• Conformal screen printed graphene 4 × 4 wideband MIMO antenna on flexible substrate for 5G communication and IoT applications

      Zhou, Xinyao; orcid: 0000-0001-5797-439X; Leng, Ting; orcid: 0000-0001-6559-6974; Pan, Kewen; Abdalla, Mahmoud; orcid: 0000-0001-6759-7268; Novoselov, Kostya S; Hu, Zhirun; email: z.hu@manchester.ac.uk (IOP Publishing, 2021-08-20)
      Abstract: Screen-printed graphene is integrated with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology to conquer the most concerned surge in electronic waste caused by the mass deployment of Internet of things (IoT) applications. A flexible MIMO antenna is implemented with simple fabrication process suitable for large-scale production by screen printing graphene highly conductive ink on paper substrate, ensuring high-speed 5G mass data wireless transmission without damaging the ecological environment. This environmental-friendly, low-cost, flexible and conformal MIMO antenna with orthogonal polarization diversity employs co-planar waveguide feed and planar pattern for achieving high space utilization and better integration in most scenarios, for instance, body centric networks and monitoring systems. Excellent performance has been achieved due to the high conductivity of the graphene: the fabricated antenna exhibits an average sheet resistance of 1.9Ωsq−1 . The bandwidth of the antenna ranges from 2.22 GHz to 3.85 GHz (53.71% fractional bandwidth), covering 4G long term evolution, sub-6 GHz 5G mobile communication networks, 2.5 and 3.5 GHz WiMAX, and 2.4 and 3.6 GHz WLAN. Within this range, the antenna exhibits effective radiation, also its envelope correlation coefficient remains below 0.2×10−6 , manifesting outstanding signal transmission quality in a variety of wireless networks. This work illustrates a novel aggregation of MIMO technology and graphene printing electronics, enabling cheap accessible and green MIMO antennas to be massively integrated in IoT applications.
    • Conformal screen printed graphene 4 × 4 wideband MIMO antenna on flexible substrate for 5G communication and IoT applications

      Zhou, Xinyao; orcid: 0000-0001-5797-439X; Leng, Ting; orcid: 0000-0001-6559-6974; Pan, Kewen; Abdalla, Mahmoud; orcid: 0000-0001-6759-7268; Novoselov, Kostya S; Hu, Zhirun; email: z.hu@manchester.ac.uk (IOP Publishing, 2021-08-20)
      Abstract: Screen-printed graphene is integrated with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology to conquer the most concerned surge in electronic waste caused by the mass deployment of Internet of things (IoT) applications. A flexible MIMO antenna is implemented with simple fabrication process suitable for large-scale production by screen printing graphene highly conductive ink on paper substrate, ensuring high-speed 5G mass data wireless transmission without damaging the ecological environment. This environmental-friendly, low-cost, flexible and conformal MIMO antenna with orthogonal polarization diversity employs co-planar waveguide feed and planar pattern for achieving high space utilization and better integration in most scenarios, for instance, body centric networks and monitoring systems. Excellent performance has been achieved due to the high conductivity of the graphene: the fabricated antenna exhibits an average sheet resistance of 1.9Ωsq−1 . The bandwidth of the antenna ranges from 2.22 GHz to 3.85 GHz (53.71% fractional bandwidth), covering 4G long term evolution, sub-6 GHz 5G mobile communication networks, 2.5 and 3.5 GHz WiMAX, and 2.4 and 3.6 GHz WLAN. Within this range, the antenna exhibits effective radiation, also its envelope correlation coefficient remains below 0.2×10−6 , manifesting outstanding signal transmission quality in a variety of wireless networks. This work illustrates a novel aggregation of MIMO technology and graphene printing electronics, enabling cheap accessible and green MIMO antennas to be massively integrated in IoT applications.