• Bempedoic Acid: The New Kid on the Block for the Treatment of Dyslipidemia and LDL Cholesterol: A Narrative Review

      Alam, Uazman; email: Uazman.alam@manchester.ac.uk; email: Uazman.alam@liverpool.ac.uk; Al-Bazz, Dalal Y.; Soran, Handrean; email: hsoran@aol.co.uk; email: Handrean.Soran@mft.nhs.uk (Springer Healthcare, 2021-05-26)
      Abstract: Diabetes is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in which dyslipidaemia plays a crucial role. Statins are first line therapy for primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD; however, adverse events include reversible musculoskeletal and liver side effects in addition to a diabetogenic association. In this short review, we provide a succinct narrative of the future role and current trial data of a novel first-in-class molecule, bempedoic acid. The authors provide their expert insight with a focus on Phase III randomised controlled trials (RCT) of bempedoic acid. Bempedoic acid was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in February and March 2020, respectively, and is a novel molecule which inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis in the same mechanistic pathway as statins. It is a first-in-class small molecule, delivered as a prodrug and administered as an oral, once-daily dose that decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Phase II and III RCTs have demonstrated efficacy with adequate safety data as mono- or combination therapy with statins and ezetimibe. Bempedoic acid is hepatically converted to the active drug with a lack of activation in skeletal muscle. Due to this novel mechanism, musculoskeletal-related adverse events exhibit a lower prevalence providing an alternative pharmacotherapy in statin-intolerant patients. Bempedoic acid may be used as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy or in statin-intolerant patients for the treatment of dyslipidaemia. The recent National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (UK) technology appraisal guidance [TA694] published in April 2021 recommended bempedoic acid with ezetimibe as a treatment option for primary hypercholesterolaemia or mixed dyslipidaemia if statins are not tolerated or contraindicated and if there is inadequate control of LDL-C with ezetimibe alone. Additionally, outcomes trials evaluating ‘hard’ endpoints in statin-intolerant patients or those with ASCVD are currently underway.
    • Psychometric Validation of the Psoriasis Symptoms and Impacts Measure (P-SIM), a Novel Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument for Patients with Plaque Psoriasis, Using Data from the BE VIVID and BE READY Phase 3 Trials

      Warren, Richard B.; email: Richard.Warren@manchester.ac.uk; Gottlieb, Alice B.; Merola, Joseph F.; Garcia, Llenalia; Cioffi, Christopher; Peterson, Luke; Pelligra, Christopher; Ciaravino, Valerie (Springer Healthcare, 2021-07-14)
      Abstract: Introduction: Plaque psoriasis can significantly impact patients’ quality of life. We assessed psychometric properties of the Psoriasis Symptoms and Impacts Measure (P-SIM), developed to capture patients’ experiences of signs, symptoms and impacts of psoriasis. Methods: Pooled, blinded, 16-week data from 1002 patients in the BE VIVID and BE READY bimekizumab phase 3 trials were analysed. The suitability of the P-SIM missing score rule (weekly scores considered missing if ≥ 4 daily scores were missing) was assessed. Test–retest reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Convergent validity was assessed between P-SIM and relevant patient-reported outcome (PRO) (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI], DLQI item 1 [skin symptoms], Patient Global Assessment of Psoriasis) and clinician-reported outcome (ClinRO) scores (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index [PASI], Investigator’s Global Assessment [IGA]) at baseline and week 16. Known-groups validity was assessed, comparing P-SIM scores between patient subgroups predefined using PASI/IGA scores. Sensitivity to change over 16 weeks was evaluated; responder definition (RD) thresholds were explored. Results: The missing score rule used did not impact P-SIM scores. Test–retest reliability analyses demonstrated excellent score reproducibility (ICC 0.91–0.98). Inter-item correlations at baseline and week 16 were strong (> 0.5), apart from “choice of clothing” with “skin pain” and “burning” at baseline (both 0.49). All P-SIM scores were moderately to strongly correlated with other outcomes, demonstrating convergent validity, apart from ClinROs (PASI, IGA) at baseline that had low variability. P-SIM scores discriminated known groups at week 16, confirming known-groups validity. Changes from baseline to week 16 in P-SIM and other clinically relevant outcomes were strongly correlated (> 0.5; weaker with ClinROs), establishing sensitivity to change. Anchor-based RD analyses determined a four-point P-SIM item score decrease as indicative of marked clinically meaningful improvement. Conclusion: P-SIM scores demonstrated good reliability, validity and sensitivity to change. A four-point RD threshold could be used to assess 16-week treatment effects. Trial Registration: BE VIVID: NCT03370133; BE READY: NCT03410992.