• Who goes where in couples and pairs? Effects of sex and handedness on side preferences in human dyads.

      Rodway, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-7667-6782; Schepman, Astrid; orcid: 0000-0002-7407-362X (2022-06-21)
      There is increasing evidence that inter-individual interaction among conspecifics can cause population-level lateralization. Male-female and mother-infant dyads of several non-human species show lateralised position preferences, but such preferences have rarely been examined in humans. We observed 430 male-female human pairs and found a significant bias for males to walk on the right side of the pair. A survey measured side preferences in 93 left-handed and 92 right-handed women, and 96 left-handed and 99 right-handed men. When walking, and when sitting on a bench, males showed a significant side preference determined by their handedness, with left-handed men preferring to be on their partner's left side and right-handed men preferring to be on their partner's right side. Women did not show significant side preferences. When men are with their partner they show a preference for the side that facilitates the use of their dominant hand. We discuss possible reasons for the side preference, including males prefering to occupy the optimal "fight ready" side, and the influence of sex and handedness on the strength and direction of emotion lateralization.
    • Mutation-Based Algebraic Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Computing the Distance of Linear Codes

      Korban, Adrian; Şahinkaya, Serap; ÜSTÜN, Deniz (Turkish Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science, Association of Mathematicians, 2022-01-11)
      Finding the minimum distance of linear codes is a non-deterministic polynomial-time-hard problem and different approaches are used in the literature to solve this problem.
 Although, some of the methods focus on finding the true distances by using exact algorithms, some of them focus on optimization algorithms to find the lower or upper bounds of the distance. In this study,
 we focus on the latter approach. We first give the swarm intelligence background of artificial bee colony algorithm, we explain the algebraic approach of such algorithm and call it the algebraic artificial bee colony algorithm (A-ABC). Moreover, we develop the A-ABC algorithm by integrating it with the algebraic differential mutation operator. We call the developed algorithm the mutation-based algebraic artificial bee colony algorithm (MBA-ABC). We apply both; the A-ABC and MBA-ABC algorithms to the problem of finding the minimum distance of linear codes. The achieved results indicate that the MBA-ABC algorithm has a superior performance when compared with the A-ABC algorithm when finding the minimum distance of Bose, Chaudhuri, and Hocquenghem (BCH) codes (a special type of linear codes).
    • Baba Vefatından Sonra Çocukların İyi Oluşu: Anne Görüşlerine Dayalı Nitel Bir Analiz

      ÖZDEMİR, Münevver; ERUYAR, Şeyda; YAZICI, Hikmet; VOSTANIS, Panos (Ayna Klinik Psikoloji Dergisi, 2022-04-19)
      Death of a parent has well-established adverse effects on the child’s well-being. The surviving parent is often the most important source of support for the child and a close witness of the child bereavement process. The aim of this study was to understand the perceived effects of paternal bereavement on children’s mental health and coping strategies through their mothers’ narratives. Adopting qualitative research methods, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine mothers who had lost their spouses. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: negative effects on mental health, posttraumatic growth, and coping strategies. The findings indicated that the consequences of paternal loss are not limited to negative effects on children’s functioning, as they may also experience positive changes following the loss. Mothers noticed that their children overcame paternal death successfully by using coping strategies such as discovering new activities, religion, and social support. Grief-response and resilience-enhancing strategies should be tailored to the emotional needs of each family.
    • Introducing Social Workers: Their Roles and Training

      Burt, Mike (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-08-21)
      Abstract During the late Victorian and early Edwardian period references to ‘social work’ in the UK emerged in the context of the movement for social reform. Using a wide variety of contemporary literature, archival sources and Internet searches this article finds that, alongside charitable and philanthropic work, the term ‘social work’ referred to a particularly wide range of social, health, educational, industrial welfare and recreation activity. Few attempts were made to attribute an explicit meaning to the term and it was not used as frequently as is sometimes implied by commentaries about the period. However, voluntary and paid workers were increasingly referred to collectively as ‘social workers’ and became the subject of increasing discussion about their roles and need for training. This article traces the developments in references to social work and social workers in the literature and highlights the early debate that took place in the UK and USA about the relative importance of practical work and study of the social sciences, introducing the tension which characterised social workers’ subsequent difficulties in establishing a professional identity.
    • Reading Hilary Mantel: Haunted Decades

      Pollard, Eileen (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-07-10)
    • Who goes where in couples and pairs? Effects of sex and handedness on side preferences in human dyads

      Rodway, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-7667-6782; Schepman, Astrid; orcid: 0000-0002-7407-362X (Informa UK Limited, 2022-06-21)
    • Book Review: <i>Cycling and the British: A Modern History</i> by Neil Carter

      Cox, Peter; orcid: 0000-0003-2374-3125 (SAGE Publications, 2022-01-27)
    • Factors Influencing COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake among Nepali People in the UK: A Qualitative Study.

      Simkhada, Padam; orcid: 0000-0002-5706-6479; Tamang, Pasang; orcid: 0000-0003-2733-7239; Timilsina, Laxmi; Simkhada, Bibha; Bissell, Paul; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Sah, Sunil Kumar; orcid: 0000-0002-0356-1992; Wasti, Sharada Prasad; orcid: 0000-0001-8833-7801 (2022-05-14)
      Vaccination saves lives and can be an effective strategy for preventing the spread of the COVID-19, but negative attitudes towards vaccines lead to vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to explore the factors influencing the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine in the Nepali community in the United Kingdom (UK). This qualitative study included in-depth interviews with 20 people from Nepal living in the UK. Interviews were conducted by a native-Nepali speaker and all interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English before being analysed thematically. Our study found that attitudes towards COVID-19 are generally positive. Nine overlapping themes around barriers to COVID-19 vaccination were identified: (a) rumours and mis/disinformation; (b) prefer home remedies and yoga; (c) religion restriction; (d) concern towards vaccine eligibility; (e) difficulty with online vaccine booking system; (f) doubts of vaccine effectiveness after changing the second dose timeline; (g) lack of confidence in the vaccine; (h) past bad experience with the influenza vaccine; and (i) worried about side-effects. Understanding barriers to the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine can help in the design of better targeted interventions. Public health messages including favourable policy should be tailored to address those barriers and make this vaccination programme more viable and acceptable to the ethnic minority communities in the UK.
    • Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality and Bacterial Antibiotic Sensitivity in Wells and Standpipes at Household Water Points in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

      Kamara, Dauda; orcid: 0000-0001-7750-8273; Bah, Doris; Sesay, Momodu; Maruta, Anna; orcid: 0000-0002-6417-7273; Sesay, Bockarie Pompey; Fofanah, Bobson Derrick; orcid: 0000-0003-3276-8949; Kamara, Ibrahim Franklyn; orcid: 0000-0003-1454-4650; Kanu, Joseph Sam; orcid: 0000-0003-0799-6907; Lakoh, Sulaiman; orcid: 0000-0002-7639-0004; Molleh, Bailah; et al. (2022-05-29)
      Water quality surveillance can help to reduce waterborne diseases. Despite better access to safe drinking water in Sierra Leone, about a third of the population (3 million people) drink water from unimproved sources. In this cross-sectional study, we collected water samples from 15 standpipes and 5 wells and measured the physicochemical and bacteriological water quality, and the antimicrobial sensitivity of ( ) in two communities in Freetown, Sierra Leone in the dry and wet seasons in 2021. All water sources were contaminated with , and all five wells and 25% of standpipes had at least an intermediate risk level of . There was no antimicrobial resistance detected in the tested. The nitrate level exceeded the WHO's recommended standard (&gt;10 parts per million) in 60% of the wells and in less than 20% of the standpipes. The proportion of samples from standpipes with high levels of total dissolved solids (&gt;10 Nephelometric Turbidity Units) was much higher in the rainy season (73% vs. 7%). The level of water contamination is concerning. We suggest options to reduce contamination. Further research is required to identify where contamination of the water in standpipes is occurring.
    • An examination of the dynamics of intergenerational tensions and technological change in the context of post-pandemic recovery

      Moore, Neil; Rowe, Lisa; Stokes, Peter; orcid: 0000-0002-4016-1058; Lichy, Jessica; Rodgers, Peter; Smith, Simon M.; orcid: 0000-0001-8083-2728 (Informa UK Limited, 2022-06-15)
    • The General Attitudes towards Artificial Intelligence Scale (GAAIS): Confirmatory Validation and Associations with Personality, Corporate Distrust, and General Trust

      Schepman, Astrid; orcid: 0000-0002-7407-362X; Rodway, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-7667-6782 (Informa UK Limited, 2022-06-14)
    • Sodium and potassium intakes assessed by 24-h urine among Moroccan University students in Casablanca, Morocco: Cross-sectional study

      Elarbaoui, Maria; Jafri, Ali; Elkardi, Younes; Makhlouki, Houria; Ellahi, Basma; Derouiche, Abdelfettah (Elsevier, 2022-06-21)
      In Morocco, the high consumption of dietary sodium increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and predisposes to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension. This study aims to assess the dietary sodium and potassium intake in a random sample of Moroccan adult students as a benchmark informing a national strategy for reducing salt intake. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 103 adults aged 18 to 25 years recruited in Casablanca. The 24-hour urinary excretion was used to measure the sodium and potassium. Urine volume and creatinine excretion level were used to validate the completeness of the collected samples. The average urinary sodium excretion was 3.1±0.1g/day, 13.5% consumed less than 5g/day, while 69% consumed more than 5g/day of which 17.5% consumed more than twice the recommendations. For the average urinary potassium excretion was 1.83±0.06g/day, and more than 98% of the students consumed less than the adequate intake. The Na/K ratio is significantly higher than the recommended amounts. The results of this pilot study show that the population studied has a high sodium intake and low potassium intake which does not meet World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, which requires implementing an action plan to reduce salt intake.
    • Publisher Correction: Situational factors shape moral judgements in the trolley dilemma in Eastern, Southern and Western countries in a culturally diverse sample.

      Bago, Bence; orcid: 0000-0001-6905-1832; Kovacs, Marton; orcid: 0000-0002-8142-8492; Protzko, John; orcid: 0000-0001-5710-8635; Nagy, Tamas; orcid: 0000-0001-5244-0356; Kekecs, Zoltan; orcid: 0000-0001-9247-9781; Palfi, Bence; orcid: 0000-0002-6739-8792; Adamkovic, Matus; Adamus, Sylwia; orcid: 0000-0002-7399-8735; Albalooshi, Sumaya; orcid: 0000-0002-3826-4795; Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan; orcid: 0000-0003-3412-4311; et al. (2022-06-06)
    • Group LCD and group reversible LCD codes

      Dougherty, Steven T.; Gildea, Joe; Korban, Adrian; orcid: 0000-0001-5206-6480; Roberts, Adam M.; orcid: 0000-0002-0654-7096 (Elsevier, 2022-06-17)
      In this paper, we give a new method for constructing LCD codes. We employ group rings and a well known map that sends group ring elements to a subring of the n × n matrices to obtain LCD codes. Our construction method guarantees that our LCD codes are also group codes, namely, the codes are ideals in a group ring. We show that with a certain condition on the group ring element v, one can construct non-trivial group LCD codes. Moreover, we also show that by adding more constraints on the group ring element v, one can construct group LCD codes that are reversible. We present many examples of binary group LCD codes of which some are optimal and group reversible LCD codes with different parameters.
    • Factors Influencing COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake among Nepali People in the UK: A Qualitative Study.

      Simkhada, Padam; orcid: 0000-0002-5706-6479; Tamang, Pasang; orcid: 0000-0003-2733-7239; Timilsina, Laxmi; Simkhada, Bibha; Bissell, Paul; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Sah, Sunil Kumar; orcid: 0000-0002-0356-1992; Wasti, Sharada Prasad; orcid: 0000-0001-8833-7801 (2022-05-14)
      Vaccination saves lives and can be an effective strategy for preventing the spread of the COVID-19, but negative attitudes towards vaccines lead to vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to explore the factors influencing the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine in the Nepali community in the United Kingdom (UK). This qualitative study included in-depth interviews with 20 people from Nepal living in the UK. Interviews were conducted by a native-Nepali speaker and all interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English before being analysed thematically. Our study found that attitudes towards COVID-19 are generally positive. Nine overlapping themes around barriers to COVID-19 vaccination were identified: (a) rumours and mis/disinformation; (b) prefer home remedies and yoga; (c) religion restriction; (d) concern towards vaccine eligibility; (e) difficulty with online vaccine booking system; (f) doubts of vaccine effectiveness after changing the second dose timeline; (g) lack of confidence in the vaccine; (h) past bad experience with the influenza vaccine; and (i) worried about side-effects. Understanding barriers to the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine can help in the design of better targeted interventions. Public health messages including favourable policy should be tailored to address those barriers and make this vaccination programme more viable and acceptable to the ethnic minority communities in the UK.
    • Editorial: COVID-19-Social Science Research During a Pandemic.

      Ward, Paul R; Bissell, Paul; Meyer, Samantha B; Gesesew, Hailay A; Januraga, Pande Putu; Chang, Dukjin; Lombi, Linda (2022-05-09)
    • Editorial: Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): The Mental Health, Resilience, and Communication Resources for the Short- and Long-term Challenges Faced by Healthcare Workers.

      Mitchell, Andrew E P; Galli, Federica; Keyworth, Chris; orcid: 0000-0002-7815-6174; Vegni, Elena; Salas, Eduardo (2022-04-18)
    • Suicide rates amongst individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Troya, M Isabela; orcid: 0000-0003-0474-3832; Spittal, Matthew J; Pendrous, Rosina; Crowley, Grace; orcid: 0000-0001-8317-6025; Gorton, Hayley C; orcid: 0000-0001-5017-9174; Russell, Kirsten; Byrne, Sadhbh; Musgrove, Rebecca; Hannah-Swain, Stephanie; orcid: 0000-0003-2988-261X; Kapur, Navneet; et al. (2022-04-28)
      <h4>Background</h4>Existing evidence suggests that some individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds are at increased risk of suicide compared to their majority ethnic counterparts, whereas others are at decreased risk. We aimed to estimate the absolute and relative risk of suicide in individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds globally.<h4>Methods</h4>Databases (Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo) were searched for epidemiological studies between 01/01/2000 and 3/07/2020, which provided data on absolute and relative rates of suicide amongst ethnic minority groups. Studies reporting on clinical or specific populations were excluded. Pairs of reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts, and full texts. We used random effects meta-analysis to estimate overall, sex, location, migrant status, and ancestral origin, stratified pooled estimates for absolute and rate ratios. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020197940.<h4>Findings</h4>A total of 128 studies were included with 6,026,103 suicide deaths in individuals from an ethnic minority background across 31 countries. Using data from 42 moderate-high quality studies, we estimated a pooled suicide rate of 12·1 per 100,000 (95% CIs 8·4-17·6) in people from ethnic minority backgrounds with a broad range of estimates (1·2-139·7 per 100,000). There was weak statistical evidence from 51 moderate-high quality studies that individuals from ethnic minority groups were more likely to die by suicide (RR 1·3 95% CIs 0·9-1·7) with again a broad range amongst studies (RR 0·2-18·5). In our sub-group analysis we only found evidence of elevated risk for indigenous populations (RR: 2·8 95% CIs 1·9-4·0; pooled rate: 23·2 per 100,000 95% CIs 14·7-36·6). There was very substantial heterogeneity (<i>I<sup>2</sup></i>  > 98%) between studies for all pooled estimates.<h4>Interpretation</h4>The homogeneous grouping of individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds is inappropriate. To support suicide prevention in marginalised groups, further exploration of important contextual differences in risk is required. It is possible that some ethnic minority groups (for example those from indigenous backgrounds) have higher rates of suicide than majority populations.<h4>Funding</h4>No specific funding was provided to conduct this research. DK is funded by Wellcome Trust and Elizabeth Blackwell Institute Bristol. Matthew Spittal is a recipient of an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (project number FT180100075) funded by the Australian Government. Rebecca Musgrove is funded by the NIHR Greater Manchester Patient Safety Translational Research Centre (PSTRC-2016-003).
    • ‘The Golden Question’. Addressing supervisee self‐care in clinical supervision

      Seabrook, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0001-5800-7123 (Wiley, 2022-05-25)