover rates, although it varied across English regions. The proportion of practices with high (10% to 40%) turnover within a year almost doubled from 14% in 2009 to 27% in 2019. A rise in the number of practices with persistent high turnover (>10%) for at least three consecutive years was also observed, from 2.7% (2.3%-3.1%) in 2007 to 6.3% (5.7%-6.9%) in 2017. The statistical analyses revealed that practice-area deprivation was moderately associated with turnover rate, with practices in the most deprived area having higher turnover rates compared with practices in the least deprived areas (incidence rate ratios 1.09; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.13). GP turnover has increased in the last decade nationally, with regional variability. Greater attention to GP turnover is needed, in the most deprived areas in particular, where GPs often need to deal with more complex health needs. There is a large cost associated with GP turnover and practices with very high persistent turnover need to be further researched, and the causes behind this identified, to allow support strategies and policies to be developed. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Ratings of perceived exertion at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold in people with coronary heart disease: A CARE CR study.

      Nichols, Simon; email: s.j.nichols@shu.ac.uk; Engin, Buket; Carroll, Sean; Buckley, John; Ingle, Lee (2020-12-04)
      Exercise prescription guidelines for individuals undergoing cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) are based on heart rate training zones and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). United Kingdom guidelines indicate that patients should exercise at an intensity of RPE 11 to 14. We aimed to determine the accuracy of this approach by comparing this RPE range with an objectively measured marker of exercise intensity, the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), and examine whether baseline directly determined cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) affects the association between VAT and RPE. Participants underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test before an 8-week community-based CR programme. Peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) and VAT were recorded, and RPE at the workload at which VAT was identified was recorded. Data were then split into tertiles, based on V̇O2peak, to determine whether RPE at the VAT differed in participants with low, moderate or higher CRF. We included 70 individuals [mean (SD) age 63.1 (10.0) years; body mass index 29.4 (4.0) kg/m2; 86% male]. At baseline, the mean RPE at the VAT (RPE@VAT) was 11.8 (95% confidence interval 11-12.6) and significantly differed between low and high CRF groups (P<0.001). The mean RPE@VAT was 10.1 (8.7-11.5), 11.8 (10.5-13.0), and 13.7 (12.5-14.9) for low, moderate and high CRF groups, respectively. When using RPE to guide exercise intensity in CR populations, one must consider the effect of baseline CRF. Mean RPEs of ∼10, 12 and 14 correspond to the VAT in low, moderate and higher-fit patients, respectively. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.]
    • Re-purposing evaluation to learn about social justice: Reconfiguring epistemological politics through the regulative ideal of ‘participatory parity’

      Silver, Daniel; orcid: 0000-0001-7316-5146; email: daniel.silver@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-24)
      The article aims to re-purpose evaluation to learn about social justice by anchoring evaluation in normative dimensions. This article demonstrates the ways in which evaluation with an establishment orientation can limit the scope for dialogue and neglect narratives that contest the status quo. It explains how a more participatory approach that engages with the standpoints of marginalised participants can enhance the potential to learn about social justice. An ethical commitment to social justice does not mean a rejection of rigour in evidence-based evaluation. Relating Fraser’s critical theory of participatory parity to the regulative ideal of evaluation creates a foundation to systematically foreground explanations about how an intervention has delivered social justice.
    • Re-thinking public health: Towards a new scientific logic of routine animal health care in European industrial farming

      Bellet, Camille; orcid: 0000-0002-2544-3436; email: camille.bellet@manchester.ac.uk; Hamilton, Lindsay; Rushton, Jonathan (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2021-09-20)
      Abstract: This study makes the case for a new scientific logic of routine animal health care in industrial farming in Europe. We argue that the social regime underpinning scientific research and development on chronic animal disease management (CADM) in Europe stifles innovation and sustains a productivist model of animal husbandry that facilitates and maintains chronic animal diseases rather than eliminating them. Drawing on documentary analysis and qualitative interviews, the study explores the science of CADM in the broiler, cattle and pig sectors of the European food industry. Our findings show that in these major sectors, research and development on CADM is largely orientated towards a logic of growth, profitability and control rather than a recognition of the interconnection between chronic animal diseases, the food industry, and people (especially consumers) as advocated by the One Health approach. The study contributes to the literature on medical humanities and science and technology studies within One Health and public health in two ways: First, we draw new focus towards chronic animal diseases that are non-transmissible to humans and argue that while these are not zoonoses, they are equally worthy of attention for managing the emergence of new pathogens and diseases. Second, we expand the conceptualisation of One Health to include chronic animal health conditions. Our argument is that public health as an outcome of the One Health approach should be a term of reference that applies to humans and nonhumans alike whether they be farmed animals, practitioners or consumers.
    • Reading Hilary Mantel: Haunted Decades

      Pollard, Eileen (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-07-10)
    • Real-time monitoring of crystallization from solution by using an interdigitated array electrode sensor.

      Tong, Jincheng; orcid: 0000-0001-7762-1460; Doumbia, Amadou; orcid: 0000-0002-4136-9029; Turner, Michael L; orcid: 0000-0003-2853-5632; Casiraghi, Cinzia; orcid: 0000-0001-7185-0377 (2021-04-27)
      Monitoring crystallization events in real-time is challenging but crucial for understanding the molecular dynamics associated with nucleation and crystal growth, some of nature's most ubiquitous phenomena. Recent observations have suggested that the traditional nucleation model, which describes the nucleus having already the final crystal structure, may not be valid. It appears that the molecular assembly can range during nucleation from crystalline to partially ordered to totally amorphous phases, and can change its structure during the crystallization process. Therefore, it is of critical importance to develop methods that are able to provide real-time monitoring of the molecular interactions with high temporal resolution. Here, we demonstrate that a simple and scalable approach based on interdigitated electrode array sensors (IESs) is able to provide insights on the dynamics of the crystallization process with a temporal resolution of 15 ms.
    • Real-world evidence on Kovaltry (81-8973) in children with moderate or severe hemophilia A in Europe: a nested cohort analysis

      O’Hara, Jamie; Hirst, Ceri; orcid: 0000-0001-9094-2437; email: ceri.hirst@bayer.com; Cabre Marquez, Jose Francisco; Burke, Tom (BioMed Central, 2021-01-15)
      Abstract: Background: Untreated hemophilia A patients may experience recurrent bleeding events leading to debilitating joint damages. While RCT and pharmacokinetic data support the value of Kovaltry [an unmodified full-length recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) product], real world evidence in children is lacking. This report describes a descriptive and multivariate analysis of the effectiveness of Kovaltry in children with hemophilia A in the real-world setting, using data from medical chart abstraction and cross-sectional surveys of physicians, patients, and caregivers. Results: Male patients aged < 18 years with moderate or severe hemophilia A, residing in five European countries and treated with FVIII were studied. The co-primary endpoints were the annualized bleeding rate (ABR) and the annual FVIII utilization rate. Twenty nine patients treated with Kovaltry were included, of whom 93% had severe disease and 75% were on continuous prophylactic treatment. The mean ABR was 2.66 ± 2.06, with rates decreasing with age. The children received on average 2.45 infusions per week, consistent across age groups (median 3; range 1–3). There were no reports of inhibitor development or adverse events in the study (AEs), and all patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment. An exploratory multivariate analysis suggests no significant difference in ABR or units utilized between Kovaltry and some extended half life products in children with severe hemophilia A, though characteristics of these patient cohorts were markedly different. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of Kovaltry in a pan-European pediatric population with severe hemophilia A.
    • Real-World Outcomes of Glucose Sensor Use in Type 1 Diabetes—Findings from a Large UK Centre

      Lee, Kyuhan; orcid: 0000-0002-9644-5017; email: kyuhan.lee@student.manchester.ac.uk; Gunasinghe, Shakthi; email: shakthi.gunasinghe@student.manchester.ac.uk; Chapman, Alyson; email: alyson.chapman@mft.nhs.uk; Findlow, Lynne A.; email: lynneann.findlow@mft.nhs.uk; Hyland, Jody; email: jody.hyland@mft.nhs.uk; Ohol, Sheetal; email: sheetal.ohol@mft.nhs.uk; Urwin, Andrea; email: andrea.urwin@mft.nhs.uk; Rutter, Martin K.; email: martin.rutter@mft.nhs.uk; Schofield, Jonathan; email: jonathan.schofield@mft.nhs.uk; Thabit, Hood; orcid: 0000-0001-6076-6997; email: hood.thabit@mft.nhs.uk; et al. (MDPI, 2021-11-15)
      Flash glucose monitoring (FGM) and real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) are increasingly used in clinical practice, with improvements in HbA1c and time in range (TIR) reported in clinical studies. We aimed to evaluate the impact of FGM and RT-CGM use on glycaemic outcomes in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) under routine clinical care. We performed a retrospective data analysis from electronic outpatient records and proprietary web-based glucose monitoring platforms. We measured HbA1c (pre-sensor vs. on-sensor data) and sensor-based outcomes from the previous three months as per the international consensus on RT-CGM reporting guidelines. Amongst the 789 adults with T1DM, HbA1c level decreased from 61.0 (54.0, 71.0) mmol/mol to 57 (49, 65.8) mmol/mol in 561 people using FGM, and from 60.0 (50.0, 70.0) mmol/mol to 58.8 (50.3, 66.8) mmol/mol in 198 using RT-CGM (p 0.001 for both). We found that 23% of FGM users and 32% of RT-CGM users achieved a time-in-range (TIR) (3.9 to 10 mmol/L) of >70%. For time-below-range (TBR) 4 mmol/L, 70% of RT-CGM users and 58% of FGM users met international recommendations of 4%. Our data add to the growing body of evidence supporting the use of FGM and RT-CGM in T1DM.
    • Reasons for indoor tanning use and the acceptability of alternatives: A qualitative study.

      Lyons, Stephanie; Lorigan, Paul; Green, Adele C; Ferguson, Ashley; Epton, Tracy; email: tracy.epton@manchester.ac.uk (2021-08-20)
      Using indoor tanning devices is associated with substantial health consequences, such as an increased risk of melanoma and other skin cancers. Many people including minors and some at high risk of skin cancer continue to use these devices. In the absence of effective restrictions on use, it is important that behaviour change interventions are designed to reduce indoor tanning. To explore reasons for use of indoor tanning devices and the acceptability of alternatives in adult users residing in North-West England. Participants were required to be current indoor tanners aged 18 years and above and were recruited online. Twenty-one participants took part in either a focus group or semi-structured interview. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Six themes were identified: psychological benefits; improving physical health; denial of health risks; alternatives do not meet psychological needs; alternatives do not meet physical needs; and perceived side-effects. Participants used indoor tanning devices to improve their self-esteem and to prevent sun damage to their skin (by gaining a 'base tan'). Participants appeared to justify their usage by responding defensively to avoid accepting they were at risk, exaggerating the benefits of indoor tanning, and discounting alternatives to indoor tanning. Alternatives to indoor tanning were perceived as risky for health, inadequate to provide the desired aesthetic, and incapable of meeting their self-esteem needs. Interventions to reduce indoor tanning behaviour should increase sources of self-esteem other than appearance, increase media literacy and address defensive responses to information around indoor tanning and alternatives. Further research is needed to develop these interventions and assess their feasibility. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.]
    • Reasons for success and lessons learnt from nanoscale vaccines against COVID-19.

      Kisby, Thomas; orcid: 0000-0002-8432-7910; Yilmazer, Açelya; orcid: 0000-0003-2712-7450; Kostarelos, Kostas; orcid: 0000-0002-2224-6672; email: kostas.kostarelos@manchester.ac.uk (2021-08)
    • Recent Advances in Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Glucose Sensing

      Hassan, Mohamed H.; orcid: 0000-0002-0832-8559; email: Mohamed.hassan@manchester.ac.uk; Vyas, Cian; orcid: 0000-0001-6030-1962; email: cian.vyas@manchester.ac.uk; Grieve, Bruce; orcid: 0000-0002-5130-3592; email: bruce.grieve@manchester.ac.uk; Bartolo, Paulo; orcid: 0000-0003-3683-726X; email: paulojorge.dasilvabartolo@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-07-08)
      The detection of glucose is crucial in the management of diabetes and other medical conditions but also crucial in a wide range of industries such as food and beverages. The development of glucose sensors in the past century has allowed diabetic patients to effectively manage their disease and has saved lives. First-generation glucose sensors have considerable limitations in sensitivity and selectivity which has spurred the development of more advanced approaches for both the medical and industrial sectors. The wide range of application areas has resulted in a range of materials and fabrication techniques to produce novel glucose sensors that have higher sensitivity and selectivity, lower cost, and are simpler to use. A major focus has been on the development of enzymatic electrochemical sensors, typically using glucose oxidase. However, non-enzymatic approaches using direct electrochemistry of glucose on noble metals are now a viable approach in glucose biosensor design. This review discusses the mechanisms of electrochemical glucose sensing with a focus on the different generations of enzymatic-based sensors, their recent advances, and provides an overview of the next generation of non-enzymatic sensors. Advancements in manufacturing techniques and materials are key in propelling the field of glucose sensing, however, significant limitations remain which are highlighted in this review and requires addressing to obtain a more stable, sensitive, selective, cost efficient, and real-time glucose sensor.
    • Recent advances in the chemistry of ketyl radicals.

      Péter, Áron; email: david.j.procter@manchester.ac.uk; Agasti, Soumitra; Knowles, Oliver; Pye, Emma; Procter, David J (2021-03-23)
      Ketyl radicals are valuable reactive intermediates for synthesis and are used extensively to construct complex, functionalized products from carbonyl substrates. Single electron transfer (SET) reduction of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond of aldehydes and ketones is the classical approach for the formation of ketyl radicals and metal reductants are the archetypal reagents employed. The past decade has, however, witnessed significant advances in the generation and harnessing of ketyl radicals. This tutorial review highlights recent, exciting developments in the chemistry of ketyl radicals by comparing the varied contemporary - for example, using photoredox catalysts - and more classical approaches for the generation and use of ketyl radicals. The review will focus on different strategies for ketyl radical generation, their creative use in new synthetic protocols, strategies for the control of enantioselectivity, and detailed mechanisms where appropriate.
    • Recent Progress on Semiconductor-Interface Facing Clinical Biosensing

      Zhang, Mingrui; email: mingrui.zhang-2@student.manchester.ac.uk; Adkins, Mitchell; email: mitchelladkins@oakland.edu; Wang, Zhe; orcid: 0000-0003-3762-3167; email: zhewang@oakland.edu (MDPI, 2021-05-16)
      Semiconductor (SC)-based field-effect transistors (FETs) have been demonstrated as amazing enhancer gadgets due to their delicate interface towards surface adsorption. This leads to their application as sensors and biosensors. Additionally, the semiconductor material has enormous recognizable fixation extends, high affectability, high consistency for solid detecting, and the ability to coordinate with other microfluidic gatherings. This review focused on current progress on the semiconductor-interfaced FET biosensor through the fundamental interface structure of sensor design, including inorganic semiconductor/aqueous interface, photoelectrochemical interface, nano-optical interface, and metal-assisted interface. The works that also point to a further advancement for the trademark properties mentioned have been reviewed here. The emergence of research on the organic semiconductor interface, integrated biosensors with Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible, metal-organic frameworks, has accelerated the practical application of biosensors. Through a solid request for research along with sensor application, it will have the option to move forward the innovative sensor with the extraordinary semiconductor interface structure.