• Recovery capital in the context of homelessness, high levels of alcohol consumption, and adverse significant life events

      Ross-Houle, Kim; Porcellato, Lorna; orcid: 0000-0002-8656-299X (Informa UK Limited, 2021-12-16)
    • ‘Every partnership [… is] an emotional experience’: towards a model of partnership support for addressing the emotional challenges of student–staff partnerships

      Healey, Ruth L.; orcid: 0000-0001-6872-4900; France, Derek; orcid: 0000-0001-6874-6800 (Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-10)
    • Interaction between Dietary Fat Intake and Metabolic Genetic Risk Score on 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in a Turkish Adult Population

      Isgin-Atici, Kubra; orcid: 0000-0002-3088-8675; email: k.isginatici@gmail.com; Alathari, Buthaina E.; email: b.e.a.a.alathari@pgr.reading.ac.uk; Turan-Demirci, Busra; orcid: 0000-0001-5497-0887; email: busraturan@hacettepe.edu.tr; Sendur, Suleyman Nahit; email: snahitsendur@hotmail.com; Lay, Incilay; orcid: 0000-0002-1466-5746; email: lincilay@gmail.com; Ellahi, Basma; email: b.ellahi@chester.ac.uk; Alikasifoglu, Mehmet; email: kasif@hacettepe.edu.tr; Erbas, Tomris; orcid: 0000-0003-1377-9394; email: erbast@hacettepe.edu.tr; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; email: zbtuncer@hacettepe.edu.tr; Vimaleswaran, Karani Santhanakrishnan; orcid: 0000-0002-8485-8930; email: v.karani@reading.ac.uk (MDPI, 2022-01-17)
      Previous studies have pointed out a link between vitamin D status and metabolic traits, however, consistent evidence has not been provided yet. This cross-sectional study has used a nutrigenetic approach to investigate the interaction between metabolic-genetic risk score (GRS) and dietary intake on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in 396 unrelated Turkish adults, aged 24−50 years. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in those with a metabolic-GRS ≥ 1 risk allele than those with a metabolic-GRS 1 risk allele (p = 0.020). A significant interaction between metabolic-GRS and dietary fat intake (energy%) on serum 25(OH)D levels was identified (Pinteraction = 0.040). Participants carrying a metabolic-GRS ≥ 1 risk allele and consuming a high fat diet (≥38% of energy = 122.3 ± 52.51 g/day) had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.006) in comparison to those consuming a low-fat diet (38% of energy = 82.5 ± 37.36 g/d). In conclusion, our study suggests a novel interaction between metabolic-GRS and dietary fat intake on serum 25(OH)D level, which emphasises that following the current dietary fat intake recommendation (35% total fat) could be important in reducing the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this Turkish population. Nevertheless, further larger studies are needed to verify this interaction, before implementing personalized dietary recommendations for the maintenance of optimal vitamin D status.
    • Use of vision-based augmented reality to improve student learning of the spine and spinal deformities. An exploratory study.

      Kandasamy, Gok; orcid: 0000-0002-2569-2205; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; orcid: 0000-0001-7784-500X; Cordry, Julien; orcid: 0000-0002-6489-3026; McSherry, Rob; orcid: 0000-0003-1335-5014 (2021-10-29)
      <h4>Background</h4>Knowledge of anatomy and pathology of the spine together with spinal deformities is integral to several healthcare disciplines. This knowledge is crucial for graduates for assessment and management of patients with spinal problems. Physiotherapy students generally find it difficult to conceptualise the integrity of the structure and function of the spine that affects their acquisition of related physiotherapy skills.<h4>Objective</h4>Our first objective was to introduce and evaluate the use of a Vision-Based Augmented Reality (VBAR) mobile application to teach students the anatomy and accessory movements of the spine. A further objective was to explore student experiences of and engagement with VBAR by conducting a post-lecture survey comparing VBAR to traditional teaching.<h4>Methods</h4>This post-intervention crossover design study included two groups: final year physiotherapy students (<i>n</i> = 74) and mean age of 23 (±1.8). The computing department at Teesside University developed the VBAR mobile application. Moreover, a survey adapted from a previously published article was disseminated to students to evaluate their level of understanding following the use of the VBAR application.<h4>Results</h4>The results demonstrated that the median questionnaire scores in students' perceived level of understanding for the VBAR group were significantly higher than for the traditional teaching group (<i>p</i> < 0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results of this post-intervention survey suggest that the integration of VBAR learning activities results in gains relating to students' understanding of spinal anatomy, function, pathology and deformities. These findings suggest that VBAR could be an additional teaching tool to support student learning.<h4>Clinical implications</h4>Greater understanding is expected to increase the quality of clinical practice.
    • Regucalcin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in Cos-7 kidney cells and translocates from the nucleus to the mitochondria

      Mohammed, Noor A.; Hakeem, Israa J.; Hodges, Nikolas; Michelangeli, Francesco; orcid: 0000-0002-4878-046X (Portland Press Ltd., 2022-01-06)
      Abstract Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer drug, which can have unwanted side-effects such as cardiac and kidney toxicity. A detailed investigation was undertaken of the acute cytotoxic mechanisms of DOX on kidney cells, using Cos-7 cells as kidney cell model. Cos-7 cells were exposed to DOX for a period of 24 h over a range of concentrations, and the LC50 was determined to be 7 µM. Further investigations showed that cell death was mainly via apoptosis involving Ca2+ and caspase 9, in addition to autophagy. Regucalcin (RGN), a cytoprotective protein found mainly in liver and kidney tissues, was overexpressed in Cos-7 cells and shown to protect against DOX-induced cell death. Subcellular localization studies in Cos-7 cells showed RGN to be strongly correlated with the nucleus. However, upon treatment with DOX for 4 h, which induced membrane blebbing in some cells, the localization appeared to be correlated more with the mitochondria in these cells. It is yet to be determined whether this translocation is part of the cytoprotective mechanism or a consequence of chemically induced cell stress.
    • Raising the bar in sports performance research

      Abt, Grant; orcid: 0000-0002-4079-9270; Jobson, Simon; orcid: 0000-0002-1377-2128; Morin, Jean-Benoit; orcid: 0000-0003-3808-6762; Passfield, Louis; orcid: 0000-0001-6223-162X; Sampaio, Jaime; orcid: 0000-0003-2335-9991; Sunderland, Caroline; orcid: 0000-0001-7484-1345; Twist, Craig; orcid: 0000-0001-6168-0378 (Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-06)
    • Weight loss practices and eating behaviours among female physique athletes: Acquiring the optimal body composition for competition

      editor: McLester, Cherilyn N.; Alwan, Nura; orcid: 0000-0002-7033-6250; email: N.alwan@2016.ljmu.ac.uk; Moss, Samantha L.; Davies, Ian G.; orcid: 0000-0003-3722-8466; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J.; Enright, Kevin (Public Library of Science, 2022-01-14)
      Little is known about weight loss practices and eating behaviours in female physique athletes. This study investigated the weight loss history, practices, and key influences during the pre-competition period in a large cohort of female physique athletes stratified by division and experience level. Eating attitudes and behaviours were assessed to identify whether athletes were at risk of developing an eating disorder. Using a cross-sectional research design, female physique athletes (n = 158) were recruited and completed an anonymous online self-reported survey consisting of two validated questionnaires: Rapid Weight Loss Questionnaire and Eating Attitudes Test-26. Irrespective of division or experience, female physique athletes used a combination of weight loss practices during the pre-competition phase. Gradual dieting (94%), food restriction (64%) and excessive exercise (84%), followed by body water manipulation via water loading (73%) were the most commonly used methods. Overall, 37% of female physique athletes were considered at risk of developing an eating disorder. Additionally, 42% of female physique athletes used two pathogenic weight control methods with 34% of Figure novice athletes indicating binge eating once a week or more. The coach (89%) and another athlete (73%) were identified as key influences on athletes’ dieting practices and weight loss. The prevalence of athletes identified with disordered eating symptoms and engaging in pathogenic weight control methods is concerning. In future, female physique athletes should seek advice from registered nutritionists to optimise weight management practices and minimise the risk of developing an eating disorder.
    • Lower pollen nutritional quality delays nest building and egg laying in Bombus terrestris audax micro-colonies leading to reduced biomass gain

      Ryder, Jordan T.; Cherrill, Andrew; Thompson, Helen M.; Walters, Keith F. A.; orcid: 0000-0002-5262-3125; email: kwalters@ic.ac.uk (Springer Paris, 2021-09-27)
      Abstract: The performance of Bombus terrestris micro-colonies fed five diets differing in pollen species composition and level of nine essential amino acids (EAA; leucine, lysine, valine, arginine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, histidine, methionine) was assessed for 37 days by recording total biomass gain, nest building initiation, brood production (eggs, small and large larvae, pupae, drones), nectar, and pollen collection. Stronger colony performance was linked to higher amino acid levels but no consistent differences in biomass gain were recorded between mono- and poly-species diets. Poorest performance occurred in micro-colonies offered pure oilseed rape (OSR) pollen which contained the lowest EAA levels. Reduced micro-colony development (delayed nest initiation and lower brood production) was related to OSR proportion in the diet and lower EAA levels. Results are discussed in relation to selection of plant species in the design of habitats to promote bee populations.
    • La mémoire des conflits dans la fiction française contemporaine

      OBERGÖKER, Timo (Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-04)
    • The LUCID study: living with ulcerative colitis; identifying the socioeconomic burden in Europe.

      Ruiz-Casas, Leonardo; Evans, Jonathan; orcid: 0000-0002-3490-7191; email: jonathan.evans@hcdeconomics.com; Rose, Alison; Pedra, Gabriel Ghizzi; Lobo, Alan; Finnegan, Alan; Hayee, Bu; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Sturm, Andreas; Burisch, Johan; et al. (2021-12-04)
      <h4>Background</h4>Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. Current treatment strategies place considerable economic and humanistic burdens on patients. The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic burden of UC in adult patients in European countries in a real-world setting.<h4>Methods</h4>In this retrospective, cross-sectional and observational pan-European study, patients with moderate or severe UC were assigned to ARM 1 and patients who had moderate or severe UC but achieved mild or remission status 12 months before index date (or clinical consultation date), were assigned to ARM 2. Clinical and medical resource use data were collected via electronic case report forms, and data on non-medical and indirect costs, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were collected via patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) questionnaires. Per-patient annual total costs per ARM and per country were calculated using the collated resource use in the last 12 months (between the start of the documentation period and patient consultation or index date) and country specific unit costs. Quality of life was described by arm and by country.<h4>Results</h4>In the physician-reported eCRF population (n = 2966), the mean annual direct medical cost was €4065 in ARM 1 (n = 1835) and €2935 in ARM 2 (n = 1131). In the PPIE population (ARM 1, n = 1001; ARM 2, n = 647), mean annual direct cost was €4526 in ARM 1 and €3057 in ARM 2, mean annual direct non-medical cost was €1162 in ARM 1 and €1002 in ARM 2, mean annual indirect cost was €3098 in ARM 1 and €2309 ARM 2, and mean annual total cost was in €8787 in ARM 1 and €6368 in ARM 2. HRQoL scores showed moderate to high burden of UC in both groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The cost and HRQoL burden were high in patients in both ARM 1 and ARM 2 indicating unmet needs in the UC active population.
    • Human-controlled reproductive experience may contribute to incestuous behavior observed in reintroduced semi-feral stallions (Equuscaballus).

      Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Jaworska, Joanna; email: joanna.jaworska11@gmail.com; Siemieniuch, Marta; Jaworski, Zbigniew; Stanley, Christina R; Wocławek-Potocka, Izabela; Lansade, Léa (2021-12-17)
      Equine reproductive behavior is affected by many factors, some remaining poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that a period of captivity during the juvenile period and human-controlled reproduction may potentially be involved in the disruption of the development of incestuous mating avoidance behavior in sanctuary-reintroduced male Konik polski horses. Between 1986 and 2000, cases of incestuous behavior in harem stallions born and reared until weaning in the sanctuary were studied. Eight males lived in the sanctuary's feral herd for the rest of their lives (the non-captive group; nC). They gained their own harem of mares without human intervention (no human-controlled reproductive activity, nHC). Another five stallions were removed as weanlings, reared in captivity and then reintroduced as adults (captive, C). Three of these C stallions were used as in-hand breeding stallions, one as a "teaser" (human-controlled reproductive activity, HC) and one was not used for reproduction in captivity (nHC). Reproductive records for 46 mares, daughters of all 13 harem stallions, were scrutinized and cases of incestuous breeding were recorded by interrogation of foal parentage records. C stallions failed to expel more daughters than nC stallions (33% vs. 18%, P = 0.045), and mated with significantly more of them (28% vs. 11%, P = 0.025). Interestingly, HC stallions expelled fewer (60%) and successfully mated with more (33%) daughters that nHC stallions (84% expelled, P = 0.013, and 10% successful mating with daughters, P = 0.010). All HC stallions bred incestuously at least once. We propose that human intervention during a critical period of development of social and reproductive behavior in young stallions, by enforced separation from their natal herd and in-hand breeding, may contribute to their later aberrant behavior and disruption of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in these stallions. The previous occurrence of human-controlled breeding may be one of the factors promoting incestuous behavior of stallions in natural conditions. The uninterrupted presence of stallions in their harems and herd member recognition may also play important roles in inbreeding avoidance in horses. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Marginal habitats provide unexpected survival benefits to the alpine marmot

      Ferrari, Caterina; orcid: 0000-0002-6316-9706; email: caterina.ferrari@unito.it; email: caterinaww@gmail.com; Zanet, Stefania; orcid: 0000-0002-7543-399X; Rolando, Antonio; orcid: 0000-0002-3432-1780; Bertolino, Sandro; orcid: 0000-0002-1063-8281; Bassano, Bruno; von Hardenberg, Achaz (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2022-01-06)
      Abstract: Age‐specific survival trajectories can vary significantly among wild populations. Identifying the environmental conditions associated with such variability is of primary importance to understand the dynamics of free‐ranging populations. In this study, we investigated survival variations among alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) families living in areas with opposite environmental characteristics: the typical habitat of the species (alpine meadow) and a marginal area bordering the forest. We used data collected during an 11‐year study in the Gran Paradiso National Park (Italy) and performed a Bayesian survival trajectory analysis on marked individuals. Furthermore, we investigated, at a territorial level, the relationships among demographic parameters and habitat variables by using a path analysis approach. Contrary to our expectations, for most of the marmot's lifespan, survival rate was higher in the marginal site closer to the forest and with lower visibility than in the alpine meadow site. Path analysis indicated that the number of families living close to each other negatively affected the stability of the dominant couple, which in turn affected both juvenile survival and reproduction. Given the lower number of neighboring families which inhabited the marginal site and the potentially different predation pressure by the most effective predator in the area (Aquila chrysaetos), our results suggest that species adapted to live in open habitats may benefit from living in a marginal habitat. This study highlights the importance of habitats bordering the forest in the conservation of alpine marmots.
    • ABO Blood Groups Do Not Predict

      Francoeur, Rachel; orcid: 0000-0003-1860-4374; Atuhaire, Alon; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; orcid: 0000-0001-9748-1207; Ajambo, Diana; Nankasi, Andrina; Babayan, Simon A; Lamberton, Poppy H L; orcid: 0000-0003-1048-6318 (2021-11-27)
      is a parasite which causes significant public-health issues, with over 240 million people infected globally. In Uganda alone, approximately 11.6 million people are affected. Despite over a decade of mass drug administration in this country, hyper-endemic hotspots persist, and individuals who are repeatedly heavily and rapidly reinfected are observed. Human blood-type antigens are known to play a role in the risk of infection for a variety of diseases, due to cross-reactivity between host antibodies and pathogenic antigens. There have been conflicting results on the effect of blood type on schistosomiasis infection and pathology. Moreover, the effect of blood type as a potential intrinsic host factor on prevalence, intensity, clearance, and reinfection dynamics and on co-infection risk remains unknown. Therefore, the epidemiological link between host blood type and infection dynamics was assessed in three hyper-endemic communities in Uganda. Longitudinal data incorporating repeated pretreatment infection intensities and clearance rates were used to analyse associations between blood groups in school-aged children. Soil-transmitted helminth coinfection status and biometric parameters were incorporated in a generalised linear mixed regression model including age, gender, and body mass index (BMI), which have previously been established as significant factors influencing the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis. The analysis revealed no associations between blood type and prevalence, infection intensity, clearance, reinfection, or coinfection. Variations in infection profiles were significantly different between the villages, and egg burden significantly decreased with age. While blood type has proven to be a predictor of several diseases, the data collected in this study indicate that it does not play a significant role in infection burdens in these high-endemicity communities.
    • Working After Loss: How Bereavement Counsellors Experience Returning to Therapeutic Work After the Death of Their Parent

      Swinden, Dr. Colleen; orcid: 0000-0002-3076-0778 (SAGE Publications, 2021-12-29)
      Despite increased interest in the impact of external events on counsellors, surprisingly little has been written on counsellor bereavement. To address the research question: How do bereavement counsellors experience therapeutic work after the death of their parent? Interviews were conducted with four bereaved counsellors who reflected on its impact on their work. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Three major themes emerged; how decisions about returning to work were informed by colleagues and supervision; the benefits of returning to work and the use of ‘bracketing’; long-term implications for practice including heightened empathy with clients’ and disclosure of loss. In addition, participants felt they had insufficient guidance regarding fitness to practice. The possible limitations of the study were that self-selection may have introduced an element of bias to the results. These findings support existing literature and also revealed potential gaps in grief and loss training for counsellors and supervisors. A particular training issue for supervisors might be identifying and discussing fitness to practice issues with supervisees. There are also implications for counsellors in terms of the use of self-disclosure in therapy. Suggested further research to explore the use of self-disclosure in greater depth.
    • Recommendations for Transdisciplinary Professional Competencies and Ethics for Animal-Assisted Therapies and Interventions.

      Trevathan-Minnis, Melissa; Johnson, Amy; orcid: 0000-0003-3536-9193; Howie, Ann R (2021-12-02)
      AAI is a transdisciplinary field that has grown exponentially in recent decades. This growth has not always been synergistic across fields, creating a need for more consistent language and standards, a call for which many professionals in the field have made. Under the umbrella of human-animal interactions (HAI) is animal-assisted interventions (AAIs), which have a more goal-directed intention with animals who have been assessed for therapeutic, educational, or vocational work. The current article offers a brief history and efficacy of HAI, describes the limitations and gaps within the field and recommends a new set of competencies and guidelines that seek to create some of the needed common language and standards for AAI work to address these limitations.
    • Modeling cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis.

      Mc Auley, Mark Tomás; orcid: 0000-0001-9230-6928 (2021-12-20)
      Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Western populations. Many risk factors have been identified for ASCVD; however, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains the gold standard. Cholesterol metabolism at the cellular and whole-body level is maintained by an array of interacting components. These regulatory mechanisms have complex behavior. Likewise, the mechanisms which underpin atherogenesis are nontrivial and multifaceted. To help overcome the challenge of investigating these processes mathematical modeling, which is a core constituent of the systems biology paradigm has played a pivotal role in deciphering their dynamics. In so doing models have revealed new insights about the key drivers of ASCVD. The aim of this review is fourfold; to provide an overview of cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis, to briefly introduce mathematical approaches used in this field, to critically discuss models of cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis, and to highlight areas where mathematical modeling could help to investigate in the future. This article is categorized under: Cardiovascular Diseases > Computational Models. [Abstract copyright: © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.]
    • Effects of Radiation sterilization Dose on the Molecular Weight and Gelling Properties of Commercial Alginate Samples

      Mollah, M. Z. I.; email: zahirul1973@yahoo.com; Rahaman, M S.; Faruque, M R I.; Khandaker, M U.; Osman, Hamid; Alamri, Sultan; Al-Assaf, Saphwan (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-12-20)
      To estimate the molecular weight (Mw) and gelling properties, a total of 26 alginate samples consisting of control (n = 13) and 15 kGy γ-irradiated (n = 13) samples were characterized through viscometric and gel permeation chromatography (GPC-MALLS) methods. Based on the observations, a remarkable decrease in the intrinsic viscosity of all samples of alginates was evident due to the effects of radiation, with a linear relationship between viscosity and concentration in 0.01 M NaCl solution. The correlation among the Mw, percentage mass recovery, radii of gyration (Rz/Rg), and percentage reduction of Mw assessed by GPC was significant. The Mw decreased dramatically (from 3.1 × 105 to 0.49 × 105 mole/g in sample no. 12) by the effect of radiation with momentous relation to the % reduction of the molecular weight. The highest molecular weight reduction (84%), which is the most sensitive to γ-radiation, and the average reduction rate was ≥50%. The mass recovery was 100% obtained from samples no. 1,3,4,5,7,12, and 13, while the rest of the samples’ recovery rate was significantly higher. The reduction rate of mass molecular weight (Mw) is higher than the average molecular weight (Mv), but they showed a sensitivity towards radiation, consequently their performance are different from each other. The stability test was performed as a critical behaviour in the control, recurrently same as in the irradiated samples. Thus, the sterilization dose of 15 kGy for the Mw distribution, and subsequently for the characterization, was significantly effective.
    • Bi-exponential modelling of [Formula: see text] reconstitution kinetics in trained cyclists.

      Chorley, Alan; orcid: 0000-0003-0000-3394; email: a.chorley@chester.ac.uk; Bott, Richard P; orcid: 0000-0002-7842-2436; Marwood, Simon; orcid: 0000-0003-4668-1131; Lamb, Kevin L; orcid: 0000-0003-4481-4711 (2021-12-18)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the individual [Formula: see text] reconstitution kinetics of trained cyclists following repeated bouts of incremental ramp exercise, and to determine an optimal mathematical model to describe [Formula: see text] reconstitution. Ten trained cyclists (age 41 ± 10 years; mass 73.4 ± 9.9 kg; [Formula: see text] 58.6 ± 7.1 mL kg min ) completed three incremental ramps (20 W min ) to the limit of tolerance with varying recovery durations (15-360 s) on 5-9 occasions. [Formula: see text] reconstitution was measured following the first and second recovery periods against which mono-exponential and bi-exponential models were compared with adjusted R and bias-corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc). A bi-exponential model outperformed the mono-exponential model of [Formula: see text] reconstitution (AICc 30.2 versus 72.2), fitting group mean data well (adjR  = 0.999) for the first recovery when optimised with parameters of fast component (FC) amplitude = 50.67%; slow component (SC) amplitude = 49.33%; time constant (τ)  = 21.5 s; τ  = 388 s. Following the second recovery, W' reconstitution reduced by 9.1 ± 7.3%, at 180 s and 8.2 ± 9.8% at 240 s resulting in an increase in the modelled τ to 716 s with τ unchanged. Individual bi-exponential models also fit well (adjR  = 0.978 ± 0.017) with large individual parameter variations (FC amplitude 47.7 ± 17.8%; first recovery: (τ)  = 22.0 ± 11.8 s; (τ)  = 377 ± 100 s; second recovery: (τ)  = 16.3.0 ± 6.6 s; (τ)  = 549 ± 226 s). W' reconstitution kinetics were best described by a bi-exponential model consisting of distinct fast and slow phases. The amplitudes of the FC and SC remained unchanged with repeated bouts, with a slowing of W' reconstitution confined to an increase in the time constant of the slow component. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Author(s).]