• Prospects of Integrated Photovoltaic-Fuel Cell Systems in a Hydrogen Economy: A Comprehensive Review

      Ogbonnaya, Chukwuma; orcid: 0000-0003-4756-6485; email: chukwuma.ogbonnaya@manchester.ac.uk; Abeykoon, Chamil; orcid: 0000-0002-6797-776X; email: chamil.abeykoon@manchester.ac.uk; Nasser, Adel; orcid: 0000-0003-1609-1384; email: a.g.nasser@manchester.ac.uk; Turan, Ali; orcid: 0000-0001-9225-6668; email: a.turan@ntlworld.com; Ume, Cyril Sunday; email: cyril.ume@funai.edu.ng (MDPI, 2021-10-19)
      Integrated photovoltaic-fuel cell (IPVFC) systems, amongst other integrated energy generation methodologies are renewable and clean energy technologies that have received diverse research and development attentions over the last few decades due to their potential applications in a hydrogen economy. This article systematically updates the state-of-the-art of IPVFC systems and provides critical insights into the research and development gaps needed to be filled/addressed to advance these systems towards full commercialization. Design methodologies, renewable energy-based microgrid and off-grid applications, energy management strategies, optimizations and the prospects as self-sustaining power sources were covered. IPVFC systems could play an important role in the upcoming hydrogen economy since they depend on solar hydrogen which has almost zero emissions during operation. Highlighted herein are the advances as well as the technical challenges to be surmounted to realize numerous potential applications of IPVFC systems in unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, agricultural applications, telecommunications, desalination, synthesis of ammonia, boats, buildings, and distributed microgrid applications.