This cross-sectional design study investigated the nutrition knowledge of Irish Forensic Mental Health Nurses (IFMHN). It was primarily hypothesised that IFMHN have a good level of nutrition knowledge. Following the application of various inclusion and exclusion criteria, all remaining nurses employed in the Irish Forensic Mental Health Service were invited to complete a validated nutrition knowledge questionnaire designed by Parmenter and Wardle (1999). The original questionnaire was slightly modified to suit an Irish population. The data obtained was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Software, Version 20.0 and significance was set at the 0.05 level. A response rate of 85.7% (n= 96) was achieved, comprising of 52 females (54.7%) and 43 males (45.3%). This study found that the mean nutritional knowledge score of all participants was 76 ±12.7 (69.1%). The original hypothesis was therefore accepted. It was noted that female staff had a significantly greater knowledge of nutrition than male staff (p = 0.048) and the deputy ward-manager grade (CNM1) had a significantly lower level of knowledge than the ward-manager grade. The present study has revealed that IFMHN have a good level of nutrition knowledge. However, their relatively poor score in the diet–disease relationships section requires further analysis and may suggest that increased education may be required for mental health nurses in the area of health problems and diseases associated with diet.
The research to be considered is an investigation into experimentation as a means to encourage a police service to work more effectively. The research aims in more details are: • To understand contemporary literature on ‘police learning methods’. • To understand contemporary literature on ‘delivering effective policing and improvement’. • To investigate the current approach to experimentation in Cheshire Police. • To analyse the impact of experiments in developing police practice. • To draw conclusions around the factors which act as contributors or blockers to successful experiments in policing practice. This qualitative phenomenological analysis of experimentation seeks to review a sample of case studies within Cheshire Police. Taking the learning from the limited literature around experimentation in policing the research seeks to analyse the impact that learning and recognised success factors and barriers and blockers have on the ability of the organisation to develop operational effectiveness. The research demonstrates evidence of learning and an understanding of the success factors and blockers and barriers, but draws the conclusion that often there is no evidence of improved operational effectiveness. The evidence shows improved effectiveness in management understanding and at a time of recognised austerity, an ability to effect structure change. However the focus to achieve operational delivery of ‘what works’, Neyroud (2011), still requires greater focus in experimentation within the organisation.
Barnes, Michael (University College Chester, 2005)
Objectives: Previous investigations have demonstrated that blood glucose might play a role in the action of some aspects of cognitive performance in adults of various age ranges. Generally these studies have used a procedure where participants were tested after administration of a glucose drink. The aims of the study, was to investigate the glucose cognitive facilitation affects under more natural conditions of breakfast consumption or early morning fasting. Method: 20 participants with a mean age of 50.4 years (± 4.22) were studied. Measures of auditory verbal learning, executive function, visual attention and motor speed were compared following overnight fasting and after breakfast consumption with presumed elevation of glyceamic conditions Results: There was a significant difference under the two conditions (overnight fasting vs., breakfast consumption) on time taken to complete the motor speed test (p< 0.0005). There was also a significant condition effect on the amount of words recalled immediately on the auditory verbal learning test (p< 0.005) and the time taken to complete a simple executive function test (p< 0.0005). There was no significant effect on delayed word call on the auditory verbal learning test, attention test or the more complex executive function test. Changes in cognitive performance were significantly correlated with levels of blood glucose. Conclusion: The results of the study support the hypothesis that during neuropsychological testing, capacities of cognitive performance were inversely affected by early morning fasting and may have an impact on work place safety.
Artell, Victoria J. (University of Chester, 2013-06)
The focus of this research is to consider what key factors can reduce the effectiveness of Business Process Management (BPM) within a service based organisation, more specifically within Organisation X. In order to benefit from the potential advantages of BPM, Organisation X needs to identify the challenges which are perceived by internal stakeholders which may hinder BPM within the business environment. Using a case study approach, the Delphi method was employed as a way to identify and rank the perceived barriers within Organisation X. Twenty-five different barriers were identified, six of which were deemed to have the greatest impact on BPM within Organisation X. Leadership was identified as the greatest barrier followed by Communication, Value of processes, Accountability, Motivation and finally, Culture. Although the barriers identified from the findings are broad topics within business literature as a whole, they should be considered in the context of BPM as well as within the wider organisational context. It is suggested that Organisation X continues to migrate from a traditional, functional, siloed based environment to a process driven environment. The list of barriers identified within the research gives Organisation X a starting point in which to focus their initial efforts of introducing BPM. However, it is important to consider the interdependencies that exist between barriers and the context descriptions provided by the participants.
The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the significance of headwear to Victorian culture and society, primarily through an analysis of the ways in which headwear is presented in selected works by Charlotte Brontë and Elizabeth Gaskell. The dissertation will also examine articles, illustrations and periodicals from the time in order to gain an insight into the way headwear was viewed in the nineteenth century, in conjunction with information gathered from Brontë and Gaskell’s works. Further research into the subject area has suggested that this is an area of research which has been unusually overlooked, as there are many works which discuss the importance of nineteenth century clothing, but very few with any in-depth analysis of the importance of headwear. The investigation is split into two chapters. The first chapter analyses headwear and its significance to the representation of the individual, as well as the way in which the adornments and trimmings associated with headwear can reveal aspects of a character’s personality. There is also an analysis of the significance of headwear and its relation to the representation of masculinity and femininity, with reference to cross-dressing and Judith Butler’s ideas of gender construction. The second chapter examines headwear as a class signifier, primarily focusing on the headwear of the middle and working classes, including maids and servants. The socially ambiguous nature of the governess’s position is investigated, as well as highlighting the usage of headwear as a means of advancing one’s social class.
The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate the impact of a 12 week hospital-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme on long-term aerobic fitness and cardiovascular health two years after completion. Nineteen male and five female participants (mean age 65 years + 2 years) who had completed the CR programme, were randomly recruited to the study. 15 (63%) participants had a diagnosis of MI, 4 (17%) had undergone PCI and 5 (21%) had undergone CABG. The study was a repeated measures design. Participants performed three sub-maximal exercise tests (up to 75% HRmax and/or RPE 12/13) on a cycle ergometer to assess aerobic fitness (determined by work rate in watts and METs achieved) at baseline, end of CR and at two year follow-up. Secondary measures for cardiovascular health profile (including body anthropometrics, HADS score) were also examined. A one-way (Repeated Measures) ANOVA and the Friedman test examined differences at baseline, end of the programme and at two year follow-up. Compared to baseline aerobic fitness improved significantly at the end of CR (p = 0.0005) and at two years (p=0.0005). At two years there was no significant difference in work-rate (p=0.41) or METs achieved (p=0.63) compared to levels at the end of CR, indicating that participants maintained their aerobic fitness. The mean work-rate achieved by participants was 56.9 (+4.0) watts at baseline, 78.8 (+5.5) watts at the end of CR, and 76.8 (+5.2) watts at two years. Median METs achieved were 4.3 METs (IQR = 0.9) at baseline, 5.2 METs (IQR = 1.4) at the end of CR and 5.2 METs (IQR = 1.7) at two years. A 12 week CR programme can lead to positive health behaviours, an improvement in participant’s aerobic fitness and aspects of their cardiovascular health profile, which is maintained two years following completion.
McGuigan, Ross A. (University of Chester, 2009-09-30)
The aim of this dissertaion is to assess the validity and reliability of the Chester Treadmill Walk test (CTWT) for the prediction of aerobic capacity. Four males and three females aged 25.1 (±3.3) years old that were active and healthy volunteered to take part in this study. The CTWT was carried out on two separate days and on the third occasion participants completed a maximal test called the Bruce Protocol treadmill test. Each day of testing was separated by no longer than seven days. Heart rate and RPE were measured during the sub-maximal testing and heart rate, RPE and VO2 were measured during the maximal testing. The bias ±95% limits of agreement technique was used to assess the validity of the CTWT against the maximal testing. No significant differences were found between trial one and maximal testing (0.226) and between trial two and maximal testing (0.252). The CTWT showed over-estimations in VO2max in trial one and trial two by 4.0±15.4 ml•kg-1•min-1 and 4.8±19.7 ml•kg-1•min-1 respectively. Trial one, two and maximal testing obtained VO2max mean values of 49.5±7.8, 50.3±8.4 and 45.5±10.7 ml•kg-1•min-1 respectiviely. 95% LoA technique found an over-estimation of HRmax by 6.4±14.6 beats/min, woth no significant difference found (0.062). ICC and 95% LoA techniques were used to assess VO2 (-0.8±5.2 ml•kg-1•min-1), HR (3.0 ±2.8bpm) and RPE (-0.2±0.6) reliability between trial one and trial two. ICC of 0.95, 0.99 and 0.99 were found between trial one and two in VO2, HR and RPE respectively. It is questionable whether or not the CTWT is a valid sub-maximal test to conduct, however it was found to be a reliable test. VO2max was over-estimated in both trials when compared to actual VO2max but positive relationships were found between the HR and RPE values in trial one and trial two.
Taylor-Diparno, Elizabeth A. (University of Chester, 2017)
Jurors play an essential part in the Criminal Justice System in England and Wales (Citizens Information Board, 2017), however research so far highlights that jurors perceptions of a witness can impact their decision making (Peled, Iarocci, & Connolly, 2004). To gain further insight into the impact of these perceptions, specifically in regards to vulnerable witness with autism spectrum condition (ASC), an online study was designed to examine whether these perceptions implicate the witness’s perceived credibility. This study examined whether having the knowledge of the children’s developmental status, impacted the potential jurors decision making in regards to four transcripts they had read; concerning a child being asked to recall events they had watched on a video. Fifty-four participants were requested to initially complete a self-report questionnaire, establishing their overall views of individuals with ASC; based on the Societal Attitudes towards Autism Scale (Flood, Bulgrin, & Morgan, 2013). The participants were then asked to complete one questionnaire after reading each child’s transcript; based on eight credibility characteristics (Henry, Ridley, Perry, & Crane, 2011). The results showed a significant interaction between the children’s developmental status and the disclosure of their developmental status in regards to the potential juror’s perceptions of the vulnerable witness credibility, in respective to all eight credibility characteristics. In addition, the research also found that there was a significant relationship between the potential juror’s scores on the Societal Attitudes towards Autism scale and the disclosure of ASC in regards to the vulnerable witnesses’ perceived credibility, across five of the eight credibility characteristics. With a majority correlation, it is further suggested that potential jurors overall perceptions of a particular group within society is likely to influence their decisions in regards to a witnesses credibility in providing evidence.
Under the Community Act, Local Authorities have a legal responsibility to provide an assessment of need to people that require assistance and subsequently commission services that will meet the assessed needs. In 1997 Central Government started to implement a number of social care reforms which prioritised independent living, the building of sustainable communities and empowering service users to have more control and say about the services that they wished to use and access. As part of these changes Central Government made it compulsory through the National Health Act for Local Authorities and the National Health Service to work closely together to deliver services through partnership working. One of the joint strategic aims is to develop reablement and prevention services to increase people’s level of independence thereby reducing the demand for traditional long term care support. Reablement services are designed to offer short term intensive support which aim to maximise an individual’s ability for independence thereby reducing reliance on the need for either residential or nursing care. The development of reablement services presents a massive challenge for the Local Authority and the National Health Service as the change means that two very different organisations have to find a way to overcome a number of organisational barriers to enable workers from both organisations to work successfully together. This study will analyse the impact of developing reablement services through partnership working and critique how different Primary Care Trusts and Local Authorities are working together to deliver reablement services. This will involve examining different models of reablement, identifying what is required to make a successful model work and determining how the organisations overcome organisational and cultural differences. The study is based on Liverpool City Council and its work with Allied Health Professionals to deliver reablement services the study will also undertake a comparison exercise with 2 other Local Authorities within England.
Williams, Deborah (University of Chester, 2011-10)
Given the pace of change and the many aspects of managing change which organisations need to address, effective change management has become an increasingly business critical capability of organisations. The collaborating organisation, The Charitable Giving Trust (TCGT) has embarked on a substantial Information Systems Project which will replace or radically improve all technology infrastructure and information systems used to deliver services to clients. TCGT requires effective change management throughout the project and in addition, the development of organisation capability to manage emergent and contingent change to its systems and business mode. Understanding the potential impact of change on employee well-being is vital, as is helping organisations manage to accept and embrace change. The people within an organisation can be the key to successful change or the biggest obstacle to it. Academic research in the field of change management process and change models was reviewed. The role of organsiational leadership and culture on the organisational propensity and capability to change was investigated. The reserch sought to identify the best practice approaches to change management which can facilitate employee committment to, involvement in and acceptance of change. The areas of academic research informed the research conducted within TCGT. The research sought to identify TCGT current apprach to managing change, in order to inform recommendations for improvement and for adoption of applicable best practice.
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