• Sparring dynamics and individual laterality in male South African giraffes

      editor: Koenig, Walter; Granweiler, Jessica; orcid: 0000-0003-2865-0120; email: jessica.granweiler@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Thorley, Jack; Rotics, Shay (2021-06-18)
      Abstract: Sparring by male giraffes has been commonly reported since its first description in 1958 and is believed to play a role in establishing male dominance hierarchies. However, despite being often documented, quantitative investigations of sparring behaviour are currently lacking. Here, we investigate the factors affecting the frequency, duration and intensity of sparring bouts in a population of giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa living on a private fenced reserve in Limpopo, South Africa. We show that sparring bouts were most frequently observed in young adults, and between males that were more evenly matched in size. Sparring bouts between males of similar body size were also characterised by being of high intensity and of short duration. Taken together, these results support the suggestion that sparring functions principally to provide maturing males a means of testing their competitive ability without escalating to full‐scale fights. Additionally, mature bulls intervened on young adults possibly to disable any winner effect achieved by the latter, with the most dominant bull being responsible for the majority of interventions. For the first time, we also show that individuals displayed strong laterality when engaged in sparring: individuals consistently preferred delivering blows from either their left or right side, and these preferences dictated the orientation of sparring bouts (whether head‐to‐head or head‐to‐tail). Lastly, we show that sparring displayed a seasonal peak which coincided with the onset of the wet season and possibly reflected the increased aggregation of males at this time. A more nuanced understanding of how social and environmental factors shape interactions among individuals, such as sparring, will improve our understanding and management of this charismatic animal.
    • A Case Study of a Negotiated Tender within a Small-to-Medium Construction Contractor: Modelling Project Cost Variance

      Ellis, James; email: james_ellis1998@me.com; Edwards, David John; email: drdavidedwards@aol.com; Thwala, Wellington Didibhuku; email: didi-bhukut@uj.ac.za; Ejohwomu, Obuks; orcid: 0000-0001-7098-8999; email: obuks.ejohwomu@manchester.ac.uk; Ameyaw, Ernest Effah; email: ernest.ameyaw@northumbria.ac.uk; Shelbourn, Mark; email: mark.shelbourn@bcu.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-06-18)
      This research explores the failure of competitively tendered projects in the UK construction industry to procure the most suited contractor(s) to conduct the works. Such work may have equal relevance for other developed nations globally. This research seeks to teach clients and their representatives that “lowest price” does not mean “best value”, by presenting a case study of a successfully negotiated tender undertaken by a small-to-medium enterprise (SME) contractor; SME studies are relatively scant in academic literature. By applying the “lessons learnt” principle, this study seeks to improve future practice through the development of a novel alternative procurement option (i.e., negotiation). A mixed philosophical stance combining interpretivism and pragmatism was used—interpretivism to critically review literature in order to form the basis of inductive research to discuss negotiation as a viable procurement route, and pragmatism to analyse perceptions of tendering and procurement. The methods used follow a three-stage waterfall process including: (1) literature review and pilot study; (2) quantitative analysis of case study data; and (3) qualitative data collection via a focus group. Our research underscores the need to advise clients and their representatives of the importance of understanding the scope of works allowed within a tender submission before discounting it based solely on price. In addition, we highlight the failings of competitive tendering, which results in increased costs and project duration once the works commence on site. These findings provide new contemporary insight into procurement and tendering in the construction industry, with emphasis on SME contractors, existing relationships, and open-book negotiation. This research illustrates the adverse effects of early cost estimates produced without first securing a true understanding of project buildability and programming. Our work concludes with a novel insight into an alternative procurement option that involves early SME contractor involvement in an open-book environment, without the need for a third-party cost control.
    • A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Comparing Bone Mass, Density, and Geometry Measured by DXA, pQCT, and Bone Turnover Markers in Children with PKU Taking L-Amino Acid or Glycomacropeptide Protein Substitutes

      Daly, Anne; orcid: 0000-0003-2579-8699; email: a.daly3@nhs.net; Högler, Wolfgang; orcid: 0000-0003-4328-6304; email: wolfgang.hoegler@kepleruniklinikum.at; Crabtree, Nicola; email: nicola.crabtree@nhs.net; Shaw, Nick; email: nick.shaw@nhs.net; Evans, Sharon; orcid: 0000-0002-7654-3621; email: evanss.21@me.com; Pinto, Alex; email: alex.pinto@nhs.net; Jackson, Richard; email: r.j.jackson@liverpool.ac.uk; Ashmore, Catherine; email: catherine.ashmore@nhs.net; Rocha, Júlio C.; orcid: 0000-0002-4977-8345; email: rochajc@nms.unl.pt; Strauss, Boyd J.; orcid: 0000-0002-5391-9681; email: boyd.strauss@manchester.ac.uk; et al. (MDPI, 2021-06-17)
      In patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), treated by diet therapy only, evidence suggests that areal bone mineral density (BMDa) is within the normal clinical reference range but is below the population norm. Aims: To study longitudinal bone density, mass, and geometry over 36 months in children with PKU taking either amino acid (L-AA) or casein glycomacropeptide substitutes (CGMP-AA) as their main protein source. Methodology: A total of 48 subjects completed the study, 19 subjects in the L-AA group (median age 11.1, range 5–16 years) and 29 subjects in the CGMP-AA group (median age 8.3, range 5–16years). The CGMP-AA was further divided into two groups, CGMP100 (median age 9.2, range 5–16years) (n = 13), children taking CGMP-AA only and CGMP50 (median age 7.3, range 5–15years) (n = 16), children taking a combination of CGMP-AA and L-AA. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was measured at enrolment and 36 months, peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) at 36 months only, and serum blood and urine bone turnover markers (BTM) and blood bone biochemistry at enrolment, 6, 12, and 36 months. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the three groups for DXA outcome parameters, i.e., BMDa (L2–L4 BMDa g/cm2), bone mineral apparent density (L2–L4 BMAD g/cm3) and total body less head BMDa (TBLH g/cm2). All blood biochemistry markers were within the reference ranges, and BTM showed active bone turnover with a trend for BTM to decrease with increasing age. Conclusions: Bone density was clinically normal, although the median z scores were below the population mean. BTM showed active bone turnover and blood biochemistry was within the reference ranges. There appeared to be no advantage to bone density, mass, or geometry from taking a macropeptide-based protein substitute as compared with L-AAs.
    • Management of ‘disorders of sex development’/intersex variations in children: Results from a freedom of information exercise

      Garland, Fae; orcid: 0000-0002-6725-7682; email: fae.garland@manchester.ac.uk; Thomson, Michael; Travis, Mitchell; Warburton, Joshua (SAGE Publications, 2021-06-17)
      Non-therapeutic medical interventions on the bodies of children born with disorders of sex development (DSD)/intersex variations have been subject to increasing critical scrutiny. In response to recent criticism directed at the United Kingdom, and early moves to consider reform, we report on a freedom of information exercise that sought to evaluate whether National Health Service England is meeting international standards on optimal clinical management of DSD/intersex variations. The study explored what medical protocols are being followed to help inform potential reform, particularly with regard to non-therapeutic surgery. While the exercise revealed limited examples of promising practice, current protocols in the majority of Trusts appear unlikely to meet the complex needs of these children. We identify areas where significant improvement is needed, including data management, consistency in guideline use, composition of multidisciplinary teams and addressing disciplinary hierarchies within teams. These concerns sharpen criticisms of the lack of recognition of children’s rights in this context.
    • Chronic anticoagulation is not associated with a reduced risk of acute kidney injury in hospitalised Covid-19 patients

      Parker, Kathrine; email: Kathrine.parker@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Hamilton, Patrick; Hanumapura, Prasanna; Castelino, Laveena; Murphy, Michelle; Challiner, Rachael; Thachil, Jecko; Ebah, Leonard (BioMed Central, 2021-06-16)
      Abstract: Background: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organisation. Severe disease typically presents with respiratory failure but Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and a hypercoagulable state can also occur. Early reports suggest that thrombosis may be linked with AKI. We studied the development of AKI and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 taking chronic anticoagulation therapy. Methods: Electronic records were reviewed for all adult patients admitted to Manchester University Foundation Trust Hospitals between March 10 and April 302,020 with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients with end-stage kidney disease were excluded. AKI was classified as per KDIGO criteria. Results: Of the 1032 patients with COVID-19 studied,164 (15.9%) were taking anticoagulant therapy prior to admission. There were similar rates of AKI between those on anticoagulants and those not anticoagulated (23.8% versus 19.7%) with no difference in the severity of AKI or requirement of renal replacement therapy between groups (1.2% versus 3.5%). Risk factors for AKI included hypertension, pre-existing renal disease and male sex. There was a higher mortality in those taking anticoagulant therapy (40.2% versus 30%). Patients taking anticoagulants were less likely to be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (8.5% versus 17.4%) and to receive mechanical ventilation (42.9% versus 78.1%). Conclusion: Patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy did not have a reduced incidence or severity of AKI suggesting that AKI is unlikely to be thrombotic in nature. Therapeutic anticoagulation is currently still under investigation in randomised controlled studies to determine whether it has a potential role in COVID-19 treatment.
    • Optomechanical switching of adsorption configurations of polar organic molecules by UV radiation pressure

      Arumugam, Kowsalya; Goyal, Abhishake; Chen, Hong-Ming; Dai, Jing-Huan; Gao, Mau-Fu; Nakayama, Yasuo; Pi, Tun-Wen; Papadopoulos, Theodoros A.; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Tang, Shu-Jung; email: sjtang@phys.nthu.edu.tw (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021-06-16)
      Abstract: Using photoemission spectroscopy (PES), we have systematically investigated the behavior of polar organic molecule, chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc), adsorbed in the Cl-down configuration on the Ag(111) substrate at low temperature − 195 °C under UV irradiation with a range of different photon fluxes. Judging from the evolution of photoemission spectral line shapes of molecular energy states, we discovered that the Cl atoms are so robustly anchored at Ag(111) that the impinging photons cannot flip the ClAlPc molecules, but instead they crouch them down due to radiation pressure; we observe that the phthalocyanine (Pc) lobes bend down to interact with Ag atoms on the substrate and induce charge transfer from them. As photon flux is increased, radiation pressure on the Pc plane initiates tunneling of the Cl atom through the molecular plane to turn the adsorption configuration of ClAlPc from Cl-down to an upheld Cl-up configuration, elucidating an optomechanical way of manipulating the dipole direction of polar molecules. Finally, work function measurements provide a distinct signature of the resulting upheld Cl-up configuration as it leads to a large increase in vacuum level (VL), ~ 0.4 eV higher than that of a typical flat-on Cl-up configuration driven by thermal annealing.
    • Integrated Cleaner Biocatalytic Process for Biodiesel Production from Crude Palm Oil Comparing to Refined Palm Oil

      Muanruksa, Papasanee; email: m.papasanee@kkumail.com; Wongsirichot, Phavit; email: phavit.wongsirichot@manchester.ac.uk; Winterburn, James; email: james.winterburn@manchester.ac.uk; Kaewkannetra, Pakawadee; email: paknar@kku.ac.th (MDPI, 2021-06-15)
      An integrated cleaner biocatalyst process was performed for biodiesel production from crude palm oil (CPO) and refined palm oil (RPO). It was evaluated on process efficiency in terms of high purity of biodiesel as well as by-products without purification, less wastewater, less time consuming, and a simple downstream process. A first saponification step was carried out in both f CPO and RPO, a high purity of glycerol (86.25% and 87.5%) was achieved, respectively, while free fatty acids (FFASs) in soap were obtained after hexane extraction. High yields of FFASs were obtained from both CPO and RPO (98.83% and 90.94%). Subsequently, the FFAs were esterified to biodiesel by a biocatalyst of immobilized lipase. The highest biodiesel yields achieved were of 92.14% and 92.58% (CPO and RPO). Remarkably, biodiesel yields obtained from CPO and RPO achieved satisfactory values and the biocatalyst used could be reused for more than 16–17 cycles.
    • Screening, Diagnostic and Prognostic Tests for COVID-19: A Comprehensive Review

      Ulinici, Mariana; orcid: 0000-0002-9292-0124; email: mariana.ulinici@usmf.md; Covantev, Serghei; orcid: 0000-0001-7236-5699; email: kovantsev.s.d@gmail.com; Wingfield-Digby, James; email: James.Digby@mft.nhs.uk; Beloukas, Apostolos; orcid: 0000-0001-5639-0528; email: abeloukas@uniwa.gr; Mathioudakis, Alexander G.; orcid: 0000-0002-4675-9616; email: alexander.mathioudakis@manchester.ac.uk; Corlateanu, Alexandru; orcid: 0000-0002-3278-436X; email: alexandru.corlateanu@usmf.md (MDPI, 2021-06-14)
      While molecular testing with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains the gold-standard test for COVID-19 diagnosis and screening, more rapid or affordable molecular and antigen testing options have been developed. More affordable, point-of-care antigen testing, despite being less sensitive compared to molecular assays, might be preferable for wider screening initiatives. Simple laboratory, imaging and clinical parameters could facilitate prognostication and triage. This comprehensive review summarises current evidence on the diagnostic, screening and prognostic tests for COVID-19.
    • Mortality in 98 type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus: Foot ulcer location is an independent risk determinant

      Schofield, Heather; Haycocks, Samantha; Robinson, Adam; Edmonds, Michael; Anderson, Simon G; Heald, Adrian H.; orcid: 0000-0002-9537-4050; email: adrian.heald@manchester.ac.uk (2021-06-14)
      Abstract: Introduction: We previously demonstrated in both a longitudinal study and in meta‐analysis (pooled relative‐risk RR, 2.45) that all‐cause mortality is significantly higher in people with diabetes foot ulceration (DFU) than with those without a foot ulcer. In this prospective study, we looked at the factors linked to mortality after presentation to podiatry with DFU. Methods: Ninety‐eight individuals recruited consecutively from the Salford Royal Hospital Multidisciplinary Foot Clinic in Spring 2016 were followed up for up to 48 months. Data concerning health outcomes were extracted from the electronic patient record (EPR). Results: Seventeen people (17) had type 1 diabetes mellitus, and 81 had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thirty‐one were women. The mean age (range) was 63.6 (28–90) years with maximum diabetes duration 45 years. Mean HbA1c was 72 (95% CI: 67–77) mmol/mol; 97% had neuropathy (International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) monofilament); 62% had vascular insufficiency (Doppler studies); 69% of ulcers were forefoot, and 23% of ulcers were hind foot in location. Forty of 98 (40%) patients died in follow‐up with 27% of death certificates including sepsis (not foot‐related) and 35% renal failure as cause of death. Multivariate regression analysis indicated a 6.3 (95% CI: 3.9–8.1) fold increased risk of death with hind foot ulcer, independent of age/BMI/gender/HbA1c/eGFR/total cholesterol level. Conclusion: This prospective study has indicated a very high long‐term mortality rate in individuals with DFU, greater for those with a hind foot ulcer and shown a close relation between risk of sepsis/renal failure and DFU mortality, highlighting again the importance of addressing all risk factors as soon as people present with a foot ulcer.
    • “Sex isn’t everything”: views of people with experience of psychosis on intimate relationships and implications for mental health services

      White, Rebecca; email: rebecca.white@manchester.ac.uk; Haddock, Gillian; Varese, Filippo; Haarmans, Maria (BioMed Central, 2021-06-14)
      Abstract: Background: The experience of psychosis and associated discrimination can be a barrier to forming and maintaining romantic relationships. Sexual health interventions within mental health services often focus on contraception and reducing risk. There are no known studies that seek to understand what support, if any, people who experience psychosis want regarding psychosocial aspects of intimate relationships. Methods: To address this gap in the literature, qualitative data was collected to investigate how people with experience of psychosis conceptualise romantic relationships and what support they would like in this area of their lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 mental health service users (four women, six men) with experience of psychosis. Interviews were analysed from a critical realist social constructionism perspective using thematic analysis. Results: Stigma was a prominent theme, described as impacting numerous aspects of romantic relationships. Power imbalance within services meant participants were wary of having conversations about relationships with professionals and identified a therapeutic alliance as a prerequisite. However, abusive relationships were highlighted as a needed area for support by services. Conclusion: Services should be trauma-informed and help those in abusive relationships. The power and autonomy of people with experience of psychosis should be maintained in any discussions or interventions regarding intimate relationships. A strong therapeutic alliance is essential for any work in this area.
    • The effects of psychosocial stress on item, cued‐pair and emotional memory

      McManus, Elizabeth; orcid: 0000-0002-8508-2054; Talmi, Deborah; Haroon, Hamied; Muhlert, Nils; email: nils.muhlert@manchester.ac.uk (2021-06-14)
      Abstract: Physical stress, such as from the cold‐pressor test, has been robustly associated with altered memory retrieval, but it is less clear whether the same happens following psychosocial stress. Studies using psychosocial stressors report mixed effects on memory, leading to uncertainty about the common cognitive impact of both forms of stress. The current study uses a series of four carefully designed experiments, each differing by only a single critical factor to determine the effects of psychosocial stress on specific aspects of episodic memory. In three experiments, we induced psychosocial stress after participants encoded words, then assessed retrieval of those words after a prolonged delay. These experiments found no effect of post‐encoding stress on recognition of neutral words or cued recall of word‐pairs, but a small effect on recollection of semantically related words. There were, however, positive relationships within the stress group between measures of stress (cortisol in experiment 1 and self‐reported‐anxiety in experiment 3) and recollection of single word stimuli. In the fourth experiment, we found that psychosocial stress immediately before retrieval did not influence word recognition. Recollection, particularly for semantically related stimuli, may therefore be more susceptible to the effects of psychosocial stress, and future studies can assess how this relates to other forms of stress. Overall, our findings suggest that the effects of psychosocial stress on episodic memory may be more subtle than expected, warranting further exploration in larger studies.
    • Breaking degeneracies with the Sunyaev-Zeldovich full bispectrum

      Ravenni, Andrea; email: andrea.ravenni@manchester.ac.uk; Rizzato, Matteo; email: rizzato@strw.leidenuniv.nl; Radinović, Slađana; email: sladana.radinovic@astro.uio.no; Liguori, Michele; email: liguori@pd.infn.it; Lacasa, Fabien; email: fabien.lacasa@universite-paris-saclay.fr; Sellentin, Elena; email: sellentin@strw.leidenuniv.nl (IOP Publishing, 2021-06-14)
      Abstract: Non-Gaussian (NG) statistics of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect carry significant information which is not contained in the power spectrum. Here, we perform a joint Fisher analysis of the tSZ power spectrum and bispectrum to verify how much the full bispectrum can contribute to improve parameter constraints. We go beyond similar studies of this kind in several respects: first of all, we include the complete power spectrum and bispectrum (auto- and cross-) covariance in the analysis, computing all NG contributions; furthermore we consider a multi-component foreground scenario and model the effects of component separation in the forecasts; finally, we consider an extended set of both cosmological and intra-cluster medium parameters. We show that the tSZ bispectrum is very efficient at breaking parameter degeneracies, making it able to produce even stronger cosmological constraints than the tSZ power spectrum: e.g. the standard deviation on σ8 shrinks from σPS(σ8)=0.35 to σBS(σ8)=0.065 when we consider a multi-parameter analysis. We find that this is mostly due to the different response of separate triangle types (e.g. equilateral and squeezed) to changes in model parameters. While weak, this shape dependence is clearly non-negligible for cosmological parameters, and it is even stronger, as expected, for intra-cluster medium parameters.
    • Breaking degeneracies with the Sunyaev-Zeldovich full bispectrum

      Ravenni, Andrea; email: andrea.ravenni@manchester.ac.uk; Rizzato, Matteo; email: rizzato@strw.leidenuniv.nl; Radinović, Slađana; email: sladana.radinovic@astro.uio.no; Liguori, Michele; email: liguori@pd.infn.it; Lacasa, Fabien; email: fabien.lacasa@universite-paris-saclay.fr; Sellentin, Elena; email: sellentin@strw.leidenuniv.nl (IOP Publishing, 2021-06-14)
      Abstract: Non-Gaussian (NG) statistics of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect carry significant information which is not contained in the power spectrum. Here, we perform a joint Fisher analysis of the tSZ power spectrum and bispectrum to verify how much the full bispectrum can contribute to improve parameter constraints. We go beyond similar studies of this kind in several respects: first of all, we include the complete power spectrum and bispectrum (auto- and cross-) covariance in the analysis, computing all NG contributions; furthermore we consider a multi-component foreground scenario and model the effects of component separation in the forecasts; finally, we consider an extended set of both cosmological and intra-cluster medium parameters. We show that the tSZ bispectrum is very efficient at breaking parameter degeneracies, making it able to produce even stronger cosmological constraints than the tSZ power spectrum: e.g. the standard deviation on σ8 shrinks from σPS(σ8)=0.35 to σBS(σ8)=0.065 when we consider a multi-parameter analysis. We find that this is mostly due to the different response of separate triangle types (e.g. equilateral and squeezed) to changes in model parameters. While weak, this shape dependence is clearly non-negligible for cosmological parameters, and it is even stronger, as expected, for intra-cluster medium parameters.
    • High dose genistein in Sanfilippo syndrome: A randomised controlled trial

      Ghosh, Arunabha; Rust, Stewart; Langford‐Smith, Kia; Weisberg, Daniel; Canal, Maria; Breen, Catherine; Hepburn, Michelle; Tylee, Karen; Vaz, Frédéric M.; Vail, Andy; et al. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2021-06-13)
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high dose genistein aglycone in Sanfilippo syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type III). High doses of genistein aglycone have been shown to correct neuropathology and hyperactive behaviour in mice, but efficacy in humans is uncertain. This was a single centre, double‐blinded, randomised, placebo‐controlled study with open‐label extension phase. Randomised participants received either 160 mg/kg/day genistein aglycone or placebo for 12 months; subsequently all participants received genistein for 12 months. The primary outcome measure was the change in heparan sulfate concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with secondary outcome measures including heparan sulfate in plasma and urine, total glycosaminoglycans in urine, cognitive and adaptive behaviour scores, quality of life measures and actigraphy. Twenty‐one participants were randomised and 20 completed the placebo‐controlled phase. After 12 months of treatment, the CSF heparan sulfate concentration was 5.5% lower in the genistein group (adjusted for baseline values), but this was not statistically significant (P = .26), and CSF heparan sulfate increased in both groups during the open‐label extension phase. Reduction of urinary glycosaminoglycans was significantly greater in the genistein group (32.1% lower than placebo after 12 months, P = .0495). Other biochemical and clinical parameters showed no significant differences between groups. High dose genistein aglycone (160 mg/kg/day) was not associated with clinically meaningful reductions in CSF heparan sulfate and no evidence of clinical efficacy was detected. However, there was a statistically significant reduction in urine glycosaminoglycans. These data do not support the use of genistein aglycone therapy in mucopolysaccharidosis type III. High dose genistein aglycone does not lead to clinically meaningful reductions in biomarkers or improvement in neuropsychological outcomes in mucopolysaccharidosis type III.
    • Seismic Design of Offshore Wind Turbines: Good, Bad and Unknowns

      Bhattacharya, Subhamoy; orcid: 0000-0002-8290-194X; email: S.Bhattacharya@surrey.ac.uk; Biswal, Suryakanta; email: s.biswal@surrey.ac.uk; Aleem, Muhammed; orcid: 0000-0003-2360-5400; email: m.aleem@surrey.ac.uk; Amani, Sadra; orcid: 0000-0002-4072-4703; email: sadra.amani@surrey.ac.uk; Prabhakaran, Athul; email: aparayan@eng.ucsd.edu; Prakhya, Ganga; email: g.prakhya@srm.com; Lombardi, Domenico; email: domenico.lombardi@manchester.ac.uk; Mistry, Harsh K.; email: harsh.mistry@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-06-12)
      Large scale offshore wind farms are relatively new infrastructures and are being deployed in regions prone to earthquakes. Offshore wind farms comprise of both offshore wind turbines (OWTs) and balance of plants (BOP) facilities, such as inter-array and export cables, grid connection etc. An OWT structure can be either grounded systems (rigidly anchored to the seabed) or floating systems (with tension legs or catenary cables). OWTs are dynamically-sensitive structures made of a long slender tower with a top-heavy mass, known as Nacelle, to which a heavy rotating mass (hub and blades) is attached. These structures, apart from the variable environmental wind and wave loads, may also be subjected to earthquake related hazards in seismic zones. The earthquake hazards that can affect offshore wind farm are fault displacement, seismic shaking, subsurface liquefaction, submarine landslides, tsunami effects and a combination thereof. Procedures for seismic designing OWTs are not explicitly mentioned in current codes of practice. The aim of the paper is to discuss the seismic related challenges in the analysis and design of offshore wind farms and wind turbine structures. Different types of grounded and floating systems are considered to evaluate the seismic related effects. However, emphasis is provided on Tension Leg Platform (TLP) type floating wind turbine. Future research needs are also identified.
    • Construction of C-C bonds via photoreductive coupling of ketones and aldehydes in the metal-organic-framework MFM-300(Cr)

      Luo, Tian; Li, Lili; Chen, Yinlin; orcid: 0000-0001-7878-2063; An, Jie; email: jie_an@cau.edu.cn; Liu, Chengcheng; Yan, Zheng; Carter, Joseph H.; orcid: 0000-0001-5530-7390; Han, Xue; Sheveleva, Alena M.; Tuna, Floriana; orcid: 0000-0002-5541-1750; et al. (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021-06-11)
      Abstract: Construction of C-C bonds via reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones is hindered by the highly negative reduction potential of these carbonyl substrates, particularly ketones, and this renders the formation of ketyl radicals extremely endergonic. Here, we report the efficient activation of carbonyl compounds by the formation of specific host-guest interactions in a hydroxyl-decorated porous photocatalyst. MFM-300(Cr) exhibits a band gap of 1.75 eV and shows excellent catalytic activity and stability towards the photoreductive coupling of 30 different aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding 1,2-diols at room temperature. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy confirm the generation of ketyl radicals via confinement within MFM-300(Cr). This protocol removes simultaneously the need for a precious metal-based photocatalyst or for amine-based sacrificial agents for the photochemical synthesis.
    • The Mind’s Presence to Itself: In Search of Non‐intentional Awareness

      Mitchell, Jonathan; orcid: 0000-0002-7008-4655; email: jonathan.mitchell@manchester.ac.uk (2021-06-11)
      Abstract: According to some philosophers, the mind enjoys a form of presence to itself. That is to say, in addition to being aware of whatever objects it is aware of, it is also (co‐presently) aware of itself. This paper explores the proposal that we should think about this kind of experiential‐presence in terms of a form of non‐intentional awareness. Various candidates for the relevant form of awareness, as constituting supposed non‐intentional experiential‐presence, are considered and are shown to encounter significant problems. The fact that a plausible account of the non‐intentional awareness which experience putatively has of itself cannot be framed with reference to such forms of awareness is grounds for scepticism concerning the cogency of non‐intentional experiential presence.
    • Combined Pulsed RF GD-OES and HAXPES for Quantified Depth Profiling through Coatings

      Bouttemy, Muriel; orcid: 0000-0001-5907-2576; email: muriel.bouttemy@uvsq.fr; Béchu, Solène; email: solene.bechu@uvsq.fr; Spencer, Ben F.; email: ben.spencer@manchester.ac.uk; Dally, Pia; email: pia.dally@ipvf.fr; Chapon, Patrick; email: patrick.chapon@horiba.com; Etcheberry, Arnaud; email: arnaud.etcheberry@uvsq.fr (MDPI, 2021-06-11)
      Chemical characterization at buried interfaces is a real challenge, as the physico-chemical processes operating at the interface govern the properties of many systems and devices. We have developed a methodology based on the combined use of pulsed RF GD-OES (pulsed Radio Frequency Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry) and XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) to facilitate the access to deeply buried locations (taking advantage of the high profiling rate of the GD-OES) and perform an accurate chemical diagnosis using XPS directly inside the GD crater. The reliability of the chemical information is, however, influenced by a perturbed layer present at the surface of the crater, hindering traditional XPS examination due to a relatively short sampling depth. Sampling below the perturbed layer may, however, can be achieved using a higher energy excitation source with an increased sampling depth, and is enabled here by a new laboratory-based HAXPES (Hard X-ray PhotoElectron Spectroscopy) (Ga-Kα, 9.25 keV). This new approach combining HAXPES with pulsed RF GD-OES requires benchmarking and is here demonstrated and evaluated on InP. The perturbed depth is estimated and the consistency of the chemical information measured is demonstrated, offering a new route for advanced chemical depth profiling through coatings and heterostructures.
    • The impact of socio-demographic factors on the survival of cancer patients in Zimbabwe

      Okorie, Idika E.; Moyo, Ricardo; Nadarajah, Saralees; email: saralees.nadarajah@manchester.ac.uk (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021-06-10)
      Abstract: We provide a survival analysis of cancer patients in Zimbabwe. Our results show that young cancer patients have lower but not significant hazard rate compared to old cancer patients. Male cancer patients have lower but not significant hazard rate compared to female cancer patients. Race and marital status are significant risk factors for cancer patients in Zimbabwe.
    • Differential Proinflammatory Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus by Airway Epithelial Cells In Vitro Are Protease Dependent

      Rowley, Jessica; email: j.rowley@imperial.ac.uk; Namvar, Sara; orcid: 0000-0001-5571-368X; email: s.namvar@salford.ac.uk; Gago, Sara; orcid: 0000-0002-7027-4598; email: sara.gago-2@manchester.ac.uk; Labram, Briony; email: briony.labram@nc3rs.org.uk; Bowyer, Paul; email: paul.bowyer@manchester.ac.uk; Richardson, Malcolm D.; orcid: 0000-0001-5672-9552; email: Malcolm.Richardson@manchester.ac.uk; Herrick, Sarah E.; orcid: 0000-0002-9085-5664; email: Sarah.Herrick@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-06-10)
      Aspergillus fumigatus is an important human respiratory mould pathogen. In addition to a barrier function, airway epithelium elicits a robust defence against inhaled A. fumigatus by initiating an immune response. The manner by which A. fumigatus initiates this response and the reasons for the immunological heterogeneity with different isolates are unclear. Both direct fungal cell wall–epithelial cell interaction and secretion of soluble proteases have been proposed as possible mechanisms. Our aim was to determine the contribution of fungal proteases to the induction of epithelial IL-6 and IL-8 in response to different A. fumigatus isolates. Airway epithelial cells were exposed to conidia from a low or high protease-producing strain of A. fumigatus, and IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression and protein production were quantified. The role of proteases in cytokine production was further determined using specific protease inhibitors. The proinflammatory cytokine response correlated with conidia germination and hyphal extension. IL-8 induction was significantly reduced in the presence of matrix metalloprotease or cysteine protease inhibitors. With a high protease-producing strain of A. fumigatus, IL-6 release was metalloprotease dependent. Dectin-1 antagonism also inhibited the production of both cytokines. In conclusion, A. fumigatus-secreted proteases mediate a proinflammatory response by airway epithelial cells in a strain-dependent manner.