• Suicide rates by ethnic group among patients in contact with mental health services: an observational cohort study in England and Wales.

      Hunt, Isabelle M; email: isabelle.m.hunt@manchester.ac.uk; Richards, Nicola; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Ibrahim, Saied; Turnbull, Pauline; Halvorsrud, Kristoffer; Saini, Pooja; Kitson, Sadie; Shaw, Jenny; Appleby, Louis; et al. (2021-11-08)
      Recent evidence on suicide rates among psychiatric patients from minority ethnic backgrounds is scarce. We aimed to examine suicide rates among minority ethnic psychiatric patients and describe their social and clinical characteristics. We did a retrospective observational cohort study on a national case-series of patients in England and Wales who died by suicide within 12 months of contact with mental health services between 2007 and 2018. Data were collected as part of the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Safety in Mental Health. Suicide rates and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated for South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi), Black African, Black Caribbean, Chinese, and White patients. A total of 698 patients in the four minority ethnic groups of South Asian, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Chinese were included (482 [69%] men; 216 [31%] women; mean age 41 years [SD 14·9, range 12-91] and compared with 13 567 White patients (9030 [66·6%] men; 4537 [33·4%] women; mean age 48 years [SD 15·8, range 10-100]). Rates and SMRs for suicide among minority ethnic patients were lower than for White patients (2·73 deaths, 95% CI 2·68-2·78) per 100 000 population. Differences were found between ethnic groups with higher suicide rates in Black Caribbean patients (1·89 deaths [95% CI 1·55-2·23] per 100 000 population) and lower rates in South Asian patients (1·49 deaths [1·33-1·64] per 100 000 population). There was an increase in rates among White patients in 2007-12 followed by a fall but no change among other ethnic groups. Schizophrenia was more common among Black African patients (54%) and Black Caribbean patients (44%), while affective disorder was more common among South Asian patients (41%). Minority ethnic patients overall showed markers of social adversity and received higher intensity care yet were viewed by clinicians as at lower risk than White patients. Effective approaches to prevention might differ between minority ethnic groups. Clinicians and the services in which they work should be aware of the common and distinct social and clinical needs of minority ethnic patients with mental illness. The Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.]