• Building a consistent parton shower

      Forshaw, Jeffrey R.; Holguin, Jack; orcid: 0000-0001-5183-2673; email: jack.holguin@manchester.ac.uk; Plätzer, Simon (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-09-01)
      Abstract: Modern parton showers are built using one of two models: dipole showers or angular ordered showers. Both have distinct strengths and weaknesses. Dipole showers correctly account for wide-angle, soft gluon emissions and track the leading flows in QCD colour charge but they are known to mishandle partonic recoil. Angular ordered showers keep better track of partonic recoil and correctly include large amounts of wide-angle, soft physics but azimuthal averaging means they are known to mishandle some correlations. In this paper, we derive both approaches from the same starting point; linking our under- standing of the two showers. This insight allows us to construct a new dipole shower that has all the strengths of a standard dipole shower together with the collinear evolution of an angular-ordered shower. We show that this new approach corrects the next-to-leading- log errors previously observed in parton showers and improves their sub-leading-colour accuracy.
    • Cell-specific conditional deletion of interleukin-1 (IL-1) ligands and its receptors: a new toolbox to study the role of IL-1 in health and disease

      Pinteaux, Emmanuel; orcid: 0000-0002-9986-4401; email: emmanuel.pinteaux@manchester.ac.uk; Abdulaal, Wesam H; Mufazalov, Ilgiz A; Humphreys, Neil E; Simonsen-Jackson, Maj; Francis, Sheila; Müller, Werner; Waisman, Ari (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-05-29)
      Abstract: The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role in many physiological processes and during the inflammatory and immune response to most common diseases. IL-1 exists as two agonists, IL-1α and IL-1β that bind to the only signaling IL-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1), while a second decoy IL-1 type 2 receptor (IL-1R2) binds both forms of IL-1 without inducing cell signaling. The field of immunology and inflammation research has, over the past 35 years, unraveled many mechanisms of IL-1 actions, through in vitro manipulation of the IL-1 system or by using genetically engineered mouse models that lack either member of the IL-1 family in ubiquitous constitutive manner. However, the limitation of global mouse knockout technology has significantly hampered our understanding of the precise mechanisms of IL-1 actions in animal models of disease. Here we report and review the recent generation of new conditional mouse mutants in which exons of Il1a, Il1b, Il1r1, and Il1r2 genes flanked by loxP sites (fl/fl) can be deleted in cell-/tissue-specific constitutive or inducible manner by Cre recombinase expression. Hence, IL-1αfl/fl, IL-1βfl/fl, IL-1R1fl/fl, and IL-1R2fl/fl mice constitute a new toolbox that will provide a step change in our understanding of the cell-specific role of IL-1 and its receptor in health and disease and the potential development of targeted IL-1 therapies.
    • Characterisation of road-dust sediment in urban systems: a review of a global challenge

      Haynes, Haydn M.; Taylor, Kevin G.; email: kevin.taylor@manchester.ac.uk; Rothwell, James; Byrne, Patrick (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-10-21)
      Abstract: Purpose: The proportion of people living in urbanised areas is predicted to rise to > 65% by 2050, and therefore, more humans than ever will be exposed to urban environmental pollution. Accumulation of organic and inorganic substances on street and road surfaces is a major global challenge requiring scientifically robust methods of establishing risk that inform management strategies. This aim of this contribution is to critically review the global literature on urban road–deposited sediment contamination with a specific focus on variability in sampling and analytical methods. Materials and methods: In order to assess the concentration of contaminants in global road-deposited sediment (RDS), a comprehensive search of published RDS studies was completed. We review methodological approaches used in RDS studies to highlight the variability in datasets as a result of sampling technique, grain size fractionation, geochemical and mineralogical characterisation methods and establishing the influence of local geology on contaminant concentrations. We also consider emerging contaminants in RDS, and we provide a workflow diagram which promotes a standardised sampling and analysis regime that we believe can reduce data variability and promote collaboration when it comes to tackling the important issue of RDS contamination. Results and discussion: Across the literature, Asia (except China) and Africa are underrepresented in RDS studies despite these continents having the largest and fastest growing populations, respectively. The removal of tetraethyl lead from gasoline produced a noticeable decrease in lead concentrations in global RDS, and platinum group element (PGE) concentrations in RDS were consistent with catalytic converter usage. Research into the impact of electric vehicles on non-exhaust emissions suggests other contaminants such as zinc may become more prominent in the future. Most RDS studies consider grain size fractions larger than > 20 μm due to sampling constraints despite RDS < 20 μm being most relevant to human health. The use of chemical extraction methods to establish contaminant geochemistry is popular; however, most extraction procedures are not relevant or specific to minerals identified in RDS through microscopic and spectroscopic investigations. Conclusions: This review highlights considerable variability in sampling and analytical approach which makes it difficult to identify broad global patterns in RDS contamination. To remove this variability from future RDS research, this review suggests a workflow plan which attempts to improve the comparability between RDS studies. Such comparability is crucial in identifying more discrete RDS trends and informing future emission policy.
    • Combining single and double parton scatterings in a parton shower

      Cabouat, Baptiste; email: baptiste.cabouat@manchester.ac.uk; Gaunt, Jonathan R. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-10-01)
      Abstract: Double parton scattering (DPS) processes in which there is a perturbative “1 → 2” splitting in both protons overlap with loop corrections to single parton scattering (SPS). Any fundamental theoretical treatment of DPS needs to address this double-counting issue. In this paper, we augment our Monte-Carlo simulation of DPS, dShower, to be able to generate kinematic distributions corresponding to the combination SPS+DPS without double counting. To achieve this, we formulate a fully-differential version of the subtraction scheme introduced in Diehl et al. (JHEP 06 (2017) 083). A shower is attached to the subtraction term, and this is combined with the dShower DPS shower along with the usual SPS shower. We perform a proof-of-concept study of this new algorithm in the context of Z0Z0 production. Once the subtraction term is included, we verify that the results do not depend strongly on the artificial “DPS-SPS demarcation” scale ν. As part of the development of the new algorithm, we improve the kinematics of the 1 → 2 splitting in the DPS shower (and subtraction term), allowing the daughter partons to have a relative transverse momentum. Several reasonable choices for the transverse profile in the 1 → 2 splitting are studied. We find that many kinematic distributions are not strongly affected by the choice, although we do observe some differences in the region where the transverse momenta of both bosons are small.
    • Complements or substitutes? Associations between volumes of care provided in the community and hospitals

      Lau, Yiu-Shing; orcid: 0000-0002-3915-4168; email: yiu-shing.lau@manchester.ac.uk; Malisauskaite, Gintare; Brookes, Nadia; Hussein, Shereen; Sutton, Matt (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2021-06-17)
      Abstract: Policymakers often suggest that expansion of care in community settings may ease increasing pressures on hospital services. Substitution may lower overall health system costs, but complementarity due to previously unidentified needs might raise them. We used new national data on community and primary medical care services in England to undertake system-level analyses of whether activity in the community acts as a complement or a substitute for activity provided in hospitals. We used two-way fixed effects regression to relate monthly counts of community care and primary medical care contacts to emergency department attendances, outpatient visits and admissions for 242 hospitals between November 2017 and September 2019. We then used national unit costs to estimate the effects of increasing community activity on overall system expenditure. The findings show community care contacts to be weak substitutes with all types of hospital activity and primary care contacts are weak substitutes for emergency hospital attendances and admissions. Our estimates ranged from 28 [95% CI 21, 45] to 517 [95% CI 291, 7265] community care contacts and from 34 [95% CI 17, 1283] to 1655 [95% CI − 1995, 70,145] GP appointments to reduce one hospital service visit. Primary care and planned hospital services are complements. Increases in community services and primary care activity are both associated with increased overall system expenditure of £34 [95% CI £156, £54] per visit for community care and £41 [95% CI £78, £74] per appointment in general practice. Expansion of community-based services may not generate reductions in hospital activity and expenditure.
    • Developing genetic counselling services in an underdeveloped healthcare setting

      Ciucă, Andrada; Moldovan, Ramona; email: ramona.moldovan@manchester.ac.uk; Băban, Adriana (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2021-09-20)
      Abstract: Genetic counselling services are well established in North America, Western Europe and Australia. In other regions, genetic counselling services are still emerging. Where this is the case, an in-depth understanding of the main stakeholders’ needs, challenges and opportunities will inform the changes and innovations required to bring genetic counselling closer to the community. The present study explored the needs and challenges of patients, family members and professionals with a view to setting up a cancer genetic counselling service in Romania. In order to get a comprehensive outlook, key stakeholders were interviewed using data source triangulation method. Thirty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted (13 patients, 11 family members and 10 professionals). Thematic analysis was used to explore and identify needs, barriers and opportunities in emerging cancer genetic counselling services. Three major themes were identified: (1) the “Needs” theme mainly focuses on various types of support that participants mentioned wanting: psychosocial, peer and additional support; (2) the “Challenges” theme includes aspects related to limited access to healthcare, lack of integrated services and pressure on the families; (3) the “Hopes” theme highlights the wish for integrated healthcare and an empathic rapport with healthcare providers. Our findings highlighted the main needs, challenges and hopes the patients, family members and professionals have and provides the groundwork for setting up cancer genetic counselling services.
    • Direct comparison of sterile neutrino constraints from cosmological data, ν e disappearance data and ν μ → ν e appearance data in a 3 + 1 model

      Adams, Matthew; Bezrukov, Fedor; Elvin-Poole, Jack; Evans, Justin J.; orcid: 0000-0003-4697-3337; email: justin.evans@manchester.ac.uk; Guzowski, Pawel; Fearraigh, Brían Ó; Söldner-Rembold, Stefan (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-08-19)
      Abstract: We present a quantitative, direct comparison of constraints on sterile neutrinos derived from neutrino oscillation experiments and from Planck data, interpreted assuming standard cosmological evolution. We extend a 1+1 model, which is used to compare exclusion contours at the 95% Cl derived from Planck data to those from νe-disappearance measurements, to a 3+1 model. This allows us to compare the Planck constraints with those obtained through νμ→νe appearance searches, which are sensitive to more than one active-sterile mixing angle. We find that the cosmological data fully exclude the allowed regions published by the LSND, MiniBooNE and Neutrino-4 collaborations, and those from the gallium and rector anomalies, at the 95% Cl. Compared to the exclusion region from the Daya Bay νe-disappearance search, the Planck data are more strongly excluding above |Δm412|≈0.1eV2 and meffsterile≈0.2eV, with the Daya Bay exclusion being stronger below these values. Compared to the combined Daya Bay/Bugey/MINOS exclusion region on νμ→νe appearance, the Planck data is more strongly excluding above Δm412≈5×10-2eV2, with the exclusion strengths of the Planck data and the Daya Bay/Bugey/MINOS combination becoming comparable below this value.
    • Discrete beliefs space and equilibrium: a cautionary note

      Berardi, Michele; orcid: 0000-0001-8145-5207; email: michele.berardi@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-06-29)
      Abstract: Bounded rationality requires assumptions about ways in which rationality is constrained and agents form their expectations. Evolutionary schemes have been used to model beliefs dynamics, with agents choosing endogenously among a limited number of beliefs heuristics according to their relative performance. This work shows that arbitrarily constraining the beliefs space to a finite (small) set of possibilities can generate artificial equilibria that can be stable under evolutionary dynamics. Only when “enough” heuristics are available are beliefs in equilibrium not artificially constrained. I discuss these findings in light of an alternative approach to modelling beliefs dynamics, namely, adaptive learning.
    • Discrete beliefs space and equilibrium: a cautionary note

      Berardi, Michele; orcid: 0000-0001-8145-5207; email: michele.berardi@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-06-29)
      Abstract: Bounded rationality requires assumptions about ways in which rationality is constrained and agents form their expectations. Evolutionary schemes have been used to model beliefs dynamics, with agents choosing endogenously among a limited number of beliefs heuristics according to their relative performance. This work shows that arbitrarily constraining the beliefs space to a finite (small) set of possibilities can generate artificial equilibria that can be stable under evolutionary dynamics. Only when “enough” heuristics are available are beliefs in equilibrium not artificially constrained. I discuss these findings in light of an alternative approach to modelling beliefs dynamics, namely, adaptive learning.
    • Does posture explain the kinematic differences in a grounded running gait between male and female Svalbard rock ptarmigan ( Lagopus muta hyperborea ) moving on snow?

      Marmol-Guijarro, Andres; orcid: 0000-0001-9316-540X; Nudds, Robert; orcid: 0000-0002-7627-6324; Folkow, Lars; orcid: 0000-0002-6580-9156; Lees, John; orcid: 0000-0002-9627-1790; Codd, Jonathan; orcid: 0000-0003-0211-1786; email: jonathan.codd@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2021-05-05)
      Abstract: The majority of locomotor research is conducted on treadmills and few studies attempt to understand the differences between this and animals moving in the wild. For example, animals may adjust their gait kinematics or limb posture, to a more compliant limb, to increase stability of locomotion to prevent limb failure or falling on different substrates. Here, using video recordings, we compared locomotor parameters (speed range, stride length, stride frequency, stance duration, swing duration and duty factor) of female Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea) moving in the wild over snow to previous treadmill-based research. We also compared the absolute and body size (body mass and limb length)-corrected values of kinematic parameters to published data from males to look for any sex differences across walking and grounded running gaits. Our findings indicate that the kinematics of locomotion are largely conserved between the field and laboratory in that none of the female gaits were drastically affected by moving over snow, except for a prolonged swing phase at very slow walking speeds, likely due to toe dragging. Comparisons between the sexes indicate that the differences observed during a walking gait are likely due to body size. However, sexual dimorphism in body size could not explain the disparate grounded running kinematics of the female and male ptarmigan, which might be linked to a more crouched posture in females. Our findings provide insight into how males and females moving in situ may use different strategies to alleviate the effects of a variable substrate.
    • Effects of a disposable home electro-stimulation device (Pelviva) for the treatment of female urinary incontinence: a randomised controlled trial

      Oldham, Jackie; orcid: 0000-0001-5857-9551; email: jackie.oldham@manchester.ac.uk; Herbert, Julia; Garnett, Jane; Roberts, Stephen A. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2021-08-20)
      Abstract: Aims: To compare current General Medical Practitioner treatment as usual (TAU) for the treatment of female urinary incontinence with a novel disposable home electro-stimulation device (Pelviva). Methods: Open label, Primary Care post-market evaluation. 86 women with urinary incontinence were randomly assigned to one of two 12-week treatments: TAU or Pelviva for 30 min every other day plus TAU. Outcome measures included ICIQ-UI (primary), PISQ-IR, PGI-S / PGI-I and FSFI (secondary) at recruitment and immediately after intervention, 1-h pad test at recruitment and usage diaries throughout. Results: Pelviva plus TAU produced significantly better outcome than TAU alone: 3 versus 1 point for ICIQ-UI (Difference − 1.8 95% CI: − 3.5 to − 0.1, P = 0.033). Significant differences were also observed for PGI-I at both 6 weeks (P = 0.001) and 12 weeks (P < 0.001). In the Pelviva group, 17% of women described themselves as feeling very much better and 54% a little or much better compared to 0% and 15% in the TAU. Overall PISQ-IR score reached statistical significance (P = 0.032) seemingly related to impact (P = 0.027). No other outcome measures reached statistical significance. Premature termination due to COVID-19 meant only 86 women were recruited from a sample size of 264. TAU did not reflect NICE guidelines. Conclusions: This study suggests Pelviva is more successful than TAU in treating urinary incontinence in Primary Care. The study had reduced power due to early termination due to COVID-19 and suggests TAU does not follow NICE guidelines.
    • EFT for soft drop double differential cross section

      Pathak, Aditya; orcid: 0000-0001-8149-2817; email: aditya.pathak@manchester.ac.uk; Stewart, Iain W.; Vaidya, Varun; Zoppi, Lorenzo; orcid: 0000-0002-9157-6907 (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2021-04-06)
      Abstract: We develop a factorization framework to compute the double differential cross section in soft drop groomed jet mass and groomed jet radius. We describe the effective theories in the large, intermediate, and small groomed jet radius regions defined by the interplay of the jet mass and the groomed jet radius measurement. As an application we present the NLL′ results for the perturbative moments that are related to the coefficients C1 and C2 that specify the leading hadronization corrections up to three universal parameters. We compare our results with Monte Carlo simulations and a calculation using the coherent branching method.
    • Frame covariant formalism for fermionic theories

      Finn, Kieran; orcid: 0000-0002-9840-2264; email: kieran.finn@manchester.ac.uk; Karamitsos, Sotirios; Pilaftsis, Apostolos (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2021-07-02)
      Abstract: We present a frame- and reparametrisation-invariant formalism for quantum field theories that include fermionic degrees of freedom. We achieve this using methods of field-space covariance and the Vilkovisky–DeWitt (VDW) effective action. We explicitly construct a field-space supermanifold on which the quantum fields act as coordinates. We show how to define field-space tensors on this supermanifold from the classical action that are covariant under field reparametrisations. We then employ these tensors to equip the field-space supermanifold with a metric, thus solving a long-standing problem concerning the proper definition of a metric for fermionic theories. With the metric thus defined, we use well-established field-space techniques to extend the VDW effective action and express any fermionic theory in a frame- and field-reparametrisation-invariant manner.
    • Frame covariant formalism for fermionic theories

      Finn, Kieran; orcid: 0000-0002-9840-2264; email: kieran.finn@manchester.ac.uk; Karamitsos, Sotirios; Pilaftsis, Apostolos (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2021-07-02)
      Abstract: We present a frame- and reparametrisation-invariant formalism for quantum field theories that include fermionic degrees of freedom. We achieve this using methods of field-space covariance and the Vilkovisky–DeWitt (VDW) effective action. We explicitly construct a field-space supermanifold on which the quantum fields act as coordinates. We show how to define field-space tensors on this supermanifold from the classical action that are covariant under field reparametrisations. We then employ these tensors to equip the field-space supermanifold with a metric, thus solving a long-standing problem concerning the proper definition of a metric for fermionic theories. With the metric thus defined, we use well-established field-space techniques to extend the VDW effective action and express any fermionic theory in a frame- and field-reparametrisation-invariant manner.
    • From parametric trace slicing to rule systems

      Reger, Giles; email: giles.reger@manchester.ac.uk; Rydeheard, David (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2021-02-27)
      Abstract: Parametric runtime verification is the process of verifying properties of execution traces of (data carrying) events produced by a running system. This paper continues our work exploring the relationship between specification techniques for parametric runtime verification. Here we consider the correspondence between trace-slicing automata-based approaches and rule systems. The main contribution is a translation from quantified automata to rule systems, which has been implemented in Scala. This then allows us to highlight the key differences in how the two formalisms handle data, an important step in our wider effort to understand the correspondence between different specification languages for parametric runtime verification. This paper extends a previous conference version of this paper with further examples, a proof of correctness, and an optimisation based on a notion of redundancy observed during the development of the translation.
    • Herwig 7.2 release note

      Bellm, Johannes; Bewick, Gavin; Ferrario Ravasio, Silvia; Gieseke, Stefan; Grellscheid, David; Kirchgaeßer, Patrick; Loshaj, Frashër; Masouminia, Mohammad R.; Nail, Graeme; Papaefstathiou, Andreas; et al. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-05-20)
      Abstract: A new release of the Monte Carlo event generator Herwig (version 7.2) is now available. This version introduces a number of improvements over the major version 7.0, notably: multi-jet merging with the dipole shower at LO and NLO QCD; spin correlations in both the dipole and angular-ordered parton showers; an improved choice of evolution variable in the angular-ordered parton shower; improvements to mass effects and top decays in the dipole shower, improvements to the simulation of multiple-parton interactions, including diffractive processes; a new model for baryonic colour reconnection; improvements to strangeness production; as well as a new tune of the hadronisation parameters and support for generic Lorentz structures in BSM models. This article illustrates new features of versions 7.1 and 7.2.
    • Improvements on dipole shower colour

      Holguin, Jack; orcid: 0000-0001-5183-2673; email: jack.holguin@manchester.ac.uk; Forshaw, Jeffrey R.; Plätzer, Simom (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2021-04-27)
      Abstract: The dipole formalism provides a powerful framework from which parton showers can be constructed. In a recent paper (Forshaw et al. 2020), we proposed a dipole shower with improved colour accuracy and in this paper we show how it can be further improved. After an explicit check at O(αs2) we confirm that our original shower performs as it was designed to, i.e. inheriting its handling of angular-ordered radiation from a coherent branching algorithm. We also show how other dipole shower algorithms fail to achieve this. Nevertheless, there is an O(αs2) topology where it differs at sub-leading Nc from a coherent branching algorithm. This erroneous topology can contribute a leading logarithm to some observables and corresponds to emissions that are ordered in kt but not angle. We propose a simple, computationally efficient way to correct this and assign colour factors in accordance with the coherence properties of QCD to all orders in αs.
    • Intersecting Lorenz curves and aversion to inverse downside inequality

      Chiu, W. Henry; orcid: 0000-0003-3000-9519; email: henry.chiu@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-10-02)
      Abstract: This paper defines and characterizes the concept of an increase in inverse downside inequality and show that, when the Lorenz curves of two income distributions intersect, how the change from one distribution to the other is judged by an inequality index exhibiting inverse downside inequality aversion often depends on the relative strengths of its aversion to inverse downside inequality and inequality aversion. For the class of linear inequality indices, of which the Gini coefficient is a member, a measure characterizing the strength of an index’s aversion to inverse downside inequality against its own inequality aversion is shown to determine the ranking by the index of two distributions whose Lorenz curves cross once. The precise condition under which the same result generalizes to the case of multiple-crossing Lorenz curves is also identified.
    • Investigating the importance of B cells and antibodies during Trichuris muris infection using the IgMi mouse

      Sahputra, Rinal; orcid: 0000-0001-6612-0417; email: rinal.sahputra@manchester.ac.uk; Murphy, Emma A; Forman, Ruth; Mair, Iris; Fadlullah, Muhammad Z. H.; Waisman, Ari; Muller, Werner; Else, Kathryn J.; email: kathryn.j.else@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-08-10)
      Abstract: The IgMi mouse has normal B cell development; its B cells express an IgM B cell receptor but cannot class switch or secrete antibody. Thus, the IgMi mouse offers a model system by which to dissect out antibody-dependent and antibody-independent B cell function. Here, we provide the first detailed characterisation of the IgMi mouse post-Trichuris muris (T. muris) infection, describing expulsion phenotype, cytokine production, gut pathology and changes in T regulatory cells, T follicular helper cells and germinal centre B cells, in addition to RNA sequencing (RNA seq) analyses of wild-type littermates (WT) and mutant B cells prior to and post infection. IgMi mice were susceptible to a high-dose infection, with reduced Th2 cytokines and elevated B cell-derived IL-10 in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) compared to controls. A low-dose infection regime revealed IgMi mice to have significantly more apoptotic cells in the gut compared to WT mice, but no change in intestinal inflammation. IL-10 levels were again elevated. Collectively, this study showcases the potential of the IgMi mouse as a tool for understanding B cell biology and suggests that the B cell plays both antibody-dependent and antibody-independent roles post high- and low-dose T. muris infection. Key messages: During a high-dose T. muris infection, B cells are important in maintaining the Th1/Th2 balance in the MLN through an antibody-independent mechanism. High levels of IL-10 in the MLN early post-infection, and the presence of IL-10-producing B cells, correlates with susceptibility to T. muris infection. B cells maintain gut homeostasis during chronic T. muris infection via an antibody-dependent mechanism.
    • Investigating top tagging with Y m -Splitter and N-subjettiness

      Dasgupta, Mrinal; Helliwell, Jack; orcid: 0000-0002-8725-7794; email: jack.helliwell@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2021-10-12)
      Abstract: We study top-tagging from an analytical QCD perspective focussing on the role of two key steps therein: a step to find three-pronged substructure and a step that places constraints on radiation. For the former we use a recently introduced modification of Y-Splitter, known as Ym-Splitter, and for the latter we use the well-known N-subjettiness variable. We derive resummed results for this combination of variables for both signal jets and background jets, also including pre-grooming of the jet. Our results give new insight into the performance of top tagging tools in particular with regard to the role of the distinct steps involved.