• Does sexual identity and religious practice have implications for individual’s subjective health and wellbeing? Secondary data analysis of the Community Life Survey

      Wilkinson, Dean John; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2022-07-31)
      The health and wellbeing of LGB individual’s has gained attention in recent years, with increased recognition of the unique stressors associated with physical and psychological health concerns. Religious status and psychological health have been explored in the general population, however, few studies have explored sexual identity and religious status for implications on mental health and wellbeing. A secondary data analysis was performed on the Community Life Survey (Department for Culture, Media & Sport, 2019). A multivariate interaction was found between age, religious practice and sexual identity when considering four scores for wellbeing. An ANOVA of the Combined wellbeing scores revealed significant difference between sexual identity groups with the LGB group scoring lowest for combined wellbeing score and highlighted a significant interaction between religion and sexual identity. General health scores revealed significant difference between groups for religious practice. The implications of these findings for policy and practice are discussed, emphasising the importance of understanding and challenging cultural norms in service settings. There is a need to understand LGB individuals’ experiences and access to services to support mental health and wellbeing as key groups, such as LGB, are at greater risk of lower levels of wellbeing and increase levels of dissatisfaction.
    • A systematic review of quantitative studies capturing measures of psychological and mental health for Gay and Lesbian individuals of faith

      Wilkinson, Dean; Johnson, Amy; University of Chester; University of Worcester (Taylor and Francis, 2021-11-04)
      The association between religion or spirituality and psychological concepts (e.g., subjective well-being), have received frequent support, however, recent evidence has noted that cultural factors may affect this relationship. The consideration of these concepts for sexual orientation minorities has been neglected in previous years and now a body of evidence is beginning to develop around concerns for this population, with some speculation for the changes of ‘stressors’ for future generations and the implication on mental health outcomes. Lesbian and Gay individuals of faith (or spirituality), are susceptible to unique ‘stressors’, whilst others suggest religion can provide a support network providing protective health benefits. This review explores the evidence for psychological measures associated with LGB people of faith. The evidence suggests following a religion or faith can provide good social support, reducing health risks, however, can have negative implications for mental and physical health such as, internalised homophobia, anxiety and rejection.
    • Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning

      Wilkinson, Dean J.; Caulfield, Laura S.; University of Chester; University of Wolverhampton (NCBI, 2017-08-31)
      Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.
    • “It's Just More Acceptable To Be White or Mixed Race and Gay Than Black and Gay”: The Perceptions and Experiences of Homophobia in St. Lucia

      Couzens, Jimmy; Mahoney, Bere; Wilkinson, Dean J.; University of Worcester; University of Worcester; University of Chester (Frontiers in Psychology, 2017-06-19)
      Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting). Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia.
    • The perceived benefits of an arts project for health and wellbeing of older offenders

      Wilkinson, Dean J.; Caulfield, Laura S.; University of Chester; University of Wolverhampton (NCBI, 2017-03-31)
      The increasing ageing prison population is becoming a pressing issue throughout the criminal justice system. Alongside the rising population, are a host of health and wellbeing issues that contribute to older offenders needs whilst in prison. It has been recommended that meaningful activities can have positive effects on this population and therefore this paper uniquely reviews older offenders accounts of taking part in an arts based project, Good Vibrations, whilst imprisoned. The Good Vibrations project engages individuals in Gamelan music making with an end of project performance. This study used independent in-depth interviews to capture the voices of older offenders who took part in an art based prison project. The interview data was analysed using thematic analysis, which highlighted themes that were consistent with other populations who have taken part in a Good Vibrations project, along with specific age relating issues of mobility, motivation, identity and wellbeing.
    • Exploring alternative terrain in the rehabilitation and treatment of offenders: findings from a prison-based music project

      Caulfield, Laura S.; Wilkinson, Dean J.; Wilson, David; University of Wolverhampton; University of Chester; Birmingham City Univeristy (Taylor and Francis, 2016-07-05)
      The arts in prison settings have provided an alternative or complimentary component to rehabilitation. Despite increased interest, studies capturing the voice of offenders participating in projects and the long-term impact are limited. Data from semistructured interviews with 18 men who had taken part in a music-based project while incarcerated, including one group of five participants who were tracked for 18 months with supplemented data from correctional staff and official documentation, is presented. Participants of the art-based projects comment on changes they believe to have derived from participating in the project, particularly relating to emotions, self-esteem, self-confidence, communication and social skills. An exoffender sample of participants reported that participation in art projects provide experiences that promote beneficial skills that have been useful for post prison life.
    • A systematic review of the characteristics and needs of older prisoners

      Wilkinson, Dean John; Caulfield, Laura S; Univeristy of Chester; Univeristy of Wolverhampton
      The older prisoner population is growing faster than the older general population and placing a strain on prisons. Much of the existing literature focusses on the healthcare needs of, or in-prison initiatives for, older prisoners. Typically, these are responsive and lacking an evidence-based understanding of the characteristics and needs of this group. There is a need to review and understand what the existing evidence base concludes about the needs of this population. This paper presents a systematic review of the existing literature on the needs and characteristics of older people in contact with the criminal justice system. After a thorough search and selection process, 21 papers, from 2002 onwards, were included in the final analysis. The review process was structured through PICOs and reported using PRISMA. The contradictions within the existing evidence base make it difficult to reach firm conclusions about the needs and characteristics of older prisoners. What is clear from the existing research are the relatively high levels of need. There is also some consensus that where older people commit homicide the victim is likely to be an intimate partner. Overall, there a need for consistent recording and reporting of characteristics and demographics and more systematic study design. This paper has highlighted the key findings and limitations in the existing literature. Future research should make use of secondary official data sources to provide a clearer understanding of the characteristics of this group, their routes to prison, their needs, and challenges they present.
    • A systematic review of qualitative studies capturing the subjective experiences of Gay and Lesbian individuals’ of faith or religious affiliation.

      Wilkinson, Dean J.; Johnson, Amy; Univeristy of Chester; Univeristy of Worcester
      Individuals identifying as religious tend to report better health and happiness regardless of affiliation, work and family social support or financial status. Evidence suggests that cultural factors are intertwined with these concepts. Exploration of sexual minorities’ experiences has been neglected in previous years. Recently, a body of evidence is developing concerning this population, with theoretical speculation for changes of ‘stressors’ for future generations and implications, particularly, on mental health outcomes. Lesbian and Gay individuals of faith (or spirituality), are susceptible to unique ‘stressors’, whilst others suggest religion can provide a support network providing protective health benefits. This review systematically explores the existing published evidence for the subjective experiences and accounts of LG people of faith. Sexual minority individuals who follow a religion or faith can experience good social support, reducing the risk of negative health outcomes, while for others, potentially serious, negative mental and physical health consequences are experienced (e.g., internalised homophobia, anxiety, rejection and suicidal ideation).
    • Criminological Research, Policy and PracticeDeveloping creative methodologies: using lyric writing to capture young peoples’ experiences of the Youth Offending Services during the Covid19 pandemic

      Wilkinson, Dean J; Price, Jayne; Crossley, Charlene; University of Chester
      The Covid19 lockdowns (2020-2021) disrupted all aspects of usual functions of the Criminal Justice System, the outcomes and impact of which are largely still unknown. The pandemic affected individuals across the wider society, this includes the social circumstances of young people involved within Youth Offending Services (YOS) (Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation, 2020; Criminal Justice Joint Inspectorates, 2021). This population is frequently drawn from marginalised circumstances and rarely given the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the services they are involved in. This paper outlines a creative methodology and method used to uncover the experiences and perceptions of the young people undergoing an order within a YOS during the Covid19 lockdowns. The arts-based approach entailed a novel and creative method using an artist to engage with young people through a virtual platform, supporting them to devise lyrics which captured their perceptions and experiences of the YOS during this time. The artist developed a successful rapport with young people based on, familiarity with and passion for, music. He promoted their strength, improving their confidence which was perceived to elicit more in-depth perspectives that might not have otherwise been obtained using more traditional methods. As such, the method and methodology outlined developed the young peoples social and communicative skills whilst producing meaningful feedback that can contribute to the YOS recovery plan and thus future of the service. This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the Covid19 pandemic. This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the Covid19 pandemic.