• A Review of Verification and Validation for Space Autonomous Systems

      Cardoso, Rafael C.; orcid: 0000-0001-6666-6954; email: rafael.cardoso@manchester.ac.uk; Kourtis, Georgios; Dennis, Louise A.; Dixon, Clare; Farrell, Marie; Fisher, Michael; Webster, Matt (Springer International Publishing, 2021-06-18)
      Abstract: Purpose of Review: The deployment of hardware (e.g., robots, satellites, etc.) to space is a costly and complex endeavor. It is of extreme importance that on-board systems are verified and validated through a variety of verification and validation techniques, especially in the case of autonomous systems. In this paper, we discuss a number of approaches from the literature that are relevant or directly applied to the verification and validation of systems in space, with an emphasis on autonomy. Recent Findings: Despite advances in individual verification and validation techniques, there is still a lack of approaches that aim to combine different forms of verification in order to obtain system-wide verification of modular autonomous systems. Summary: This systematic review of the literature includes the current advances in the latest approaches using formal methods for static verification (model checking and theorem proving) and runtime verification, the progress achieved so far in the verification of machine learning, an overview of the landscape in software testing, and the importance of performing compositional verification in modular systems. In particular, we focus on reporting the use of these techniques for the verification and validation of systems in space with an emphasis on autonomy, as well as more general techniques (such as in the aeronautical domain) that have been shown to have potential value in the verification and validation of autonomous systems in space.
    • Biological perspectives and current biofabrication strategies in osteochondral tissue engineering

      Vyas, Cian; orcid: 0000-0001-6030-1962; email: cian.vyas@manchester.ac.uk; Mishbak, Hussein; Cooper, Glen; Peach, Chris; Pereira, Ruben F.; Bartolo, Paulo (Springer International Publishing, 2020-07-09)
      Abstract: Articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone are crucial in human movement and when damaged through disease or trauma impacts severely on quality of life. Cartilage has a limited regenerative capacity due to its avascular composition and current therapeutic interventions have limited efficacy. With a rapidly ageing population globally, the numbers of patients requiring therapy for osteochondral disorders is rising, leading to increasing pressures on healthcare systems. Research into novel therapies using tissue engineering has become a priority. However, rational design of biomimetic and clinically effective tissue constructs requires basic understanding of osteochondral biological composition, structure, and mechanical properties. Furthermore, consideration of material design, scaffold architecture, and biofabrication strategies, is needed to assist in the development of tissue engineering therapies enabling successful translation into the clinical arena. This review provides a starting point for any researcher investigating tissue engineering for osteochondral applications. An overview of biological properties of osteochondral tissue, current clinical practices, the role of tissue engineering and biofabrication, and key challenges associated with new treatments is provided. Developing precisely engineered tissue constructs with mechanical and phenotypic stability is the goal. Future work should focus on multi-stimulatory environments, long-term studies to determine phenotypic alterations and tissue formation, and the development of novel bioreactor systems that can more accurately resemble the in vivo environment.
    • Bringing the doctoral thesis by published papers to the Social Sciences and the Humanities: A quantitative easing? A small study of doctoral thesis submission rules and practice in two disciplines in the UK

      Rigby, John; orcid: 0000-0001-9833-5965; email: John.Rigby@manchester.ac.uk; Jones, Barbara; orcid: 0000-0003-2717-6076 (Springer International Publishing, 2020-05-15)
      Abstract: This paper examines how an alternative to the traditional monograph form of the doctoral thesis is emerging that reflects a new approach to the valuation and designation of scientific outputs. This new approach, based on co-citation as underpinning principle for the measurement of knowledge structures, values knowledge and knowledge producers in increasingly quantitative terms. Such a change aligns with wider institutional market-based approaches that have been transforming higher education sectors world-wide. Under these influences, which prioritize quantification and tangibility of output, with quality equated with citation, the thesis, a key institution of the university, is now subject to pressures to transform and be constituted by a series of publishable papers, referred to by a variety of terms, the most common being ‘Thesis by Published Papers’, although ‘Journal Format Thesis’, ‘Alternative Format Thesis’, and ‘Integrated Thesis’ are also used. While the scientific disciplines have traditionally been closer to this paper-based model, albeit with significant national variations, Social Sciences and Humanities subjects are now being affected. We present evidence from a small study of the UK higher education sector of organisational regulations in 54 departments concerning doctoral degree submission formats in two disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences (History and Sociology). We investigate the prevalence of this new practice, investigate some of its key aspects, and identify a number of questions for future research on this emerging and important topic.
    • Carbon nanotubes and their polymeric composites: the applications in tissue engineering

      Huang, Boyang; orcid: 0000-0001-5669-349X; email: boyang.huang@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2020-10-10)
      Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with unique graphitic structure, superior mechanical, electrical, optical and biological properties, has attracted more and more interests in biomedical applications, including gene/drug delivery, bioimaging, biosensor and tissue engineering. In this review, we focus on the role of CNTs and their polymeric composites in tissue engineering applications, with emphasis on their usages in the nerve, cardiac and bone tissue regenerations. The intrinsic natures of CNTs including their physical and chemical properties are first introduced, explaining the structure effects on CNTs electrical conductivity and various functionalization of CNTs to improve their hydrophobic characteristics. Biosafety issues of CNTs are also discussed in detail including the potential reasons to induce the toxicity and their potential strategies to minimise the toxicity effects. Several processing strategies including solution-based processing, polymerization, melt-based processing and grafting methods are presented to show the 2D/3D construct formations using the polymeric composite containing CNTs. For the sake of improving mechanical, electrical and biological properties and minimising the potential toxicity effects, recent advances using polymer/CNT composite the tissue engineering applications are displayed and they are mainly used in the neural tissue (to improve electrical conductivity and biological properties), cardiac tissue (to improve electrical, elastic properties and biological properties) and bone tissue (to improve mechanical properties and biological properties). Current limitations of CNTs in the tissue engineering are discussed and the corresponded future prospective are also provided. Overall, this review indicates that CNTs are promising “next-generation” materials for future biomedical applications.
    • Comparing the post-WWII publication histories of oceanography and marine geoscience

      Mitchell, Neil C.; orcid: 0000-0002-6483-2450; email: neil.mitchell@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2020-05-26)
      Abstract: Oceanography and marine geosciences are closely related subjects, though they have had differing influences. The UK, which has experienced the financial benefits of North Sea oil and gas, while also having an extensive fishing industry and a science base linked to other English-speaking countries and European countries, potentially illustrates some changing influences and collaborative tendencies well. In this article, differences in article publication rates and collaborative tendencies, both globally and for the UK, are examined using the Web of Science™, Scopus™ and Georef™ for the period 1946–2018. The results show that publication rates of global oceanography articles rose exponentially faster than all global scientific publishing from the mid-1960s to 1980. Subsequently, the exponential rate of increase slowed though has remained faster than global science publishing. Global Marine Geoscience publication rates increased into the late 1980s, but have since declined. UK oceanography has roughly followed global trends, though its share of global oceanographic publishing declined from 28% in the 1950s to 8% in 2018. UK Marine Geoscience publishing has also generally followed global trends for that field. However, its share of global publications abruptly increased from 4.9% (average 1960–1980) to 13.2% by 1990, largely due to articles arising from UK participation in the Deep-Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program. Oceanography and marine geoscience have also experienced strongly differing histories of collaborative articles over the last four decades. While oceanographic articles co-authored with researchers in other countries have been steadily increasing as a share of total UK Oceanography articles, those of marine geoscience peaked in 1990 and have since declined, though remained at high levels similar to those experienced by 2018 in Oceanography. Comparing global publication rates in both fields with measures of data and sample collection at sea suggests fundamental changes occurred in the way research was carried out. For example, Marine Geoscience publication rates were strongly correlated with geophysical track-line distances for the decade until ~1970, but were inversely correlated for the decade after then. This reflects, for example, the development of plate tectonics, which partly involved analysis of existing marine geophysical data, improved equipment capabilities and the increased role of scientific drilling.
    • Depression, anxiety, and loneliness among adolescents and young adults with IBD in the UK: the role of disease severity, age of onset, and embarrassment of the condition

      Qualter, Pamela; orcid: 0000-0001-6114-3820; email: pamela.qualter@manchester.ac.uk; Rouncefield-Swales, Alison; Bray, Lucy; Blake, Lucy; Allen, Steven; Probert, Chris; Crook, Kay; Carter, Bernie; orcid: 0000-0001-5226-9878; email: bernie.carter@edgehill.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2020-09-30)
      Abstract: Purpose: Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) report higher depressive symptoms and anxiety compared to healthy controls, with disease severity and abdominal pain being important factors. In the current study, building on what young people had told us in our previous work, we examined whether embarrassment of the condition, social self-efficacy, and friendship quality mediated the relationship between abdominal pain and disease severity, and mental health/well-being. We also included loneliness as a component of well-being. Methods: Data on depression, anxiety, loneliness, friendship quality, social self-efficacy, and disease embarrassment were collected from 130 AYA with IBD ages 14–25 years; data on disease severity and abdominal pain were taken from their medical records. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships between the variables. Results: Using SEM, we established that higher IBD disease activity negatively impacted how AYA felt about their friendships and how embarrassed they were about their condition; embarrassment then influenced reports of mental health, including loneliness. Abdominal pain, disease onset, and social self-efficacy directly predicted internalising problems. Conclusion: In this sample of 14–25-year-old patients with IBD, specifics about the disease (severity and pain) predicted poorer mental health, suggesting discussion of mental health should be part of the clinical dialogue between patient and consultant. In addition, embarrassment about their condition increased depression, anxiety, and loneliness, mediating the relationship between disease severity and well-being. Thus, it is important to consider how perceived stigma affects those with chronic illness, and those issues should be explored in clinic.
    • Effects of Ageing on Aortic Circulation During Atrial Fibrillation; a Numerical Study on Different Aortic Morphologies

      Deyranlou, Amin; Miller, Christopher A.; Revell, Alistair; Keshmiri, Amir; orcid: 0000-0003-4747-277X; email: a.keshmiri@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-03-02)
      Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) can alter intra-cardiac flow and cardiac output that subsequently affects aortic flow circulation. These changes may become more significant where they occur concomitantly with ageing. Aortic ageing is accompanied with morphological changes such as dilation, lengthening, and arch unfolding. While the recognition of AF mechanism has been the subject of numerous studies, less focus has been devoted to the aortic circulation during the AF and there is a lack of such investigation at different ages. The current work aims to address the present gap. First, we analyse aortic flow distribution in three configurations, which attribute to young, middle and old people, using geometries constructed via clinical data. We then introduce two transient inlet flow conditions representative of key AF-associated defects. Results demonstrate that both AF and ageing negatively affect flow circulation. The main consequence of concomitant occurrence is enhancement of endothelial cell activation potential (ECAP) throughout the vascular domain, mainly at aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, which is consistent with some clinical observations. The outcome of the current study suggests that AF exacerbates the vascular defects occurred due to the ageing, which increases the possibility of cardiovascular diseases per se.
    • Energy-entropy prediction of octanol–water logP of SAMPL7 N-acyl sulfonamide bioisosters

      Falcioni, Fabio; email: fabio.falcioni@manchester.ac.uk; Kalayan, Jas; Henchman, Richard H.; orcid: 0000-0002-0461-6625; email: rhen7213@uni.sydney.edu.au (Springer International Publishing, 2021-07-10)
      Abstract: Partition coefficients quantify a molecule’s distribution between two immiscible liquid phases. While there are many methods to compute them, there is not yet a method based on the free energy of each system in terms of energy and entropy, where entropy depends on the probability distribution of all quantum states of the system. Here we test a method in this class called Energy Entropy Multiscale Cell Correlation (EE-MCC) for the calculation of octanol–water logP values for 22 N-acyl sulfonamides in the SAMPL7 Physical Properties Challenge (Statistical Assessment of the Modelling of Proteins and Ligands). EE-MCC logP values have a mean error of 1.8 logP units versus experiment and a standard error of the mean of 1.0 logP units for three separate calculations. These errors are primarily due to getting sufficiently converged energies to give accurate differences of large numbers, particularly for the large-molecule solvent octanol. However, this is also an issue for entropy, and approximations in the force field and MCC theory also contribute to the error. Unique to MCC is that it explains the entropy contributions over all the degrees of freedom of all molecules in the system. A gain in orientational entropy of water is the main favourable entropic contribution, supported by small gains in solute vibrational and orientational entropy but offset by unfavourable changes in the orientational entropy of octanol, the vibrational entropy of both solvents, and the positional and conformational entropy of the solute.
    • Generation of Alkalinity by Stimulation of Microbial Iron Reduction in Acid Rock Drainage Systems: Impact of Natural Organic Matter Types

      Jimenez-Castaneda, Martha E.; orcid: 0000-0001-8039-1002; Scarinci, Carolina; Burke, Adam; Boothman, Christopher; Vaughan, David J.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.; orcid: 0000-0002-0719-0498; van Dongen, Bart E.; orcid: 0000-0003-1189-142X; email: bart.vandongen@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2020-08-31)
      Abstract: To determine the role of organic matter in the attenuation of acid rock drainage (ARD), microcosm-based experiments were performed using ARD stimulated with plants and manures. Initial mineralogical, organic geochemical and microbial analyses indicated a predominance of goethite, a substantial amount of organic carbon originating from local sources, and a bacterial community comparable with those detected in a range of ARD sites worldwide. After 100 days of incubation, changes in the mineralogical, organic and microbiological composition of the ARD demonstrated that the plant additions stimulate microbes with the potential to degrade this organic matter but do not necessarily cause substantial Fe(III) reduction. Conversely, the greatest observed stimulation of Fe(III) reduction, associated with an increase in pH to near-neutral values, was observed using manure additions. These results demonstrate that the use of the optimal natural carbon source is important and can promote the metabolism of microorganisms potentially fuelling a range of geomicrobial processes, including iron and sulfate reduction.
    • Global Constitutionalism and Democracy: the Case of Colombia

      Thornhill, Chris; orcid: 0000-0002-2286-5967; email: chris.thornhill@manchester.ac.uk; de Araújo Calabria, Carina Rodrigues (Springer International Publishing, 2020-07-29)
      Abstract: Focusing on the case of Colombia, this article sets out a sociological examination of constitutions marked by strong, activist judiciaries, by entrenched systems of human rights protection, and by emphatic implementation of global human rights law. Contra standard critiques of this constitutional model, it argues that such constitutions need to be seen as creating a new pattern of democracy, which is often distinctively adapted to structures in societies in which the typical patterns of legitimation and subject formation required for democratic government were obstructed. In polities with such constitutions, legal institutions and norm setters have at times assumed the status of functional equivalents for more typical democratically mandated actors and institutions. In such polities, further, global law assumes essential importance as it creates new sources of normative authorization for legislation and stimulates new lines of articulation between government and society. The article concludes that analysis of such polities, exemplified by Colombia, shows that the common categories of democratic-constitutional analysis are no longer always adequate for understanding current tendencies in democratic formation, and they can easily undermine democracy itself.
    • Impact of heart failure severity on ventricular assist device haemodynamics: a computational study

      McElroy, Michael; Xenakis, Antonios; Keshmiri, Amir; orcid: 0000-0003-4747-277X; email: a.keshmiri@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2020-08-29)
      Abstract: Purpose: This computational fluid dynamics study investigates the necessity of incorporating heart failure severity in the preoperative planning of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) configurations, as it is often omitted from studies on LVAD performance. Methods: A parametric study was conducted examining a common range of LVAD to aortic root flow ratios (LVAD/AR-FR). A normal aortic root waveform was scaled by 5–30% in increments of 5% to represent the common range of flow pumped by the left ventricle for different levels of heart failure. A constant flow rate from the cannula compensated for the severity of heart failure in order to maintain normal total aortic flow rate. Results: The results show that LVAD/AR-FR can have a significant but irregular impact on the perfusion and shear stress-related haemodynamic parameters of the subclavian and carotid arteries. Furthermore, it is found that a larger portion of the flow is directed towards the thoracic aorta at the expense of the carotid and subclavian arteries, regardless of LVAD/AR-FR. Conclusion: The irregular behaviour found in the subclavian and carotid arteries highlights the necessity of including the LVAD/AR-FR in the preoperative planning of an LVAD configuration, in order to accurately improve the effects on the cardiovascular system post implantation.
    • Interaction standards for biophysics: anti-lysozyme nanobodies

      Birchenough, Holly L.; Nivia, Hilda D. Ruiz; Jowitt, Thomas A.; orcid: 0000-0002-4045-0933; email: t.jowitt@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-04-11)
      Abstract: There is a significant demand in the molecular biophysics community for robust standard samples. They are required by researchers, instrument developers and pharmaceutical companies for instrumental quality control, methodological development and in the design and validation of devices, diagnostics and instrumentation. To-date there has been no clear consensus on the need and type of standards that should be available and different research groups and instrument manufacturers use different standard systems which significantly hinders comparative analysis. One of the major objectives of the Association of Resources for Biophysical Research in Europe (ARBRE) is to establish a common set of standard samples that can be used throughout the biophysics community and instrument developers. A survey was circulated among ARBRE members to ascertain the requirements of laboratories when using standard systems and the results are documented in this article. In summary, the major requirements are protein samples which are cheap, relatively small, stable and have different binding strengths. We have developed a panel of sdAb’s or ‘nanobodies’ against hen-egg white lysozyme with different binding strengths and suitable stability characteristics. Here we show the results of the survey, the selection procedure, validation and final selection of a panel of nanobody interaction standards.
    • Not only laboratory to clinic: the translational work of William S. C. Copeman in rheumatology

      Worboys, Michael; orcid: 0000-0001-8583-7931; email: michael.worboys@manchester.ac.uk; Toon, Elizabeth (Springer International Publishing, 2020-08-06)
      Abstract: Since the arrival of Translational Medicine (TM), as both a term and movement in the late 1990s, it has been associated almost exclusively with attempts to accelerate the “translation” of research-laboratory findings to improve efficacy and outcomes in clinical practice (Krueger et al. in Hist Philos Life Sci 41:57, 2019). This framing privileges one source of change in medicine, that from bench-to-bedside. In this article we dig into the history of translation research to identify and discuss three other types of translational work in medicine that can also reshape ideas, practices, institutions, behaviours, or all of these, to produce transformations in clinical effectiveness. These are: (1) making accessible state-of-the-art knowledge and best practice across the medical profession; (2) remodelling and creating institutions to better develop and make available specialist knowledge and practice; and (3) improving public and patient understandings of disease prevention, symptoms and treatments. We do so by examining the work of William S. C. Copeman, a dominant figure in British rheumatology from the 1930 through the late 1960s. Throughout his long career, Copeman blended approaches to “translation” in order to produce transformative change in clinical medicine, making his work an exemplar of our expanded notion of TM.
    • On Thresholds for Dynamic Strength in Solids

      Bourne, N. K.; orcid: 0000-0002-8883-1196; email: neil.bourne@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-04-20)
      Abstract: The limits of elastic behaviour change with the nature of the impulse applied to a target and the size of volume interrogated by a measurement, since it is the pre-existing defects sampled within its rise that determine the response observed. This review considers a range of solids of different material classes and tracks the development of the strength of the material during shock loading, from yield at the Hugoniot elastic limit, across the weak shock regime, to its transition to strong shock behaviour. It is shown that at this stress, the weak shock limit (WSL), the shear component of the applied stress exceeds the theoretical strength of the material. Beyond this threshold, there are a number of new responses that confirm a transition from an inhomogeneous to a homogeneous state. Further, whilst strength rises across the weak shock regime, it saturates at the WSL. For instance, failure in shocked glasses transitions from localised fracture initiated at target boundaries to a global failure at this threshold at the theoretical strength. Sapphire′s strength asymptotes to the theoretical strength of the strongest direction in its lattice. Finally, the fourth-power dependence of strain rate upon stress appears to be a consequence of the homogeneous flow in the strong shock regime. This review suggests that µ/2π is a good approximation for the unrelaxed theoretical strength of solids at increasing stresses beyond the WSL. The methodology unfolded here represents a new means to experimentally determine the ultimate shear strength of solids.
    • On Thresholds for Dynamic Strength in Solids

      Bourne, N. K.; orcid: 0000-0002-8883-1196; email: neil.bourne@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-04-20)
      Abstract: The limits of elastic behaviour change with the nature of the impulse applied to a target and the size of volume interrogated by a measurement, since it is the pre-existing defects sampled within its rise that determine the response observed. This review considers a range of solids of different material classes and tracks the development of the strength of the material during shock loading, from yield at the Hugoniot elastic limit, across the weak shock regime, to its transition to strong shock behaviour. It is shown that at this stress, the weak shock limit (WSL), the shear component of the applied stress exceeds the theoretical strength of the material. Beyond this threshold, there are a number of new responses that confirm a transition from an inhomogeneous to a homogeneous state. Further, whilst strength rises across the weak shock regime, it saturates at the WSL. For instance, failure in shocked glasses transitions from localised fracture initiated at target boundaries to a global failure at this threshold at the theoretical strength. Sapphire′s strength asymptotes to the theoretical strength of the strongest direction in its lattice. Finally, the fourth-power dependence of strain rate upon stress appears to be a consequence of the homogeneous flow in the strong shock regime. This review suggests that µ/2π is a good approximation for the unrelaxed theoretical strength of solids at increasing stresses beyond the WSL. The methodology unfolded here represents a new means to experimentally determine the ultimate shear strength of solids.
    • Physiological Characteristics of Female Soccer Players and Health and Performance Considerations: A Narrative Review

      Randell, Rebecca K.; orcid: 0000-0003-1141-9766; email: rebecca.randell@pepsico.com; Clifford, Thomas; Drust, Barry; Moss, Samantha L.; Unnithan, Viswanath B.; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.; Datson, Naomi; Martin, Daniel; Mayho, Hannah; Carter, James M.; et al. (Springer International Publishing, 2021-04-12)
      Abstract: Female soccer has seen a substantial rise in participation, as well as increased financial support from governing bodies over the last decade. Thus, there is an onus on researchers and medical departments to develop a better understanding of the physical characteristics and demands, and the health and performance needs of female soccer players. In this review, we discuss the current research, as well as the knowledge gaps, of six major topics: physical demands, talent identification, body composition, injury risk and prevention, health and nutrition. Data on female talent identification are scarce, and future studies need to elucidate the influence of relative age and maturation selection across age groups. Regarding the physical demands, more research is needed on the pattern of high-intensity sprinting during matches and the contribution of soccer-specific movements. Injuries are not uncommon in female soccer players, but targeting intrinsically modifiable factors with injury prevention programmes can reduce injury rates. The anthropometric and physical characteristics of female players are heterogeneous and setting specific targets should be discouraged in youth and sub-elite players. Menstrual cycle phase may influence performance and injury risk; however, there are few studies in soccer players. Nutrition plays a critical role in health and performance and ensuring adequate energy intake remains a priority. Despite recent progress, there is considerably less research in female than male soccer players. Many gaps in our understanding of how best to develop and manage the health and performance of female soccer players remain.
    • Publication outperformance among global South researchers: An analysis of individual-level and publication-level predictors of positive deviance

      Albanna, Basma; orcid: 0000-0002-6884-1610; email: basma.albanna@manchester.ac.uk; Handl, Julia; Heeks, Richard (Springer International Publishing, 2021-09-13)
      Abstract: Research and development are central to economic growth, and a key challenge for countries of the global South is that their research performance lags behind that of the global North. Yet, among Southern researchers, a few significantly outperform their peers and can be styled research “positive deviants” (PDs). In this paper we ask: who are those PDs, what are their characteristics and how are they able to overcome some of the challenges facing researchers in the global South? We examined a sample of 203 information systems researchers in Egypt who were classified into PDs and non-PDs (NPDs) through an analysis of their publication and citation data. Based on six citation metrics, we were able to identify and group 26 PDs. We then analysed their attributes, attitudes, practices, and publications using a mixed-methods approach involving interviews, a survey and analysis of publication-related datasets. Two predictive models were developed using partial least squares regression; the first predicted if a researcher is a PD or not using individual-level predictors and the second predicted if a paper is a paper of a PD or not using publication-level predictors. PDs represented 13% of the researchers but produced about half of all publications, and had almost double the citations of the overall NPD group. At the individual level, there were significant differences between both groups with regard to research collaborations, capacity development, and research directions. At the publication level, there were differences relating to the topics pursued, publication outlets targeted, and paper features such as length of abstract and number of authors.
    • Reduction of wave-induced pitch motion of a semi-sub wind platform by balancing heave excitation with pumping between floats

      Stansby, Peter; orcid: 0000-0002-3552-0810; email: p.k.stansby@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-05-10)
      Abstract: It is desirable to control pitch motion of semi-submersible wind platforms to reduce turbine hub acceleration and increase structural fatigue life. This is achieved by balancing the moment on the platform due to heave float excitation by generating a differential internal head of water between the floats though a pump. This is demonstrated with an experimentally validated linear diffraction-radiation-drag model of an idealised platform. Different scales of platform are considered corresponding to 5, 10 and 20 MW turbines. The pitch angles and hub accelerations generally reduce as scales increase. Pumping reduces hub accelerations by up to about 40% for larger sea states. The power required for pumping would be small with a hybrid pump also operating as a turbine to store energy for the pumping operation. Without storage the power requirement is still small relative to the turbine capacity except for very high wind speeds.
    • Sarcopenia during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions: long-term health effects of short-term muscle loss

      Kirwan, Richard; orcid: 0000-0003-4645-0077; email: r.p.kirwan@2018.ljmu.ac.uk; McCullough, Deaglan; orcid: 0000-0002-9882-9639; Butler, Tom; orcid: 0000-0003-0818-1566; email: t.butler@chester.ac.uk; Perez de Heredia, Fatima; orcid: 0000-0002-2537-3327; Davies, Ian G.; orcid: 0000-0003-3722-8466; Stewart, Claire; orcid: 0000-0002-8104-4819 (Springer International Publishing, 2020-10-01)
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is an extraordinary global emergency that has led to the implementation of unprecedented measures in order to stem the spread of the infection. Internationally, governments are enforcing measures such as travel bans, quarantine, isolation, and social distancing leading to an extended period of time at home. This has resulted in reductions in physical activity and changes in dietary intakes that have the potential to accelerate sarcopenia, a deterioration of muscle mass and function (more likely in older populations), as well as increases in body fat. These changes in body composition are associated with a number of chronic, lifestyle diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, osteoporosis, frailty, cognitive decline, and depression. Furthermore, CVD, diabetes, and elevated body fat are associated with greater risk of COVID-19 infection and more severe symptomology, underscoring the importance of avoiding the development of such morbidities. Here we review mechanisms of sarcopenia and their relation to the current data on the effects of COVID-19 confinement on physical activity, dietary habits, sleep, and stress as well as extended bed rest due to COVID-19 hospitalization. The potential of these factors to lead to an increased likelihood of muscle loss and chronic disease will be discussed. By offering a number of home-based strategies including resistance exercise, higher protein intakes and supplementation, we can potentially guide public health authorities to avoid a lifestyle disease and rehabilitation crisis post-COVID-19. Such strategies may also serve as useful preventative measures for reducing the likelihood of sarcopenia in general and in the event of future periods of isolation.
    • Special issue—before translational medicine: laboratory clinic relations lost in translation? Cortisone and the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Britain, 1950–1960

      Worboys, Michael; orcid: 0000-0001-8583-7931; email: michael.worboys@manchester.ac.uk; Toon, Elizabeth (Springer International Publishing, 2019-11-07)
      Abstract: Cortisone, initially known as ‘compound E’ was the medical sensation of the late 1940s and early 1950s. As early as April 1949, only a week after Philip Hench and colleagues first described the potential of ‘compound E’ at a Mayo Clinic seminar, the New York Times reported the drug’s promise as a ‘modern miracle’ in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Given its high profile, it is unsurprising that historians of medicine have been attracted to study the innovation of cortisone. It arrived at the end of a decade of ‘therapeutic revolutions’, kicked off by penicillin transforming the treatment of bacterial infections and ending with hopes of a revolution in the treatment of non-infectious, chronic inflammatory diseases. Despite these studies of cortisone’s introduction, few historians have taken the story forward and considered how cortisone was adopted and adapted into clinical practice. This article tells the longer of how the drug and its derivatives were taken from research laboratories and integrated into clinical practice; what has in recent decades become known as translational medicine (TM). In exploring cortisone’s first decade in Britain, we focus specifically on its role in the treatment of RA. Our approach is always to consider cortisone’s use in the context of other treatments available to clinicians, and at local and national institutional settings. We do not discuss the many other therapeutic uses of cortisone, which ranged for topical applications for skin diseases to the management of cancers, especially childhood leukaemia, nor do we discuss its close analogue ACTH—AdenoCorticoTropic Hormone. We think there are lessons in our study for TM policies today.