• A Beautiful Law for the Beautiful Game? Revisiting the Football Offences Act 1991

      Pearson, Geoff; email: geoff.pearson@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-04-30)
      This article revisits the operation of the Football (Offences) Act (FOA) 1991 30 years after its enactment. FOA was introduced following recommendations of the Taylor Report 1990 as part of a raft of measures looking to balance spectator safety against the threat of football crowd disorder. Providing targeted and largely uncontroversial restrictions on football spectators, and seemingly popular with police and clubs, FOA criminalises throwing missiles, encroaching onto the pitch and engaging in indecent or ‘racialist’ chanting. It is argued here that FOA has struggled to keep pace with developments in football spectator behaviour and management, that it is increasingly used in a manner unanticipated by the legislators and that it faces new challenges in enforcement as a result of developing human rights law. The FOA may still provide a useful tool for football spectator management, but it needs substantial amendment to remain relevant to the contemporary legal and football landscape.
    • A new public educative leadership?

      Gunter, Helen M; orcid: 0000-0002-6486-5033; email: helen.gunter@manchester.ac.uk; Courtney, Steven J; orcid: 0000-0003-2379-7035 (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-21)
    • A tribute to Ron Johnston (30 March 1941–29 May 2020)

      Castree, Noel; email: Noel.Castree@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-07)
    • An Exploration into the Impact of Social Networking Site (SNS) Use on Body Image and Eating Behavior of Physically Active Men

      Flannery, Orla; orcid: 0000-0002-4348-2156; Harris, Kerrie; Kenny, Ursula Anne (SAGE Publications, 2020-04-02)
      The rapid proliferation of social networking sites (SNSs) has transformed the way people now socialize and communicate. SNSs have been recognized to contribute to body image (BI) dissatisfaction and disordered eating behavior (EB). Few qualitative studies have explored this issue in men. The aim of the current study was to investigate male SNS use and possible impacts on BI and EB. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight men in the United Kingdom. Interviews aimed to examine men’s views on the potential impact of SNSs on BI and EB. Data were thematically analyzed. Findings suggested that SNSs may be a useful nutrition idea tool and motivational platform for men to improve their diet and exercise uptake. However, results also indicated that SNS use may contribute to BI dissatisfaction and increased risk of disorder. Future research may identify risk factors of SNS use, male BI concerns, and eating pathology across the lifespan.
    • An Exploration into the Impact of Social Networking Site (SNS) Use on Body Image and Eating Behavior of Physically Active Men

      Flannery, Orla; orcid: 0000-0002-4348-2156; email: o.flannery@mmu.ac.uk; Harris, Kerrie; Kenny, Ursula Anne (SAGE Publications, 2020-04-02)
      The rapid proliferation of social networking sites (SNSs) has transformed the way people now socialize and communicate. SNSs have been recognized to contribute to body image (BI) dissatisfaction and disordered eating behavior (EB). Few qualitative studies have explored this issue in men. The aim of the current study was to investigate male SNS use and possible impacts on BI and EB. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight men in the United Kingdom. Interviews aimed to examine men’s views on the potential impact of SNSs on BI and EB. Data were thematically analyzed. Findings suggested that SNSs may be a useful nutrition idea tool and motivational platform for men to improve their diet and exercise uptake. However, results also indicated that SNS use may contribute to BI dissatisfaction and increased risk of disorder. Future research may identify risk factors of SNS use, male BI concerns, and eating pathology across the lifespan.
    • Analysis of Continuous Blood Glucose Data in People with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) After COVID-19 Vaccination Indicates a Possible Link Between the Immune and the Metabolic Response

      Heald, Adrian H.; orcid: 0000-0002-9537-4050; email: adrian.heald@manchester.ac.uk; Stedman, Mike; Horne, Linda; Rea, Rustam; Whyte, Martin; Gibson, J. Martin; Livingston, Mark; Anderson, Simon G.; Ollier, William (SAGE Publications, 2021-07-29)
    • Applications of simple and accessible methods for meta-analysis involving rare events: A simulation study

      Hodkinson, Alexander; orcid: 0000-0003-2063-0977; email: alexander.hodkinson@manchester.ac.uk; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; orcid: 0000-0001-6450-5815 (SAGE Publications, 2021-06-17)
      Meta-analysis of clinical trials targeting rare events face particular challenges when the data lack adequate number of events and are susceptible to high levels of heterogeneity. The standard meta-analysis methods (DerSimonian Laird (DL) and Mantel–Haenszel (MH)) often lead to serious distortions because of such data sparsity. Applications of the methods suited to specific incidence and heterogeneity characteristics are lacking, thus we compared nine available methods in a simulation study. We generated 360 meta-analysis scenarios where each considered different incidences, sample sizes, between-study variance (heterogeneity) and treatment allocation. We include globally recommended methods such as inverse-variance fixed/random-effect (IV-FE/RE), classical-MH, MH-FE, MH-DL, Peto, Peto-DL and the two extensions for MH bootstrapped-DL (bDL) and Peto-bDL. Performance was assessed on mean bias, mean error, coverage and power. In the absence of heterogeneity, the coverage and power when combined revealed small differences in meta-analysis involving rare and very rare events. The Peto-bDL method performed best, but only in smaller sample sizes involving rare events. For medium-to-larger sample sizes, MH-bDL was preferred. For meta-analysis involving very rare events, Peto-bDL was the best performing method which was sustained across all sample sizes. However, in meta-analysis with 20% or more heterogeneity, the coverage and power were insufficient. Performance based on mean bias and mean error was almost identical across methods. To conclude, in meta-analysis of rare binary outcomes, our results suggest that Peto-bDL is better in both rare and very rare event settings in meta-analysis with limited sample sizes. However, when heterogeneity is large, the coverage and power to detect rare events are insufficient. Whilst this study shows that some of the less studied methods appear to have good properties under sparse data scenarios, further work is needed to assess them against the more complex distributional-based methods to understand their overall performances.
    • Automating security infrastructures: Practices, imaginaries, politics

      O’Grady, Nathaniel; orcid: 0000-0003-4400-7290; email: nathaniel.ogrady@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-08-28)
      This article contributes to emergent debates in critical security studies that consider the processes and effects that arise where new forms of automated technology begin to guide security practices. It does so through research into public Wi-Fi infrastructure that has started to appear across the globe and its mobilization as a device for warning the public about emergencies. I focus specifically on an iteration of this infrastructure developing in New York called LinkNYC. According to the infrastructure’s operators, the processes that underpin emergency communication have gradually become ‘automated’ to accelerate LinkNYC’s deployment during crises. The article pursues three lines of inquiry to explore the automation of security infrastructure, in turn making three correspondent original contributions to wider debates. First, it unpacks the real-time analytics and platform-based data-sharing techniques cultivated to automate emergency communication. Here, I expand understanding of the new forms of automation now integrated into technologies harnessed for security and their practical effects. These forms of automation, I demonstrate secondly, are situated by those governing into wider imaginaries concerning the transformative promise automation bears. I argue that the proliferation of these imaginaries play a crucial role in justifying and dictating the enrolment of new devices into security. Third, it explores how automation affords private companies the opportunity to exercise discretionary decisionmaking that changes how and when infrastructure should operate during emergencies. Developing this argument, I add new dimensions to debates regarding the political ramifications associated with automation by claiming that automation redistributes authority across the public and private organizations that increasingly coordinate in bringing new technologies to bear in the security domain.
    • ‘Banks 1 – Portugal 0’? Financial player entanglements in the Eurozone crisis

      Stadheim, Victoria B-G; orcid: 0000-0001-5801-0146; email: victoria.stadheim@winchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-11-01)
      The euro has been at the heart of the debate about the crisis in the Eurozone. For some, it represents a fixed exchange rate regime, which hampered peripheral countries’ competitiveness, and for others, the European Monetary Union has a ‘flawed institutional design’ and an insufficient degree of integration that engendered the crisis. The present article analyses monetary integration from a materialist perspective. It draws attention to political agency, power and crisis management. The article focuses on the case of Portugal and poses the question of how the country's authorities were compelled to request a rescue package from the International Monetary Fund, the European Central Bank and the European Commission in 2011. It shows that this decision was triggered by the political agency of a series of players within the world of finance, most notably Portugal’s domestic banks, the independent Bank of Portugal and the European Central Bank. Reflecting their material interconnection through the European monetary system, their agency was highly coordinated. The strategies for crisis management that came to deepen the recession were not the result of insufficient European integration – they rather reflected Portugal’s form of integration within the European Monetary Union at the specific moment of crisis.
    • Beyond the Visible, the Material and the Performative: Shifting Perspectives on the Visual in Organization Studies

      Quattrone, Paolo; orcid: 0000-0003-1914-8243; email: paolo.quattrone@manchester.ac.uk; Ronzani, Matteo; orcid: 0000-0002-4908-6218; Jancsary, Dennis; orcid: 0000-0002-7836-4133; Höllerer, Markus A.; orcid: 0000-0003-2509-2696 (SAGE Publications, 2021-07-28)
      Visual organizational research has burgeoned over the past decade. Despite an initially hesitant engagement with visuality in organization and management studies, it is now only proper to speak of a ‘visual turn’ in this domain of scholarly inquiry. We wish to take the opportunity provided by the Perspectives format to engage with prominent work published in Organization Studies, in appreciation of the diversity of approaches to the visual in organizational research, and highlight some generative tensions across this body of work. In particular, we have scrutinized six articles based on their treatment of signification (how the visual mode enables meaning-making and meaning-sharing in and around organizations), manifestation (how visual organizational artefacts and their properties relate to affordances) and implication (how visualization practices produce organizational outcomes). Inspired by the frictions and gaps across these articles, we developed three distinct perspective shifts that highlight the importance of the invisible, the immaterial and the performance within visualization. We conclude with a comparative matrix that maps different conceptualizations of visualization, and suggest opportunities for future research based on how we see the field of visual organizational studies evolving.
    • Bio-inspired artificial pheromone system for swarm robotics applications

      Na, Seongin; Qiu, Yiping; Turgut, Ali E; Ulrich, Jiří; Krajník, Tomáš; Yue, Shigang; Lennox, Barry; Arvin, Farshad; orcid: 0000-0001-7950-3193; email: farshad.arvin@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-06-03)
      Pheromones are chemical substances released into the environment by an individual animal, which elicit stereotyped behaviours widely found across the animal kingdom. Inspired by the effective use of pheromones in social insects, pheromonal communication has been adopted to swarm robotics domain using diverse approaches such as alcohol, RFID tags and light. COSΦ is one of the light-based artificial pheromone systems which can emulate realistic pheromones and environment properties through the system. This article provides a significant improvement to the state-of-the-art by proposing a novel artificial pheromone system that simulates pheromones with environmental effects by adopting a model of spatio-temporal development of pheromone derived from a flow of fluid in nature. Using the proposed system, we investigated the collective behaviour of a robot swarm in a bio-inspired aggregation scenario, where robots aggregated on a circular pheromone cue with different environmental factors, that is, diffusion and pheromone shift. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed pheromone system for use in swarm robotic applications.
    • Book Review: Joe Bray, The Language of Jane Austen

      Neary, Clara (SAGE Publications, 2019-05-15)
    • Characterisation of microvessel blood velocity and segment length in the brain using multi-diffusion-time diffusion-weighted MRI

      Scott, Lauren A; orcid: 0000-0002-5423-0042; email: lauren.scott-3@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Dickie, Ben R; Rawson, Shelley D; Coutts, Graham; Burnett, Timothy L; Allan, Stuart M; orcid: 0000-0001-9646-4456; Parker, Geoff JM; Parkes, Laura M; orcid: 0000-0001-6488-507X (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-16)
      Multi-diffusion-time diffusion-weighted MRI can probe tissue microstructure, but the method has not been widely applied to the microvasculature. At long diffusion-times, blood flow in capillaries is in the diffusive regime, and signal attenuation is dependent on blood velocity (v) and capillary segment length (l). It is described by the pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*=vl/6) of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). At shorter diffusion-times, blood flow is in the ballistic regime, and signal attenuation depends on v, and not l. In theory, l could be estimated using D* and v. In this study, we compare the accuracy and repeatability of three approaches to estimating v, and therefore l: the IVIM ballistic model, the velocity autocorrelation model, and the ballistic approximation to the velocity autocorrelation model. Twenty-nine rat datasets from two strains were acquired at 7 T, with b-values between 0 and 1000 smm−2 and diffusion times between 11.6 and 50 ms. Five rats were scanned twice to assess scan-rescan repeatability. Measurements of l were validated using corrosion casting and micro-CT imaging. The ballistic approximation of the velocity autocorrelation model had lowest bias relative to corrosion cast estimates of l, and had highest repeatability.
    • Clinical Cell Therapy Guidelines for Neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2017)

      Huang, Hongyun; Young, Wise; Chen, Lin; Feng, Shiqing; Zoubi, Ziad M. Al; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Saberi, Hooshang; Moviglia, Gustavo A.; He, Xijing; Muresanu, Dafin F.; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2018-04-11)
      Cell therapy has been shown to be a key clinical therapeutic option for central nervous system diseases or damage. Standardization of clinical cell therapy procedures is an important task for professional associations devoted to cell therapy. The Chinese Branch of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) completed the first set of guidelines governing the clinical application of neurorestoration in 2011. The IANR and the Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology (CANR) collaborated to propose the current version “Clinical Cell Therapy Guidelines for Neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2017)”. The IANR council board members and CANR committee members approved this proposal on September 1, 2016, and recommend it to clinical practitioners of cellular therapy. These guidelines include items of cell type nomenclature, cell quality control, minimal suggested cell doses, patient-informed consent, indications for undergoing cell therapy, contraindications for undergoing cell therapy, documentation of procedure and therapy, safety evaluation, efficacy evaluation, policy of repeated treatments, do not charge patients for unproven therapies, basic principles of cell therapy, and publishing responsibility.
    • Clinical trial protocol: PRednisolone in early diffuse cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis (PRedSS)

      Herrick, Ariane L; orcid: 0000-0003-4941-7926; email: ariane.herrick@manchester.ac.uk; Griffiths-Jones, Deborah J; Ryder, W David; Mason, Justin C; Denton, Christopher P; orcid: 0000-0003-3975-8938 (SAGE Publications, 2020-09-17)
      Background:: Many of the painful, disabling features of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis have an inflammatory component and are potentially treatable with corticosteroid therapy. These features include painful and itchy skin, fatigue and musculoskeletal involvement. Yet many clinicians are understandably reluctant to prescribe corticosteroids because of the concern that these are a risk factor for scleroderma renal crisis. The aim of PRedSS (PRednisolone in early diffuse cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis) is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of moderate dose prednisolone in patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, specifically whether moderate dose prednisolone is (a) effective in terms of reducing pain and disability, and improving skin score and (b) safe, with particular reference to renal function. Methods:: PRedSS is a Phase II, multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial which aims to recruit 72 patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Patients are randomised to receive either prednisolone (dosage approximately 0.3 mg/kg) or placebo therapy for 6 months. The two co-primary outcome measures are the difference in mean Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index at 3 months and the difference in modified Rodnan skin score at 3 months. Secondary outcome measures include patient reported outcome measures of itch, hand function, anxiety and depression, and helplessness. Results:: Recruitment commenced in December 2017 and after a slow start (due to delays in opening centres) 25 patients have now been recruited. Conclusion:: PRedSS should help to answer the question as to whether clinicians should or should not prescribe prednisolone in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.
    • Co-producing smart cities: A Quadruple Helix approach to assessment

      Paskaleva, Krassimira; orcid: 0000-0003-2798-3302; email: k.paskaleva@manchester.ac.uk; Evans, James; Watson, Kelly (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-31)
      Cities are increasingly expected to bring urban stakeholders together to deploy smart solutions that address urban challenges and deliver long-term positive impacts. Yet, existing theory and practice struggle to explain how such impacts can be achieved, measured or evidenced. This paper makes two major contributions. Firstly, the paper shows how the Quadruple Helix (QH) innovation approach can be used as the basis for co-producing smart city projects in order to better capture their impacts. In doing so we present a synthesis of current smart city and QH literatures to argue that assessment criteria and indicators must be co-produced with the full set of smart city stakeholders to ensure relevance to context and needs. Secondly, we present an example of a co-produced monitoring and assessment framework and methodology, developed to capture and measure the impacts of smart and sustainable city solutions with the stakeholder teams involved in the European Union Triangulum smart city programme. The paper draws on experiences working with 27 smart city demonstration projects involving public, private and third-sector organisations and communities across Manchester (United Kingdom), Eindhoven (The Netherlands) and Stavanger (Norway). We show how involving QH stakeholders in co-producing impact assessment improves the ability of projects to deliver and measure impacts that matter to cities and citizens. We conclude with a series of lessons and recommendations intended to be of use to the range of organisations and communities currently involved in smart city initiatives across Europe and the world.
    • Commentary: Endovascular Sealing of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Do Current Data Justify Wider Use?

      Torella, Francesco; McWilliams, Richard G.; Fisher, Robert K. (SAGE Publications, 2018-04-12)
    • Conceptual Model of Hearing Health Inequalities (HHI Model): A Critical Interpretive Synthesis

      Tsimpida, Dialechti; orcid: 0000-0002-3709-5651; email: dialechti.tsimpida@manchester.ac.uk; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Panagioti, Maria (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-28)
      Hearing loss is a major health challenge that can have severe physical, social, cognitive, economic, and emotional consequences on people’s quality of life. Currently, the modifiable factors linked to socioeconomic inequalities in hearing health are poorly understood. Therefore, an online database search (PubMed, Scopus, and Psych) was conducted to identify literature that relates hearing loss to health inequalities as a determinant or health outcome. A total of 53 studies were selected to thematically summarize the existing literature, using a critical interpretive synthesis method, where the subjectivity of the researcher is intimately involved in providing new insights with explanatory power. The evidence provided by the literature can be summarized under four key themes: (a) There might be a vicious cycle between hearing loss and socioeconomic inequalities and lifestyle factors, (b) socioeconomic position may interact with less healthy lifestyles, which are harmful to hearing ability, (c) increasing health literacy could improve the diagnosis and prognosis of hearing loss and prevent the adverse consequences of hearing loss on people’s health, and (d) people with hearing loss might be vulnerable to receiving low-quality and less safe health care. This study uses elements from theoretical models of health inequalities to formulate a highly interpretive conceptual model for examining hearing health inequalities. This model depicts the specific mechanisms of hearing health and their evolution over time. There are many modifiable determinants of hearing loss, in several stages across an individual’s life span; tackling socioeconomic inequalities throughout the life-course could improve the population’s health, maximizing the opportunity for healthy aging.
    • Conceptualizing Internationalization at a Distance: A “Third Category” of University Internationalization

      Mittelmeier, Jenna; orcid: 0000-0002-6037-822X; email: jenna.mittelmeier@manchester.ac.uk; Rienties, Bart; Gunter, Ashley; Raghuram, Parvati (SAGE Publications, 2020-02-17)
      Internationalization efforts in higher education have often been categorized according to Jane Knight’s binary of “Internationalization at Home” (IaH) and “Internationalization Abroad” (IA). However, a rising number of technology-supported activities have created new opportunities for university internationalization. For example, students can now remain “at home” while using technology to study with an institution or program that is simultaneously located “abroad.” We have conceptualized these activities as a new third category called Internationalization at a Distance (IaD). In this article, we introduce the concept of IaD and outline an in-depth case study of an international distance education provider at scale, the University of South Africa.
    • Descriptions and the materiality of texts

      guest-editor: Vitellone, Nicole; guest-editor: Mair, Michael; guest-editor: Kierans, Ciara; Mazza, Roberta; orcid: 0000-0001-6508-8259; email: roberta.mazza@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-03-02)
      This article builds on the notions of thick and thin description elaborated by Geertz and looks at what descriptive methods have been used in the field of papyrology, a sub-discipline of classics that studies ancient manuscripts on papyrus fragments recovered through legal and illegal excavations in Egypt from the 19th century. Past generations of papyrologists have described papyri merely as resources to retrieve ancient ‘texts’. In the article I argue these descriptions have had negative effects in the way this ancient material has been studied, preserved, and also exchanged through the antiquities market. Through a series of case studies, I offer an alternative description of papyrus fragments as things, which have a power that can be activated under specific circumstances or entanglements. In demonstrating papyrus manuscripts’ unstable nature and shifting meanings, which are contingent on such entanglements, the article calls for a new politics and ethics concerning their preservation and exchange.