Recent Submissions

  • Tamaglitchi

    Collins, Karen; Dockwray, Ruth (ACM Press, 2018)
  • The Penal Voluntary Sector: A Hybrid Sociology

    Tomczak, Philippa; Buck, Gillian (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-01-09)
  • Nutrition knowledge, dietary patterns and anthropometric indices of older persons in four peri-urban communities in Ga West municipality, Ghana.

    Agbozo, Faith; Amardi-Mfoafo, Joyce; Dwase, Helen; Ellahi, Basma (2018-09)
    Older adults are vulnerable to malnutrition due to sociologic, physiologic and anatomical effects of ageing. To investigate the influence of nutrition knowledge and dietary patterns on nutritional status of community-dwelling ambulatory older adults. This cross-sectional survey involved 120 elderly aged 60-70 years purposively selected from four peri-urban communities in Ga West municipality, Ghana. Nutrition knowledge was assessed using a structured questionnaire and dietary intakes obtained using a standardized food frequency questionnaire. BMI from weight/height measurements was proxy for nutritional status. Data was analyzed descriptively in SPSS. Associations were tested using correlation analyses (-1<r<+1). 28% had adequate knowledge on geriatric nutrition. Dietary patterns were mostly fair (40%) or poor (53%). Bloating (25%), constipation (18%), appetite loss (12%) and chewing difficulties (11%) affected intakes. Underweight was 10% while 21.7% were overweight or obese (16.6%). Positive insignificant corrections existed between knowledge and nutritional status (r=0.261) and with diet quality (r=0.415). However, strong significant (p=0.027) positive correlation (r=0.699) existed between diet quality and nutritional status. Nutrition knowledge was adequate but dietary intake was poor and a quarter were malnourished. The associations reaffirm that supporting the elderly to make healthy dietary choices and ensuring household food security is crucial to preventing malnutrition.
  • Tspan18 is a novel regulator of the Ca2+ channel Orai1 and von Willebrand factor release in endothelial cells.

    Noy, Peter J; Gavin, Rebecca L; Colombo, Dario; Haining, Elizabeth J; Reyat, Jasmeet S; Payne, Holly; Thielmann, Ina; Lokman, Adam B; Neag, Georgiana; Yang, Jing; Lloyd, Tammy; Harrison, Neale; Heath, Victoria L; Gardiner, Chris; Whitworth, Katharine M; Robinson, Joseph; Koo, Chek Z; Di Maio, Alessandro; Harrison, Paul; Lee, Steven P; Michelangeli, Francesco; Kalia, Neena; Rainger, G Ed; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Brill, Alexander; Watson, Steve P; Tomlinson, Michael G; email: m.g.tomlinson@bham.ac.uk (2018-12-20)
    Ca entry via Orai1 store-operated Ca channels in the plasma membrane is critical to cell function, and Orai1 loss causes severe immunodeficiency and developmental defects. The tetraspanins are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins that interact with specific partner proteins and regulate their trafficking and clustering. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize tetraspanin Tspan18. We show that Tspan18 is expressed by endothelial cells at several-fold higher levels than most other cell types analyzed. Tspan18-knockdown primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells have 55-70% decreased Ca mobilization upon stimulation with the inflammatory mediators thrombin or histamine, similar to Orai1-knockdown. Tspan18 interacts with Orai1, and Orai1 cell surface localization is reduced by 70% in Tspan18-knockdown endothelial cells. Tspan18 over-expression in lymphocyte model cell lines induces 20-fold activation of Ca -responsive NFAT signaling, in an Orai1-dependent manner. Tspan18-knockout mice are viable. They lose on average 6-fold more blood in a tail-bleed assay. This is due to Tspan18 deficiency in non-hematopoietic cells, as assessed using chimeric mice. Tspan18-knockout mice have 60% reduced thrombus size in a deep vein thrombosis model, and 50% reduced platelet deposition in the microcirculation following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Histamine- or thrombin-induced von Willebrand factor release from endothelial cells is reduced by 90% following Tspan18-knockdown, and histamine-induced increase of plasma von Willebrand factor is reduced by 45% in Tspan18-knockout mice. These findings identify Tspan18 as a novel regulator of endothelial cell Orai1/Ca signaling and von Willebrand factor release in response to inflammatory stimuli. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2018, Ferrata Storti Foundation.]
  • One strategy does not fit all: determinants of urban adaptation in mammals.

    Santini, Luca; González-Suárez, Manuela; Russo, Danilo; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Ancillotto, Leonardo (2018-12-20)
    Urbanisation exposes wildlife to new challenging conditions and environmental pressures. Some mammalian species have adapted to these novel environments, but it remains unclear which characteristics allow them to persist. To address this question, we identified 190 mammals regularly recorded in urban settlements worldwide, and used phylogenetic path analysis to test hypotheses regarding which behavioural, ecological and life history traits favour adaptation to urban environments for different mammalian groups. Our results show that all urban mammals produce larger litters; whereas other traits such as body size, behavioural plasticity and diet diversity were important for some but not all taxonomic groups. This variation highlights the idiosyncrasies of the urban adaptation process and likely reflects the diversity of ecological niches and roles mammals can play. Our study contributes towards a better understanding of mammal association to humans, which will ultimately allow the design of wildlife-friendly urban environments and contribute to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts. [Abstract copyright: © 2018 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.]
  • Pacing during a cross-country mountain bike mass-participation event according to race performance, experience, age and sex.

    Moss, Samantha Louise; Francis, Ben; Calogiuri, Giovanna; Highton, Jamie (2018-12-15)
    This study describes pacing strategies adopted in an 86-km mass-participation cross-country marathon mountain bike race (the 'Birkebeinerrittet'). Absolute (km·h ) and relative speed (% average race speed) and speed coefficient of variation (%CV) in five race sections (15.1, 31.4, 52.3, 74.4 and 100% of total distance) were calculated for 8182 participants. Data were grouped and analysed according to race performance, age, sex and race experience. The highest average speed was observed in males (21.8 ± 3.7 km/h), 16-24 yr olds (23.0 ± 4.8 km/h) and those that had previously completed >4 Birkebeinerrittet races (22.5 ± 3.4 km/h). Independent of these factors, the fastest performers exhibited faster speeds across all race sections, whilst their relative speed was higher in early and late climbing sections (Cohen's d = 0.45-1.15) and slower in the final descending race section (d = 0.64-0.98). Similar trends were observed in the quicker age, sex and race experience groups, who tended to have a higher average speed in earlier race sections and a lower average speed during the final race section compared to slower groups. In all comparisons, faster groups also had a lower %CV for speed than slower groups (fastest %CV = 24.02%, slowest %CV = 32.03%), indicating a lower variation in speed across the race. Pacing in a cross-country mountain bike marathon is related to performance, age, sex and race experience. Better performance appears to be associated with higher relative speed during climbing sections, resulting in a more consistent overall race speed.
  • Participant concerns for the Learner in a Virtual Reality replication of the Milgram obedience study

    editor: Capraro, Valerio; Gonzalez-Franco, Mar; Slater, Mel; Birney, Megan E.; orcid: 0000-0002-6786-6322; email: m.birney@chester.ac.uk; Swapp, David; orcid: 0000-0002-9335-8663; Haslam, S. Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D. (Public Library of Science, 2018-12-31)
    In Milgram’s seminal obedience studies, participants’ behaviour has traditionally been explained as a demonstration of people’s tendency to enter into an ‘agentic state’ when in the presence of an authority figure: they attend only to the demands of that authority and are insensitive to the plight of their victims. There have been many criticisms of this view, but most rely on either indirect or anecdotal evidence. In this study, participants (n = 40) are taken through a Virtual Reality simulation of the Milgram paradigm. Compared to control participants (n = 20) who are not taken through the simulation, those in the experimental conditions are found to attempt to help the Learner more by putting greater emphasis on the correct word over the incorrect words. We also manipulate the extent to which participants identify with the science of the study and show that high identifiers both give more help, are less stressed, and are more hesitant to press the shock button than low identifiers. We conclude that these findings constitute a refutation of the ‘agentic state’ approach to obedience. Instead, we discuss implications for the alternative approaches such as ‘engaged followership’ which suggests that obedience is a function of relative identification with the science and with the victim in the study. Finally, we discuss the value of Virtual Reality as a technique for investigating hard-to-study psychological phenomena.
  • One strategy does not fit all: determinants of urban adaptation in mammals

    Santini, Luca; González-Suárez, Manuela; Russo, Danilo; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Ancillotto, Leonardo (Wiley, 2018-12-20)
  • The high prevalence of pre-existing mental health complaints in clients attending Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre: Implications for initial management and engagement with the Independent Sexual Violence Advisor service at the centre.

    Manning, Daisy; Majeed-Ariss, Rabiya; Mattison, Michelle; White, Catherine; email: Cath.White@mft.nhs.uk (2018-12-05)
    The Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre has a unique service delivery model whereby it provides an integrated physical and psychological support services to clients, women men and children, living in Greater Manchester. The service is available to those who have reported rape or sexual assault, whether this is recent or historic. Clients living in surrounding areas of Cheshire are provided with forensic and medical services at Saint Mary's Centre, with follow-up care provided locally, as appropriate. The primary objective was to identify the prevalence of self-reported pre-existing mental health complaints amongst adult clients who attended Saint Mary's Centre for a forensic medical examination. The secondary objective was to consider levels of engagement with the Centre's Independent Sexual Violence Advisor service by comparing clients who reported a mental health complaint to clients who did not. One-hundred and eighty sets of client's notes from 2016 were retrospectively analysed. Client inclusion criteria were that they were (a) over the age of 18 years when attending the Centre, (b) had attended for a forensic medical examination. 69% of clients analysed reported a pre-existing mental health complaint. The time taken for clients to present to Saint Mary's Centre following a reported assault tended to be later for the clients with self-reported mental health problems than those without. However, there was no difference in the long-term engagement with the Centre's Independent Sexual Violence Advisor service at the Centre between the two groups. Prevalence of self-reported pre-existing mental health complaints is extremely high in clients presenting at Saint Mary's Centre as compared to national and regional prevalence rates for mental health complaints in the general population. The vulnerability of this client group should be considered when they attend a SARC and support provided should be appropriate and accessible to their needs. Staff should have adequate training and supervision to be able to respond in this way. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.]
  • Patient-reported outcomes of sexual and gender minority cancer survivors in Australia

    Lisy, Karolina; orcid: 0000-0003-2604-4290; Ward, Andrew; Schofield, Penelope; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas; Bishop, Jim; Jefford, Michael (Wiley, 2018-12-18)
  • Hacking through the Gordian Knot: can facilitating operational mentoring untangle the gender research productivity puzzle in higher education?

    Davies, Chantal; orcid: 0000-0002-0532-7366; Healey, Ruth; orcid: 0000-0001-6872-4900 (Informa UK Limited, 2017-05-30)
  • Rapid, Chemical-Free Generation of Optically Scattering Structures in Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Using a CO2 Laser for Lightweight and Flexible Photovoltaic Applications

    Hodgson, Simon D.; orcid: 0000-0001-5939-6706; Gillett, Alice R. (Hindawi Limited, 2018-12-16)
    Highly light scattering structures have been generated in a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using a CO2 laser. The haze, and in some cases the transparency, of the PET films have been improved by varying the processing parameters of the laser (namely, scanning velocity, laser output power, and spacing between processed tracks). When compared with the unprocessed PET, the haze has improved from an average value of 3.26% to a peak of 55.42%, which equates to an absolute improvement of 52.16% or a 17-fold increase. In addition to the optical properties, the surfaces have been characterised using optical microscopy and mapped with an optical profilometer. Key surface parameters that equate to the amount and structure of surface roughness and features have been analysed. The CO2 laser generates microstructures at high speed, without affecting the bulk properties of the material, and is inherently a chemical-free process making it particularly applicable for use in industry, fitting well with the high-throughput, roll to roll processes associated with the production of flexible organic photovoltaic devices.
  • Pacing during a cross-country mountain bike mass-participation event according to race performance, experience, age and sex

    Moss, Samantha Louise; Francis, Ben; Calogiuri, Giovanna; Highton, Jamie (Informa UK Limited, 2018-12-15)

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