Now showing items 21-40 of 687

    • Relationship Patterns between Self-esteem, Self-respect and Cognitive Effort as Measured by Story Recall and the Eye Tracker

      Clucas, Claudine; Kelecsenyi, Hedvig (University of Chester, 2018)
      High levels of self-esteem has been associated with success for decades, while at the same time its utility to predict achievement-related behaviours has been questioned. This controversy brought self-respect (an independent, theoretically grounded construct) defined as a person’s positive, affective self-regard for being a moral, principled, and honourable person, to the forefront of empirical research. Accordingly, the current study intended to examine the relationship between self-report measures of self-respect, self-esteem and cognitive effort as measured by story recall and eye tracker measures of eye fixation with pupil dilation while reading a morally neutral and a morally charged story. A total of 40 participants, comprising of 11 males and 29 females, with a mean age of 34, from a convenience sample completed the study. A stronger positive relationship was expected between self-respect and measures of cognitive effort than between self-esteem and the same measures. Also, there was an anticipation of a stronger interaction between self-respect and the type of story tested, because higher self-respect might have implications for the processing of moral information. Four repeated measures of ANCOVA analyses demonstrated significant negative relationship between self-respect and cognitive effort. They also revealed a strong trend towards a negative relationship between self-esteem and cognitive effort. The results quite interestingly are contrary to the declared hypotheses of the study with regards to the direction of the relationship. Findings indicate that the interaction between self-respect and story type on recall and eye tracker measures were not significant. Hence, failing to support the theory that high levels of self-respect enhances sensitivity to moral information through the link to the moral self. The outcome also highlights the possibility that certain factors undermine the effort or more meaningful engagement is needed, perhaps, through a more complex task. It would help to establish not only relationship patterns, but determine whether self-respect is unique enough as an independent construct that could add to the prediction of cognitive effort above and beyond what is explained by self-esteem.
    • Brexit and its psychological impact: A qualitative study on the well-being of EU-citizens based in the UK

      Shepman, Astrid; Reimers, Kristin (University of Chester, 2018)
      Research on the relationship between well-being and environmental factors demonstrated that adverse living conditions and extreme life events can have temporary or longer lasting effects on the well-being of individuals, depending on the severity of the event and the resilience of those affected. This qualitative study aimed to investigate how Brexit impacted the well-being of EU-citizens living in the UK. By applying thematic analysis, 43 testimonies of individuals who shared their personal Brexit story, were analysed, revealing three main themes: ‘living with uncertainty’, ‘experiencing discrimination’ and ‘identity questioned’. Discussing these themes in light of previous research, this study suggests Brexit affected contributor’s subjective, psychological and social well-being negatively and was potentially traumatising for individuals of vulnerable groups. Although the majority of EU-citizens are likely to recover to their former level of well-being after Brexit, further studies on this population are needed to investigate how many EU-citizens are in need of professional help to overcome the psychological impact Brexit had on their lives. “Brexit means Brexit” for Theresa May but what it means for EU-citizens living in the UK seems to be defined by their current living situation and their resilience.
    • Understanding right from wrong: A quantitative study exploring accidental bullying in British school children.

      Boulton, Michael; Pritchard, Jessica (University of Chester, 2018)
      This study aimed to investigate a controversial new sub-type of bullying known as accidental bullying, which claims to explain why some children and young people can unknowingly bully others. This study did this by exploring possible causes including individual’s abilities to recognise bullying, and levels of kindness and moral disengagement. A total of 421 participants (females: n = 19, males: n = 180, undisclosed: n = 48) completed questionnaires within Primary and Secondary British schools. The data was subjected to several forms of analyses that included Pearson’s correlations, simple linear regression’s, a hierarchical multiple regression, and a series of two-way between subjects ANOVA’s. The findings identified that 84 % of the participants had previously accidentally bullied, and that primary school students were more likely to accidentally bully than secondary school students. In addition to this, an individual’s poor ability to recognise bullying behaviours was found as a significant negative predictor of accidental bullying. Furthermore, if individuals have low levels of kindness and high levels of moral disengagement, they are more likely to have a poor ability to recognise bullying behaviours. In conclusion, this study identified that it is possible that accidental bullying is taking place within British schools at a higher frequency than traditional bullying. Future studies may wish to further understand the complexities of accidental bullying to support educators to identify and address this often hidden form of bullying.
    • Issues, response and support needs of parents if their child had self-harmed, from a parents and professionals perspective

      Heath, Hannah; Ruck, Samantha (University of Chester, 2018)
      Self-harm for young people has been considered to be a significant health concern (Byrne et al., 2008) and is understood to be typical amongst young people (Hawton et al., 2002). Parents experience an array of overwhelming emotions on finding out about their child’s self-harm (Raphael et al., 2006). To date, little attention has been paid to exploring the understanding and experiences of parents whose children have not self-harmed or looking at the role of mental health (MH) professionals supporting parents from the professional view point. The aim of this research was to understand from both a parents and professionals perspective, what the perceived issues for parents are if their child self-harmed; how would/do parents respond to self-harm; and what support needs do the parents have. A multiple qualitative perspectives design was used. Seven parents were interviewed, alongside two focus groups and one interview with six Mental Health (MH) Professionals and were analysed with Thematic Analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The results indicated that parents had a perceived lack of knowledge about self-harm and available support services. How parents respond to a child’s self-harm is influenced by their lack of understanding, how they find out and their natural desire to protect their child. Education about self-harm, strategies for parents and peer support group were identified as key mechanisms for professionals to provide support to parents. Parents and professionals both highlighted the lack of knowledge parents have about self-harm and their desire for support to help their child. There is a future research need to explore the processes which parents follow to seek information and help regarding self-harm and the impact of parent peer support in both community and clinical settings.
    • Factors associated with the detection of the signs of child sexual abuse

      Wright, Clea; Goddard, Nick (University of Chester, 2018)
      Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a major international societal concern, with up to 48% of women and 29% of men having experienced it, often with severe resultant psychological issues. The utility of offender management programs in reducing CSA is disputed and the reporting rate of CSA is low, so the ability to detect sexually abusive relationships between adults and children is of increased importance. However, media propagation of child sex offender stereotypes inhibits their detection. This study used a vignette-based online questionnaire to explore if the signs of abuse can be detected in a child’s relationship with their football coach and if the ‘dirty old man’ age stereotype impacts detection. Whether adults already trained in detecting CSA rated the potential for sexual abuse differently than untrained adults in scenarios where it was included was also explored. The analyses indicated a significantly higher rating for CSA in ‘abuse’ scenarios than ‘no-abuse’ scenarios across all participants, with a large effect size. However, there was no significant difference in rating based on abuser age (none given, 19, 50). Additionally, CSA trained participants did not rate abuse scenarios significantly differently than untrained participants. Lack of trust in the media, extensive reporting of high-profile cases that did not include a stereotypically-aged sex offender, and the personal experiences of participants were considered as potential mitigating factors for the age stereotype. The focus of existing CSA training on symptoms rather than relationships is considered as a potential explanation for similar ratings between trained and untrained participants.
    • Exploring the relationship between act variables and sleep disorders in predicting suicidal ideation

      Hochard, Kevin; Fanioudaki, Venetsiana (University of Chester, 2018)
      Suicidal Ideation (SI) is undoubtedly a major risk factor for suicide which is a fundamental public health phenomenon as every year in all regions of the world nearly one million individuals end their own lives. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia and nightmares are risk factors of SI and ACT has been shown to decrease SI. The study aimed to investigate the moderating role of ACT components (measured with the AAQ-II and CompACT) in the relationship between sleep disorders (insomnia and nightmares) and suicidal ideation. The study employed correlational quantitative analysis and conducted four hierarchical linear regressions. Findings from the e-survey (n= 274) showed that sleep disorders did not significantly predict SI beyond the effects of anxiety, stress and depression. However, ACT components decreased SI scores after controlling for depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia and nightmares (β = -.31, p < .001). In addition, ACT variables (measured with the AAQ-II) moderated the relationship between insomnia, but no nightmares, and SI by decreasing SI scores (β= -.09, p < .05). Taken together, these findings provide support for the protective role of psychological flexibility against SI and the effectiveness of ACT components in decreasing suicidal thoughts and behaviors in individuals with high scores of insomnia symptoms. The study suggests that an ACT based intervention could benefit individuals with insomnia from developing SI. Further evaluation of the relationship between sleep disorders and SI and possible mediators is warranted.
    • Explore the Issues Faced by Family Caregivers of Dementia Patients and Their Use of Online Forums

      Whelen, Liz; Bell, Katherine (University of Chester, 2018)
      This qualitative study looks at the primary issues faced by dementia family caregivers and their uses of online forums. The previous literature finds that there are an array of psychological issues that are faced by dementia caregivers, including depression, anxiety, social isolation and psychological morbidity. The literature also analyses the potential causes of these problems. The research was conducted through the Thematic Analysis of 50 forum posts to interpret the content of what the caregivers were posting about in the forums and analyse how the caregivers made use of this platform. The results found three overarching themes to show the primary psychological problems that the caregivers were complaining of: anxiety, psychological morbidity and social isolation. The results also found two main reasons that the forums were being used, the need for help from others, and the desire for more knowledge on dementia. The causes that contribute to these issues are discussed in the present study, alongside the benefits and limitations of this method of research and the benefits of anonymity on online discussion forums. Ultimately, it is established that there is a need for more professional help to become available to dementia family caregivers and for further research into specific issues faced by forum users and the causes of these.
    • Who cares for the carer: the impact of supporting those who self-harm on professional carers.

      Heath, Hannah; Armstrong, Laura (University of Chester, 2018)
      Self-harm is a serious health issue in the UK. One of the most vulnerable populations for self-harm is thought to be young people who are removed from their families and live in group home settings. There is existing literature about the effects and attitudes of medical professionals who care for those who self-harm, however very little that looks at self-harm from the prospective of residential care workers. From ten semi-structured interviews with residential care workers, analysed with Thematic Analysis, similar attitudes that have been reflected in recent studies with medical professionals were reflected in the residential care worker’s accounts. Participants felt it is necessary for better and more robust self-harm training for staff, and more available and structured organisational and colleague support. Additionally, over time, the care workers became accustomed to the behaviours, with some becoming emotionally disconnected from the care they provided. The study explores the previously unheard voices of the residential care workers and highlights the need to provide better support for residential care workers.
    • Sugar Reduction in Sponge Cakes: Physical and Sensory Properties of Sponge Cake with Sugar Alternatives - Maltitol /Steviol glycosides/Polydextrose/ Inulin

      Li, Weili; Mao, Kuangqi (University of Chester, 2019-01-31)
      Challenges in reducing sugar in foods have been serious global issues as an excessive intake of sugar causes negative effects on human health, even though sugar plays a key role in the structural and sensory attributes of food products. Therefore, it is urgent for food industries to find an alternative to reduce the sugar content of foods without any noticeable effect, such as using sugar replacements to substitute the role of sugar in high-sugar foods. The first aim of this study was to verify the function of sugar in sponge cakes. The second was to compare the effects between sugar and sugar alternatives on sponge cakes in order to explore feasible sugar replacements. In current study, the effects of sugar on physical properties of sponge cake and batter were first studied in terms of different concentrations. Then the effects of replacement by maltitol, polydextrose, inulin and steviol glycosides were extensively studied using the same concentrations with regarding to sugar. Batter viscosity and specific gravity were analysed before baking. Cake physical properties were also studied through image analysis, specific gravity, height, weight loss and firmness. In addition, sensory testing was also carried out to explore the feasible sugar replacement. Experimental results showed that sugar truly exerted crucial functions in cakes manufacture, like increasing the batter viscosity and the cake volume. Significant improvement in physical properties of cakes, especially in terms of specific gravity and specific volume, can be found as the sugar level reached by 140% (P<0.05). In regard to sugar-free sponge cakes, best results in physical properties can be obtained from cakes elaborated with maltitol when the containing level was 140%. Compared with sugar, closest results can be achieved by maltitol due to the similar structure and properties. Meanwhile, cakes elaborated with maltitol got the highest overall liking level in sensory evaluation. Cakes with polydextrose showed a relatively worse performance in physical property testing and sensory evaluation due to the weaker bulking function and sweetness of polydextrose. However, the addition of steviol glycosides can improve the sensory properties to some extent. In addition, inulin appeared to be unfeasible to replace sugar according to the result obtained in this study because it led to the lowest quality of sponge cakes in physical properties or sensory attributes.
    • “Some are gay, some are straight, no one actually cares as long as you’re there to play hockey”: Women’s field hockey players’ engagement with sexual identity discourses

      McEvilly, Nollaig; Whitehouse, Lauren E (University of Chester, 2019-02-13)
      This research investigates the discourses that have impacted recreational women’s hockey players’ perspectives and experiences surrounding sexual identity. Furthermore, the participants’ engagement with sexual identity discourses and through what discursive practices and disciplinary techniques sexual identities became dominant or alternative is examined. The experiences of and towards non-heterosexual sportspeople is a developing area of research, though little research focuses on recreational level sport that is not identified as a ‘gay sport space’. This study contributes to sexuality and sport research by investigating a recreational women’s team which is not restricted to the ‘gay sport space’ label to develop understandings of the dynamics and complexities that sexual identity discourses have on both heterosexual and non-heterosexual sportspeople. A poststructural, Foucaultian theoretical framework underpins this study with the utilisation of Foucault’s work on discourses, techniques of power and the technologies of the self. Data is generated from semi-structured interviews with seven hockey players, who discuss their experiences regarding sexual identity at Castle Ladies Hockey Club. By analysing the participants’ talk through discourse analysis, discourses of acceptance and inclusivity towards non-heterosexual identities are found. Firstly, non-heterosexual identities are regarded as ‘normal’, secondly, the focus was on if the player was a good team player rather than sexual identity, and thirdly, there was an increased acceptance of sexual fluidity leading to decreased tolerance towards homophobia. This research highlights that players engage with multiple discourses associated with sexual identity, often complexly. This raises questions surrounding the dominance of heteronormativity, as non-heterosexual identities are not presented as marginal.
    • The effect of beetroot juice on intermittent shuttle running performance involving different numbers of directional changes

      Highton, Jamie; Francis, Ben (University of Chester, 2018-10-01)
      The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to submaximal shuttle running and performance during intermittent shuttle running involving different numbers of directional changes. Eight male recreational team sport athletes (age: 22.6 ± y, body mass: 79.4 ± 4.4 kg, stature: 179.4 ± 5.4 cm, predicted VO2max: 48.5 ± 4,1 ml·kg·-1·min·-1) completed submaximal shuttle running at 60% of their predetermined VO2peak and intermittent shuttle running to exhaustion over a 20 m course or a 10 m course involving more directional changes. Participants performed each protocol twice across four trials; once following the ingestion of NO3 - concentrated beetroot juice 2.5 h before exercise and once following the ingestion of NO3 - depleted beetroot juice. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and time to exhaustion during intermittent shuttle running were assessed. Increasing the number of directional changes increased the VO2 and HR response to submaximal shuttle running (p < 0.05). However, NO3 - did not affect blood pressure, the physiological responses to submaximal exercise or performance during intermittent shuttle running (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that increasing the number of directional changes during shuttle running elevates the physiological and metabolic demand, but that NO3 - does not impact upon the physiological responses or performance during submaximal and intermittent shuttle running.
    • An appraisal of judging criteria in relation to performance in elite male amateur boxing

      Thomson, Edd; Latham, James (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      This study intended to appraise the features of the judging criteria of elite amateur boxing and determine the impact such features have on unanimous and split contest outcomes. Appraising eight offensive actions and their outcomes, the technical demands of open-class boxing from 93 male boxers (age: 24.4 ± 3.3 y; height: 176.1 ± 10.5 cm; body mass: 65.8 ± 12.9 kg) during 87 bouts of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and 2017 World Amateur Boxing Championships were notated using computerized software. A 3 (round) x 4 (outcome) repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc statistical analyses were adopted. Twenty-five performance parameters differed between unanimous winners and losers, but only four between split winners and losers. Unanimous winners landed more punches than unanimous losers in total (P = 0.002) and in round 1, 2 and 3 (all P = 0.000). They also landed a higher percent of very successful punches than unanimous losers in total (P = 0.001) and in round 1 (P = 0.005), 2 (P = 0.027) and 3 (P = 0.02). Unanimous losers threw a greater percentage of air punches than unanimous winners per bout (P = 0.000) and in round 1 (P = 0.006), 2 (0.000) and 3 (P = 0.002). Unanimous winners landed a greater percentage of straight, hook, and uppercut punches thrown with the lead hand (P = 0.007, 0.000 and 0.049 respectively) and straight punches thrown with the rear hand (P = 0.003) than unanimous losers. Split winners landed a greater percentage of total punches than split losers in round 1 (P = 0.006) and 3 (P = 0.047). Judges use several performance indicators to assess superiority between boxers, albeit the technical disparity between split winners and losers is marginal compared to unanimous winners versus losers. This study proposes that the number of punches landed, punch accuracy and technical and tactical superiority all have an important influence during unanimous outcomes, but when judges are split on choosing the winner of a contest, only punch accuracy separates the two boxers.
    • Nutrition and Golf performance

      Robinson, Michael (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      Nutrition in Golf is a relatively new area of research with only a small amount of published studies. Golf nutrition is distinct from other sports primarily due to the variable conditions faced by players over an extended period of time. Despite that only a low to moderate exercise intensity is maintained, players are required to make multiple maximal velocity swings requiring high level motor skill whilst cognitive functioning is challenged through decision making on every shot, often under intense pressure. Caffeine supplementation has been the most investigated topic with findings of improved performance in certain areas of the game such as driving and putting whilst fatigue appeared to be attenuated towards the end of a round. Dehydration has been shown to be prevalent even in the elite amateur game with a significant decline in a range of performance variables found with only mild-dehydration. Carbohydrate consumption has been shown to prevent the decline in blood glucose experienced over a round, however an optimal consumption protocol has not been established. Future research should further investigate nutritional techniques to offset the physical and mental challenges arising over a round of golf.
    • Digital marketing and young consumers: A framework for effective digital marketing communications

      Maheshwari, Vish; Morris, Bethan (University of Chester, 2019-01-22)
      Children in contemporary society are an important and lucrative consumer segment (Haryanto, Moutinho, & Coelho, 2016). They have both individual spending power, and significant influence over the purchase decisions of their parents and carers (Calvert, 2008). Brands have recognised the business benefits of engaging with consumers at an early age in order to develop profitable lifelong consumer relationships (Hamelin, Gbadamosi, & Peters, 2018) Developments in online communications, especially since the emergence of Web 2.0, has enabled businesses to build a presence in an interactive and co-creative online environment (Ryan, 2014). In the UK, consumer use of interactive technologies is pervasive. Smartphone penetration in the UK in 2016 was 81 per cent (Deloitte, 2016). The Consumerisation of ICT is particularly visible in children, born since 2000 who have grown up in the interactive era of Web 2.0 (Carter, Bennett Thatcher, Applefield, & McAlpine, 2011). 99 per cent of UK families have internet access in their home (ONS, 2016) and 83 per cent of 5 to 15 year olds have access to a mobile ICT device in their household. It is estimated that one third of all online users are below the age of 18 (Livingstone, Carr, & Byrne, 2016). Young consumers therefore have access multiple channels for communication and engagement with peers, family, and businesses. At a time when children have become proficient navigators of the online marketplace there is a real importance for marketers to understand how to communicate effectively with this segment (Thiachon, 2017). Children have been recognised as a distinguishable consumer segment since the mid-twentieth century. The study of children’s consumer socialisation emerged during the 1970s (Roedder John, 1999). In the years following, academic understanding of consumer socialisation has influenced government policy in areas of public health and child welfare, as well as influencing the self-regulation of marketing and advertising practice (Jordan, 2008). The body of existing research is predominantly focused on these areas rather than how marketers can effectively communicate with young consumers. Studies that do focus on marketing communications have done so by examining practices in relation to brand loyalty and trust (Haryanto, Manuela, & Moutinho, 2015 ; Haryanto, Moutinho, & Arnaldo, 2016). Although they provide recommendations that highlight the importance of these concepts in developing communications with young consumers, they do not identify the types of approaches to employ in order to achieve these relationships with consumers. As public policy concerns provided the impetus for research in this area, it is unsurprising that there is a concentration of research investigating the influence of marketing communications on young consumers within the context of public health. Children in this context are positioned passive and vulnerable members of society (Haefner, 1975; Roedder John, 1999; Calvert, 2008; Sramová & Pavelka, 2017). Although this approach is valid and provides valuable insights, academic understanding of young consumers would be limited if research was generated only from this perspective. This study will aim to address this gap in understanding, acknowledging that children have expanded their roles within the family as purchase influencers and independent purchase decision makers. The research will examine current Digital Marketing Communication (DMC) practices employed by brands whose products are aimed at young consumers. For the purposes of providing research focus, children are defined as individuals aged 17 and under.
    • The effect of glycomacropeptide-based foods upon blood phenylalanine control in adults and children with phenylketonuria

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Thomson, Roderick (University of Chester, 2018-09-03)
      Conventional treatment for phenylketonuria restricts dietary phenylalanine to ‘control’ plasma phenylalanine concentrations. Its widespread adoption has largely eradicated the severe neurocognitive defects that previously characterised phenylketonuria. However, interest in alternative treatments continues as deficits in intelligence and other health outcomes remain problematic, conventional treatment has limitations and adherence proves difficult. Glycomacropeptide-based foods (GMP) are a novel treatment that may improve the satiety and acceptability of dietary treatment and address suboptimal health outcomes. However, glycomacropeptide contains some phenylalanine, raising safety concerns regarding its effect on plasma phenylalanine in adults and particularly children who tolerate less phenylalanine. This narrative review attempted to resolve these concerns. Its findings suggest adults and children can maintain control on GMP but individualised titrations, adjusting the amount of GMP consumed whilst monitoring plasma phenylalanine, are necessary in children. Equivalent control is a supportive finding given GMPs many advantages but this must be viewed cautiously as only seven studies were located, predominantly employing bias-prone, heterogeneous designs. GMPs effect upon control thus requires clarification via a systematic review using evidence-based, transparent methods to synthesize the entire evidence base and consider the impact of design quality, bias and heterogeneity upon results.
    • Effects of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on exercise capacity in elderly heart transplant recipients: A systematic review

      Fallows, Stephen; Wipatin, Pattanakorn (University of Chester, 2018-08-30)
      Heart transplantation (HTx) not only reduces mortality of patients with end-stage heart failure (HF), but also improves the quality of life of these patients. However, heart transplant recipients (HTRs) experience a decrease in exercise capacity, which is associated with increased mortality of cardiovascular patients. This literature review provides not only the basic clinical application of HTx, such as recipient selection and surgical techniques, but also unique physiological abnormalities after surgery. Factors that are related to chronotropic incompetence, side effects of immunosuppressant medications, and deconditioning result in decreased exercise performance in HTRs. The benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are outlined in this literature review. Exercise training (ET), which consists of aerobic, resistance and flexibility exercises, is effective in improving peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle performance in HTRs. There is evidence that the use of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve chronotropic responses to exercise and reduce the progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), which limits long-term survival rates in HTRs. Finally, it should be noted that the normal ageing process may affect long-term outcomes of ET in HTRs.
    • Lifestyle behaviours associated with type 2 diabetes risk in Australian construction workers

      Markwell, Katherine; Botley, Sian (University of Chester, 2018-08-31)
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global problem with many unfavourable consequences. Obesity is the single largest predictor of T2DM. Additional modifiable risk factors include lifestyle behaviours such as poor diet and physical inactivity have also been identified to be key determinants of the disease, and are therefore key in delaying or preventing progression, as proven by many systematic reviews. The incidence of T2DM is increasing, despite efforts to reverse this trend, so barriers need to be identified and solutions proposed to aid individuals to achieve positive lifestyle behaviours. Habitual lifestyle behaviours can be determined by occupation and particular work stresses. The construction industry is a large working population in Australia whose health outcomes have not been fully explored in relation to T2DM risk. It is unknown if specific unfavourable lifestyle behaviours are adopted within this population which increase the risk of progression of this disease. This review will discuss the associated risk factors and how they can be modified to prevent progression of T2DM. A rationale will be proposed for further investigation of T2DM and its potential specific risk factors within the Australian construction industry.
    • The Effects of cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid on the Proliferation of A431 Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Griffiths, Samantha K. (University of Chester, 2018-08-31)
      Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a family of 28 positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid (LA), found predominantly in the meat of ruminant animals. The health benefits of CLA have been widely researched, with specific interest into its anti-obesity and anti-carcinogenic properties. Conclusions from in-vivo studies have suggested that, with further research, CLA supplementation may be used in conjunction with current treatments for breast cancer and rectal cancer. In-vitro research into the anticarcinogenic effects of CLA has revealed that different CLA isomers affect cancer cells through several different pathways. The anti-proliferative effects of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA have been demonstrated in-vitro, specifically on colon cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Ultimately, it has been concluded that the antiproliferative effects of CLA isomers are dependent upon the type and malignancy of the cancer cells targeted. After reviewing the literature, it is clear that there is a gap in the research. To our knowledge, no study has ever tested the effects of CLA on the proliferation of epidermoid carcinoma cells, specifically the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer. This research could add to the growing body of evidence surrounding the effects of specific CLA isomers on different types of cancer in-vitro.
    • 'Established in the fields of Great Britain': How can the study of dress further our understanding of the relationship between landscape, culture and identity? 1830 to the present

      Andrew, Rebecca; Brown, Jessica (University of Chester, 2018-09-20)
      This dissertation will explore how the study of dress can develop our understanding of the historic relationship between landscape, culture and identity in Britain from 1840 to the present. To do so, it will demonstrate how the growing social and cultural significance of rural landscapes, and their role within developing constructions of national identity were frequently reflected in changing styles of dress. Interdisciplinary in approach, this dissertation will weave together theories from the fields of history, cultural geography, sociology, dress and fashion studies to explore - through the lens of dress - how the rural landscape was understood and experienced. It will therefore be argued that the study of dress is a powerful analytical tool for the landscape historian, seeking to examine the social and cultural significance of past landscapes, and their role within constructions of national identity.
    • The Intrusive Supernatural: Disruptions to Order in Nineteenth-Century Society

      Moss, Ethan J. (University of Chester, 2018-11-28)
      The Nineteenth Century was an era of frequent change, making Victorian identity increasingly difficult to identify as the divisions in society splintered the various forms of religious, political and social beliefs of the British public. Within the shadows of all these changes lurked a frequent motif of supernatural intrusion, inserting some form of superstitious element into the multiple aspects of Victorian living. This additional supernatural attribute contributed to the convoluted nature of Victorian existence, destabilising the realities and the perceptions of the social order through a paradoxical age of both rationalism and superstition. This work will aim to identify the uses of the intrusive supernatural concept in nineteenth-century literature and culture, as well as the consequences that follow its incorporation. The essay will establish the habits of the intrusive supernatural and determine whether it exists as a product or cause of the changes to nineteenth-century life. Subsequently the essay shall seek to explore the relationship between the supernatural and disruptions to the supposed natural order of Victorian society. The research into this subject will involve the exploration of both metaphorical and literary uses of the supernatural, as well as the genuine attempts to confront supernatural phenomena in Victorian culture.