• Mabel Elizabeth Tomlinson and Isabel Ellie Knaggs: two overlooked early female Fellows of the Geological Society

      Burek, Cynthia V.; orcid: 0000-0002-7931-578X (Geological Society of London, 2020-07-10)
      AbstractThe first female Fellows of the Geological Society of London were elected in May 1919. Brief biographies were documented by Burek in 2009 as part of the celebrations for the bicentenary of the Geological Society. While some of those women were well known (e.g. Gertrude Elles and Ethel Wood), others had seemingly been forgotten. In the decade since that publication, information has come to light about those we knew so little about. There are, however, still some details evading research. From 1919 until 1925, 33 women were elected FGS, including Isobel Ellie Knaggs (1922) and Mabel Tomlinson (1924). Mabel Tomlinson had two careers, and is remembered both as an extraordinary teacher and a Pleistocene geologist. She was awarded the Lyell Fund in 1937 and R.H. Worth Prize in 1961, one of only 13 women to have received two awards from the Geological Society. She inspired the educational Tomlinson–Brown Trust. Isabel Knaggs was born in South Africa and died in Australia but spent all her school, university and working years in England. She made significant contributions to crystallography, working with eminent crystallography scientists while remaining a lifelong FGS. The achievements of Tomlinson and Knaggs are considerable, which makes their relative present-day obscurity rather puzzling.
    • Machine Learning-Based Condition Monitoring for PV Systems: State of the Art and Future Prospects

      Berghout, Tarek; email: t.berghout@univ-batna2.dz; Benbouzid, Mohamed; orcid: 0000-0002-4844-508X; email: Mohamed.Benbouzid@univ-brest.fr; Bentrcia, Toufik; email: t.bentrcia@univ-batna2.dz; Ma, Xiandong; email: xiandong.ma@lancaster.ac.uk; Djurović, Siniša; orcid: 0000-0001-7700-6492; email: Sinisa.Durovic@manchester.ac.uk; Mouss, Leïla-Hayet; email: h.mouss@univ-batna2.dz (MDPI, 2021-10-03)
      To ensure the continuity of electric power generation for photovoltaic systems, condition monitoring frameworks are subject to major enhancements. The continuous uniform delivery of electric power depends entirely on a well-designed condition maintenance program. A just-in-time task to deal with several naturally occurring faults can be correctly undertaken via the cooperation of effective detection, diagnosis, and prognostic analyses. Therefore, the present review first outlines different failure modes to which all photovoltaic systems are subjected, in addition to the essential integrated detection methods and technologies. Then, data-driven paradigms, and their contribution to solving this prediction problem, are also explored. Accordingly, this review primarily investigates the different learning architectures used (i.e., ordinary, hybrid, and ensemble) in relation to their learning frameworks (i.e., traditional and deep learning). It also discusses the extension of machine learning to knowledge-driven approaches, including generative models such as adversarial networks and transfer learning. Finally, this review provides insights into different works to highlight various operating conditions and different numbers and types of failures, and provides links to some publicly available datasets in the field. The clear organization of the abundant information on this subject may result in rigorous guidelines for the trends adopted in the future.
    • Machines driving machines: Deleuze and Guattari’s asignifying unconscious

      Coffin, Jack; orcid: 0000-0001-5647-6911; email: jack.coffin@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-07-30)
      The psychoanalytic tradition is split. Most marketing theorists work with a linguistic model, treating the unconscious as an extension of conscious language. This article promotes the machinic model of Deleuze and Guattari, which treats the unconscious as asubjective but also asignifying. This means that the unconscious is comprised of colliding forces and their contingent connections, rather than a chain of signification in a wider symbolic structure. There are a small number of machinic or proto-machinic articles in marketing theory, but this article explores how explicating the Deleuzoguattarian model could reconceptualise: (1) the unconscious, (2) its relation to sociomaterial systems, (3) its relation to marketing practice, and (4) the role of critical marketing theory. This article also argues that there is a strategic benefit in searching for complementarities between Deleuze and Guattari, on the one hand, and other psychoanalytic thinkers, on the other. A united front of unconscious understandings would be advantageous in a discipline that lionises conscious choice. As such, this article presents the machinic model as another perspective in the already pluralistic tradition of psychoanalytic marketing theory.
    • Magic under the microscope.

      Haigh, S J; orcid: 0000-0001-5509-6706; email: sarah.haigh@manchester.ac.uk; Gorbachev, R; orcid: 0000-0003-3604-5617 (2021-07)
    • Magnetization Signature of Topological Surface States in a Non‐Symmorphic Superconductor

      Kuang, Wenjun; Lopez‐Polin, Guillermo; Lee, Hyungjun; Guinea, Francisco; Whitehead, George; Timokhin, Ivan; Berdyugin, Alexey I.; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Walet, Niels; et al. (2021-08-08)
      Abstract: Superconductors with nontrivial band structure topology represent a class of materials with unconventional and potentially useful properties. Recent years have seen much success in creating artificial hybrid structures exhibiting the main characteristics of 2D topological superconductors. Yet, bulk materials known to combine inherent superconductivity with nontrivial topology remain scarce, largely because distinguishing their central characteristic—the topological surface states—has proved challenging due to a dominant contribution from the superconducting bulk. In this work, a highly anomalous behavior of surface superconductivity in topologically nontrivial 3D superconductor In2Bi, where the surface states result from its nontrivial band structure, itself a consequence of the non‐symmorphic crystal symmetry and strong spin–orbit coupling, is reported. In contrast to smoothly decreasing diamagnetic susceptibility above the bulk critical field, Hc2, as seen in conventional superconductors, a near‐perfect, Meissner‐like screening of low‐frequency magnetic fields well above Hc2 is observed. The enhanced diamagnetism disappears at a new phase transition close to the critical field of surface superconductivity, Hc3. Using theoretical modeling, the anomalous screening is shown to be consistent with modification of surface superconductivity by the topological surface states. The possibility of detecting signatures of the surface states using macroscopic magnetization provides a new tool for the discovery and identification of topological superconductors.
    • Magneto-hydrodynamics of multi-phase flows in heterogeneous systems with large property gradients

      Flint, T. F.; email: thomas.flint@manchester.ac.uk; Smith, M. C.; Shanthraj, P. (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021-09-23)
      Abstract: The complex interplay between thermal, hydrodynamic, and electromagnetic, forces governs the evolution of multi-phase systems in high technology applications, such as advanced manufacturing and fusion power plant operation. In this work, a new formulation of the time dependent magnetic induction equation is fully coupled to a set of conservation laws for multi-phase fluid flow, energy transport and chemical species transport that describes melting and solidification state transitions. A finite-volume discretisation of the resulting system of equations is performed, where a novel projection method is formulated to ensure that the magnetic field remains divergence free. The proposed framework is validated by accurately replicating a Hartmann flow profile. Further validation is performed through correctly predicting the experimentally observed trajectory of Argon bubbles rising in a liquid metal under varying applied magnetic fields. Finally, the applicability of the framework to technologically relevant processes is illustrated through the simulation of an electrical arc welding process between dissimilar metals. The proposed framework addresses an urgent need for numerical methods to understand the evolution of multi-phase systems with large electromagnetic property contrast.
    • Making every drop count: reducing wastage of a novel blood component for transfusion of trauma patients.

      McCullagh, Josephine; email: josephine.mccullagh@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Proudlove, Nathan; orcid: 0000-0002-1176-8088; Tucker, Harriet; Davies, Jane; Edmondson, Dave; Lancut, Julia; Maddison, Angela; Weaver, Anne; Davenport, Ross; Green, Laura (2021-07-01)
      Recent research demonstrates that transfusing whole blood (WB=red blood cells (RBC)+plasma+platelets) rather than just RBC (which is current National Health Service (NHS) practice) may improve outcomes for major trauma patients. As part of a programme to investigate provision of WB, NHS Blood and Transplant undertook a 2-year feasibility study to supply the Royal London Hospital (RLH) with (group O negative, 'O neg') leucodepleted red cell and plasma (LD-RCP) for transfusion of trauma patients with major haemorrhage in prehospital settings.Incidents requiring such prehospital transfusion occur randomly, with very high variation. Availability is critical, but O neg LD-RCP is a scarce resource and has a limited shelf life (14 days) after which it must be disposed of. The consequences of wastage are the opportunity cost of loss of overall treatment capacity across the NHS and reputational damage.The context was this feasibility study, set up to assess deliverability to RLH and subsequent wastage levels. Within this, we conducted a quality improvement project, which aimed to reduce the wastage of LD-RCP to no more than 8% (ie, 1 of the 12 units delivered per week).Over this 2-year period, we reduced wastage from a weekly average of 70%-27%. This was achieved over four improvement cycles. The largest improvement came from moving near-expiry LD-RCP to the emergency department (ED) for use with their trauma patients, with subsequent improvements from embedding use in ED as routine practice, introducing a dedicated LD-RCP delivery schedule (which increased the units ≤2 days old at delivery from 42% to 83%) and aligning this delivery schedule to cover two cycles of peak demand (Fridays and Saturdays).
    • Making every drop count: reducing wastage of a novel blood component for transfusion of trauma patients.

      McCullagh, Josephine; email: josephine.mccullagh@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Proudlove, Nathan; orcid: 0000-0002-1176-8088; Tucker, Harriet; Davies, Jane; Edmondson, Dave; Lancut, Julia; Maddison, Angela; Weaver, Anne; Davenport, Ross; Green, Laura (2021-07)
      Recent research demonstrates that transfusing whole blood (WB=red blood cells (RBC)+plasma+platelets) rather than just RBC (which is current National Health Service (NHS) practice) may improve outcomes for major trauma patients. As part of a programme to investigate provision of WB, NHS Blood and Transplant undertook a 2-year feasibility study to supply the Royal London Hospital (RLH) with (group O negative, 'O neg') leucodepleted red cell and plasma (LD-RCP) for transfusion of trauma patients with major haemorrhage in prehospital settings.Incidents requiring such prehospital transfusion occur randomly, with very high variation. Availability is critical, but O neg LD-RCP is a scarce resource and has a limited shelf life (14 days) after which it must be disposed of. The consequences of wastage are the opportunity cost of loss of overall treatment capacity across the NHS and reputational damage.The context was this feasibility study, set up to assess deliverability to RLH and subsequent wastage levels. Within this, we conducted a quality improvement project, which aimed to reduce the wastage of LD-RCP to no more than 8% (ie, 1 of the 12 units delivered per week).Over this 2-year period, we reduced wastage from a weekly average of 70%-27%. This was achieved over four improvement cycles. The largest improvement came from moving near-expiry LD-RCP to the emergency department (ED) for use with their trauma patients, with subsequent improvements from embedding use in ED as routine practice, introducing a dedicated LD-RCP delivery schedule (which increased the units ≤2 days old at delivery from 42% to 83%) and aligning this delivery schedule to cover two cycles of peak demand (Fridays and Saturdays). [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Making the most of potential: potential games and genotypic convergence

      Edhan, Omer; orcid: 0000-0002-4441-3304; email: omeredhan.idan@manchester.ac.uk; Hellman, Ziv; orcid: 0000-0002-2624-0577; Nehama, Ilan; orcid: 0000-0002-4152-4113 (The Royal Society, 2021-08-25)
      We consider genotypic convergence of populations and show that under fixed fitness asexual and haploid sexual populations attain monomorphic convergence (even under genetic linkage between loci) to basins of attraction with locally exponential convergence rates; the same convergence obtains in single locus diploid sexual reproduction but to polymorphic populations. Furthermore, we show that there is a unified theory underlying these convergences: all of them can be interpreted as instantiations of players in a potential game implementing a multiplicative weights updating algorithm to converge to equilibrium, making use of the Baum–Eagon Theorem. To analyse varying environments, we introduce the concept of ‘virtual convergence’, under which, even if fixation is not attained, the population nevertheless achieves the fitness growth rate it would have had under convergence to an optimal genotype. Virtual convergence is attained by asexual, haploid sexual and multi-locus diploid reproducing populations, even if environments vary arbitrarily. We also study conditions for true monomorphic convergence in asexually reproducing populations in varying environments.
    • Making the most of potential: potential games and genotypic convergence

      Edhan, Omer; orcid: 0000-0002-4441-3304; email: omeredhan.idan@manchester.ac.uk; Hellman, Ziv; orcid: 0000-0002-2624-0577; Nehama, Ilan; orcid: 0000-0002-4152-4113 (The Royal Society, 2021-08-25)
      We consider genotypic convergence of populations and show that under fixed fitness asexual and haploid sexual populations attain monomorphic convergence (even under genetic linkage between loci) to basins of attraction with locally exponential convergence rates; the same convergence obtains in single locus diploid sexual reproduction but to polymorphic populations. Furthermore, we show that there is a unified theory underlying these convergences: all of them can be interpreted as instantiations of players in a potential game implementing a multiplicative weights updating algorithm to converge to equilibrium, making use of the Baum–Eagon Theorem. To analyse varying environments, we introduce the concept of ‘virtual convergence’, under which, even if fixation is not attained, the population nevertheless achieves the fitness growth rate it would have had under convergence to an optimal genotype. Virtual convergence is attained by asexual, haploid sexual and multi-locus diploid reproducing populations, even if environments vary arbitrarily. We also study conditions for true monomorphic convergence in asexually reproducing populations in varying environments.
    • Male prisoners’ experiences of taking part in research about suicide and violence: a mixed methods study

      Hemming, Laura; Pratt, Daniel; email: daniel.pratt@manchester.ac.uk; Haddock, Gillian; Bhatti, Peer; Shaw, Jennifer (BioMed Central, 2021-09-14)
      Abstract: Background: There is an apparent reluctance to engage ‘vulnerable’ participants in conversation about sensitive topics such as suicide and violence and this can often lead to a paucity of research in these areas. This study aimed to explore the experiences of male prisoners taking part in quantitative and qualitative research on suicide and violence. Methods: Participants at four male prisons completed a visual analogue scale of mood before and after data collection for both a cross-sectional study and also a qualitative interview. Participants were also asked to give three words to describe their experience of participation. A paired samples T-test was conducted to explore the difference in pre- and post-mood ratings, and content analysis was conducted to explore the positive and negative comments on participants’ experiences. Results: Overall, participants’ mood significantly improved after participating in a cross-sectional study about suicide and violence (from 4.8 out of 10 to 5.3, p = 0.016), and there was no significant change in mood following participation in a related qualitative study (5.1 to 5.0, p = 0.793). Participants primarily described their experiences as positive, stating that the process had been satisfying, calming, interesting, enlightening and beneficial. A smaller number of participants described their experiences as stressful, challenging, saddening, uncomfortable and bizarre. Conclusions: This study has found that researching sensitive topics such as suicide and violence with male prisoners did not have a negative impact on mood, rather that participants largely enjoyed the experience. These findings dispel the myth that research about sensitive topics with prisoners is too risky and could inform how future researchers assess levels of risk to participants.
    • Mammographic density change in a cohort of premenopausal women receiving tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention over 5 years

      Brentnall, Adam R.; orcid: 0000-0001-6327-4357; Warren, Ruth; Harkness, Elaine F.; Astley, Susan M.; Wiseman, Julia; Fox, Jill; Fox, Lynne; Eriksson, Mikael; Hall, Per; Cuzick, Jack; et al. (BioMed Central, 2020-09-29)
      Abstract: Background: A decrease in breast density due to tamoxifen preventive therapy might indicate greater benefit from the drug. It is not known whether mammographic density continues to decline after 1 year of therapy, or whether measures of breast density change are sufficiently stable for personalised recommendations. Methods: Mammographic density was measured annually over up to 5 years in premenopausal women with no previous diagnosis of breast cancer but at increased risk of breast cancer attending a family-history clinic in Manchester, UK (baseline 2010-2013). Tamoxifen (20 mg/day) for prevention was prescribed for up to 5 years in one group; the other group did not receive tamoxifen and were matched by age. Fully automatic methods were used on mammograms over the 5-year follow-up: three area-based measures (NN-VAS, Stratus, Densitas) and one volumetric (Volpara). Additionally, percentage breast density at baseline and first follow-up mammograms was measured visually. The size of density declines at the first follow-up mammogram and thereafter was estimated using a linear mixed model adjusted for age and body mass index. The stability of density change at 1 year was assessed by evaluating mean squared error loss from predictions based on individual or mean density change at 1 year. Results: Analysis used mammograms from 126 healthy premenopausal women before and as they received tamoxifen for prevention (median age 42 years) and 172 matched controls (median age 41 years), with median 3 years follow-up. There was a strong correlation between percentage density measures used on the same mammogram in both the tamoxifen and no tamoxifen groups (all correlation coeficients > 0.8). Tamoxifen reduced mean breast density in year 1 by approximately 17–25% of the inter-quartile range of four automated percentage density measures at baseline, and from year 2, it decreased further by approximately 2–7% per year. Predicting change at 2 years using individual change at 1 year was approximately 60–300% worse than using mean change at 1year. Conclusions: All measures showed a consistent and large average tamoxifen-induced change in density over the first year, and a continued decline thereafter. However, these measures of density change at 1 year were not stable on an individual basis.
    • Management of COVID-19-Associated Acute Respiratory Failure with Alternatives to Invasive Mechanical Ventilation: High-Flow Oxygen, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, and Noninvasive Ventilation

      Bonnesen; email: barbara.bertelsen@regionh.dk; Jensen; orcid: 0000-0003-4036-0521; email: jens.ulrik.jensen@regionh.dk; Jeschke; orcid: 0000-0002-7743-4486; email: klausnielsen.md@gmail.com; Mathioudakis; orcid: 0000-0002-4675-9616; email: Alexander.Mathioudakis@Manchester.ac.uk; Corlateanu; orcid: 0000-0002-3278-436X; email: alexandru.corlateanu@usmf.md; Hansen; orcid: 0000-0002-7269-0712; email: ejvind.frausing.hansen@regionh.dk; Weinreich; email: ulw@rn.dk; Hilberg; email: ole.hilberg@rsyd.dk; Sivapalan; orcid: 0000-0002-8620-3655; email: Pradeesh.s@dadlnet.dk (MDPI, 2021-12-02)
      Patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop acute respiratory failure (ARF) with compromised gas exchange. These patients require oxygen and possibly ventilatory support, which can be delivered via different devices. Initially, oxygen therapy will often be administered through a conventional binasal oxygen catheter or air-entrainment mask. However, when higher rates of oxygen flow are needed, patients are often stepped up to high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). BiPAP, CPAP, and HFNC may be beneficial alternatives to IMV for COVID-19-associated ARF. Current evidence suggests that when nasal catheter oxygen therapy is insufficient for adequate oxygenation of patients with COVID-19-associated ARF, CPAP should be provided for prolonged periods. Subsequent escalation to IMV may be implemented if necessary.
    • Management of ‘disorders of sex development’/intersex variations in children: Results from a freedom of information exercise

      Garland, Fae; orcid: 0000-0002-6725-7682; email: fae.garland@manchester.ac.uk; Thomson, Michael; Travis, Mitchell; Warburton, Joshua (SAGE Publications, 2021-06-17)
      Non-therapeutic medical interventions on the bodies of children born with disorders of sex development (DSD)/intersex variations have been subject to increasing critical scrutiny. In response to recent criticism directed at the United Kingdom, and early moves to consider reform, we report on a freedom of information exercise that sought to evaluate whether National Health Service England is meeting international standards on optimal clinical management of DSD/intersex variations. The study explored what medical protocols are being followed to help inform potential reform, particularly with regard to non-therapeutic surgery. While the exercise revealed limited examples of promising practice, current protocols in the majority of Trusts appear unlikely to meet the complex needs of these children. We identify areas where significant improvement is needed, including data management, consistency in guideline use, composition of multidisciplinary teams and addressing disciplinary hierarchies within teams. These concerns sharpen criticisms of the lack of recognition of children’s rights in this context.
    • Many-Objective Optimization of Sustainable Drainage Systems in Urban Areas with Different Surface Slopes

      Seyedashraf, Omid; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea; orcid: 0000-0002-7702-1745; email: andrea.bottacinbusolin@manchester.ac.uk; Harou, Julien J. (Springer Netherlands, 2021-06-09)
      Abstract: Sustainable urban drainage systems are multi-functional nature-based solutions that can facilitate flood management in urban catchments while improving stormwater runoff quality. Traditionally, the evaluation of the performance of sustainable drainage infrastructure has been limited to a narrow set of design objectives to simplify their implementation and decision-making process. In this study, the spatial design of sustainable urban drainage systems is optimized considering five objective functions, including minimization of flood volume, flood duration, average peak runoff, total suspended solids, and capital cost. This allows selecting an ensemble of admissible portfolios that best trade-off capital costs and the other important urban drainage services. The impact of the average surface slope of the urban catchment on the optimal design solutions is discussed in terms of spatial distribution of sustainable drainage types. Results show that different subcatchment slopes result in non-uniform distributional designs of sustainable urban drainage systems, with higher capital costs and larger surface areas of green assets associated with steeper slopes. This has two implications. First, urban areas with different surface slopes should not have a one-size-fits-all design policy. Second, spatial equality must be taken into account when applying optimization models to urban subcatchments with different surface slopes to avoid unequal distribution of environmental and human health co-benefits associated with green drainage infrastructure.
    • Mao's Art of Propaganda

      Sun, Henry X. Hong (Wiley, 2020-02-18)
    • Mao's Art of Propaganda

      Sun, Henry X. Hong (Wiley, 2020-02-18)
    • Mapping differences in mammalian distributions and diversity using environmental DNA from rivers.

      Broadhurst, Holly A; Gregory, Luke M; Bleakley, Emma K; Perkins, Joseph C; Lavin, Jenna V; Bolton, Polly; Browett, Samuel S; Howe, Claire V; Singleton, Natalie; Tansley, Darren; et al. (2021-08-18)
      Finding more efficient ways to monitor and estimate the diversity of mammalian communities is a major step towards their management and conservation. Environmental DNA (eDNA) from river water has recently been shown to be a viable method for biomonitoring mammalian communities. Most of the studies to date have focused on the potential for eDNA to detect individual species, with little focus on describing patterns of community diversity and structure. Here, we first focus on the sampling effort required to reliably map the diversity and distribution of semi-aquatic and terrestrial mammals and allow inferences of community structure surrounding two rivers in southeastern England. Community diversity and composition was then assessed based on species richness and β-diversity, with differences between communities partitioned into nestedness and turnover, and the sampling effort required to rapidly detect semi-aquatic and terrestrial species was evaluated based on species accumulation curves and occupancy modelling. eDNA metabarcoding detected 25 wild mammal species from five orders, representing the vast majority (82%) of the species expected in the area. The required sampling effort varied between orders, with common species (generally rodents, deer and lagomorphs) more readily detected, with carnivores detected less frequently. Measures of species richness differed between rivers (both overall and within each mammalian order) and patterns of β-diversity revealed the importance of species replacement in sites within each river, against a pattern of species loss between the two rivers. eDNA metabarcoding demonstrated its capability to rapidly detect mammal species, allowing inferences of community composition that will better inform future sampling strategies for this Class. Importantly, this study highlights the potential use of eDNA data for investigating mammalian community dynamics over different spatial scales. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]