• The role of employee engagement and communication in gaining competitive advantage

      Rowland, Caroline; West, Simon R. (University of Chester, 2008)
      There are many challenges facing today’s modern organisations, not least of which is to keep the employee workforce motivated and performing in the way in which the organisation requires in order to attain and sustain competitive advantage, and to satisfy stakeholder expectation. This can be understood as leveraging employee engagement in the organisational workplace. This dissertation reported on a real live and current organisational issue within the Authors most recent employer (The Author left Organisation X on 26/3/08 to complete this dissertation)- Organisation X (The Author has been asked to use any reference to the subject organisation within the dissertation as ‘Organisation X’, in order to maintain anonymity, and preserve any sensitive commercial intelligence regarding strategy and direction), a large UK Plc and a member of the FTSE 250 with c£10bn turnover, and c2300 retail locations; many of them prime High Street. The dissertation debated the impact of employee engagement, what it is, how it links to competitive advantage, the tools and behaviours of employee engagement and the merit to Organisation X of having an engaged workforce in their retail estate, (through which 85% of their profitability is delivered). The paper crucially offers recommendations on what Organisation X can do to progress their employee engagement. Concluding with a critical synthesis of whether Organisation X is following the correct route to leverage their internal resource – the employees, and thus provide maximum value to their stakeholders. The outcomes from this research greatly assisted the Author in developing and communicating his own employee engagement strategy within his area of responsibility thus impacting positively on his domain business and trading performance. These outcomes yielded an opportunity to be adopted in the peer areas of Organisation X’s retail network thus building a firm platform for competitive advantage, which in turn drives performance ahead of the sector market, and delivers growth in shareholder value. A robust research methodology is provided, discussing aspects of research philosophy (epistemology; ontology), research methodology (qualitative; phenomenalist and inductive approach), research methods (two-way feedback questionnaire and focus groups) and ethical considerations. A literature review of the main content and process theories of employee engagement is set out and discussed. This proposal would be useful for anyone interested in organisational employee engagement, (specifically aligned to the case organisation), how it links to competitive advantage and to those who want to know how to write a coherent dissertation with a strong methodology and literature review.
    • The role of heat shock proteins in colorectal diseases

      Williams, John H. H.; Skellern, Luke I. G. (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2008-10)
      Introduction: This thesis examines the roles of Hsp10, Hsp60, and Hsp7O in colorectal diseases, in particular Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Colonic Polyps, and Colorectal Cancer. HSPs are reported to be elevated in a number of human diseases, including autoimmune diseases and cancers. On a daily basis the colon is exposed to a number of harsh stresses, including fermentation of foodstuffs as well as a high bacterial load. These stresses are thought to possibly induce the expression of HSPs in colonic mucosal cells, where it is thought that they may influence cellular function. HSPs are known to regulate apoptosis and coordinate certain immune functions that may provide either beneficial or detrimental effects depending upon the situation. Deranged apoptosis and inappropriately coordinated immune responses, possibly as a consequence of HSP activity, are thought to be implicated in the pathogenesis of some colorectal diseases. This project aims to find correlations in the concentration of a number of important HSPs in colorectal mucosa with colorectal diseases to enhance our knowledge of the roles that HSPs might play in pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal polyps and colorectal cancer. Methods: 81 subjects were recruited prior to colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy and consented to the removal of blood and colorectal mucosal biopsies for the purpose of this study. Colonic mucosal biopsies were analysed for protein levels of Hsp70 by ELISA, in addition the mRNA expression of HsplO, Hsp60 and Hsp70 was quantified by RT-PCR in colonic mucosal specimens. A further 20 patients were venesected so that whole lysed blood could be analysed by flow cytometry to determine the cellular localisation of Hsp70 concentration in neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, to understand the involvement of Hsp70 in the coordination of immune responses appropriate to colorectal diseases. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whittney, and Linear regressional analysis were performed to determine statistical significance. Results: Endoscopic appearance and pathological diagnosis separated the 81 patients into the following groups: normals (n = 42), inflammatory lesions (n = 23), polyps (n = 10), and colorectal cancer (n = 6). Hsp70 protein expression appears to be most elevated in normal mucosa, while lower levels are measured in inflammatory lesions and polyps, and minimal levels seen in colorectal cancer specimens (P-value = 0.447). A similar pattern is seen in the levels of Hsp70 mRNA expression, again with lowest levels measured in the colorectal cancer specimens (P-value = 0.528). The gene expression of both HsplO (P-value = 0.977) and Hsp60 (P-value = 0.245) is raised in inflammatory and polypoid lesions, but as with Hsp70, is lower in colorectal cancer specimens than in healthy colonic mucosa. Too few patients with colorectal disease were evident among the 20 patients for whom blood was sampled for flow cytometry therefore statistical significance was not achieved. The percentage of neutrophils and monocytes expressing Hsp7O was maximal in the colorectal cancer patient and lowest among healthy patients, however the average concentration of Hsp70 on these cells was lower in the colorectal cancer patient than healthy patients. Discussion: Pathological group sizes were a representation of the epidemiology of colorectal diseases and hence some sample sizes, particularly the colorectal cancer group, were too small to obtain significant conclusions. Further work with larger groups is therefore required to build upon the results of this pilot study. Contrary to what was predicted, high levels of Hsp70 in healthy bowel mucosa may be a cytoprotective mechanism ensuring the survival of the cell. In contrast, cells with lower levels of Hsp70 may be more likely to undergo spontaneous mutations this could explain lower Hsp70 levels measured in the pathological groups. Alternatively, low levels of Hsp70 in the pathological groups could be due to active secretion as part of a 'danger signal' by these cells to mount an effective immune response.
    • The role of interpreters in art psychotherapy settings: Understanding the way art therapists deal with their need for language interpreters in therapeutic work with their clients and their experience of that

      Young, Susan; Hama, Darron (University of Chester, 2015-07)
      This research is an attempt to explore the experience of art therapists’ work with interpreters in their clinical settings with non-English speaking clients. Since only in year 2014, 624,000 people immigrated to the UK (http://www.ons.gov.uk), more extensive use of interpreters for psychotherapy became inevitable. However, the presence of interpreters in all psychotherapeutic settings has been considered and there is a consensus that this phenomenon is a complex and multi-faceted experience. To acquire an in-depth understanding of this phenomenon, art therapists’ account about their feelings and viewpoints towards their experience with interpreters has been considered. This resulted in emergence of several theoretical themes; I was able to conclude that despite some difficulties and reluctance that some authors expressed in their studies, (a few of these being confirmed by some of the participant art therapists in this study), no one has declined the need for interpreters at some points when clients have difficulty using English language to communicate with therapists. Further to this, in the literatures and participants’ interviews, the obstacles and difficulties that may face therapists have been highlighted along with suggestions and recommendations to overcome them.
    • The role of midwives with reference to preparation for parenthood: A case study

      Brady, Maureen T.; Grundy, Lynne M. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education)Glan Clwyd Hospital, 1996-06)
      This dissertation is predominately a review of literature regarding the midwives' role in preparation for parenthood. The literature is reviewed to assess the evolution, purpose and aims and effectiveness of antenatal education. Funfamental issues regarding how education in general can serve to oppress or liberate are examined along with the purpose and aims specific to antenatal education. The study concludes that there are many differing aims of antenatal education, often causing a lack of clarity for the midwives who deliver this education.This dissertation examines studies on measures, benefits and effectiveness and finds that the results of these stdies are often inconclusive and sometimes contradictory. A small scale primary study using postal questionnaires informs the dissertation. Qiestionnaires were sent to all mothers who delivered during a two week period three months and six months prior to receiving the questionnaire.Questionnaires were also given to all practising midwives working in the same area. The questionnaires aimed to identify whether clients' expressed needs were matched with midwives' perceptions of client needs. An analysis of the results shows that both midwives and clients agree that the subjects of labour and delivery and pain relief during labour are the most important subjects to discuss during antenatal education. In the study both clients and midwives prefer antenatal education to be delivered on a one-to-one basis. Midwives recognise a need for increased education for themselves to develop their teaching skills with regular updates. It was found that most midwives considered that their training was not sufficicent for this role. The dissertation recommends that antenatal education should serve to liberate parents and empower women, enabling them to take contrl and make informed choice during the process of childbirth. It advocates that midwives should be supported and helped to take on this role. The need to explore alternative methods of delivering antenatal education is identified.
    • The role of physical education, sport and exercise in a female prison

      Fallows, Stephen; Ozano, Kimberley A. (University of Chester, 2008-09)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of physical education, sport and exercise in the rehabilitation process of female prisoners. Research in this area is limited and often focuses on young offenders and male prisoners. Nine female prisoners from HMP Drake Hall, between the ages of 21 and 40, who participated in gym activities, at least three times a week were interviewed. This was a qualitative study using a grounded theory approach through in-depth open ended interviews. Questions focused on experiences and perceived outcomes related to their sport and exercise involvement. The data collected was then analysed using open, axial and selective coding. Five phenomena emerged from the raw data including Participation outcomes; General health awareness; Role of sport and exercise on rehabilitation for release; Developmental skills and experiences; Influence of sport, exercise or dietary awareness on plans post prison. Links between the phenomena were identified and a theory emerged beginning with the initial incarceration of a female through to participation in exercise and sport and results in the final release of a rehabilitated woman armed with the tools to cope with society in an acceptable manner. The Progression Model of Behaviour Changes through Sport and Exercise in Female Inmates developed from this research summarises the theory which evolved from grounded research. There were clear psychological, social and physical benefits of sport and exercise participation for the interviewees including increased confidence and self-esteem which contributed to the attraction to exercise and sport. The female prisoners also found that sport/exercise could be used as a coping mechanism to release feelings of aggression and anxiety. Due to the many positive outcomes associated with sport/exercise the prisoners planned their futures around this discipline. They chose to undertake coaching and academic qualifications, gained experience of instructing exercise and sport in Drake Hall and planned their careers upon release around sport and exercise. The prisoners expressed a desire to lead a healthy, socially acceptable and crime free life. This study will add to the limited body of literature in this minority population and will inform other female institutions of the rehabilitative processes associated with sport and exercise participation.
    • The Role of Social Support in Helping People with EDS Manage Their Condition

      Carroll, Janine; Appleby, Kate (University of Chester, 2016)
      The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are complicated, multisystemic disorders that can impact almost every aspect of an individual’s life and severely affect functioning. Research into optimal long-term management of EDS is still sparse and recommended medical treatments are largely based upon the clinical opinions of healthcare providers. Social support is linked to coping with adversities such as chronic health conditions, and has a relationship with health-related quality of life. This qualitative study examined the role of support in optimal management of EDS. Five participants with EDS were interviewed, and thematic analysis was carried out. Four themes relating to disparate sources of support emerged: community incorporated personal or face-to-face support (e.g. spouse, family, friends, and peers). Medical support included specific professionals and types of care available to people with EDS. The role of self-support included and focused on resilience and how support helps development of resilience. The results of this study suggest that external support can facilitate the development of resilient behaviours and attitudes in individuals with EDS, which enable better management of their condition. Interventions that incorporate appropriate, multidisciplinary, medical care with the goals of improving individuals’ access to support, such as information and peer support, could enable better management of EDS. Optimal management of EDS is likely to result in better HrQoL and reduce healthcare-related expenditure associated with treatment of EDS.
    • The role of Tai Chi Chuan in health related quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure: A literature review

      Buckley, John P.; Fallows, Stephen; Themistocleous, Irene-Chrysovalanto (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) and therefore to evaluate tai chi chuan (TCC) in general health. Despite the advances in clinical care and medicine, cardiopulmonary diseases continue to be the principal cause of morbidity and mortality. In spite of the symptoms of these chronic diseases; the negative psychological status of the patients has been also demonstrated. The importance of the alleviation of the symptoms, the management of psychological disorders is essential in the progress of the disease. Complementary interventions like TCC appears to be a desirable option that can be used in rehabilitation. A search was conducted to detect reviews, meta‐analyses, systematic reviews and large randomized control trials. Several interventions along with medication contribute to the management of these diseases. A growing number of studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of TCC, such as: improvement in balance, reduction in falls, increase in social interaction; decline in cardiac risk; reduction of disease symptoms; and improvement in pulmonary system, functional and psychological status. However, most of these studies were focused on the physiological improvement rather than on the quality of life (QOL). Further studies are required to investigate the effect of TCC on QOL in patients with HF and COPD.
    • The role of the Chaplain in the strategic facilitation of multi-faith sacred space to alleviate the suffering associated with death and dying

      Baker, Christopher; Rusted, Giselle (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      The aim of the research was to observe and scrutinise how chaplains go about facilitating a sacred space when requested, in the last days and hours of death. It sought to identify the context in which chaplains are compelled to facilitate religious and spiritual rituals and what perspectives participants have of chaplains when creating a sacred space within non-orthodox, clinical spaces. It also sought to understand the added value of chaplaincy in relation to high quatlity patient care and who was best placed to faciliate a sacred space at the point of death and dying. The research used a cross sectional design study with purposive sampling and carried out ten one to one interviews with hospital staff, who had experienced chaplaincy. They were selected from different areas of the hospital. Additionally, the research used the participant observations of the researcher who is a chaplin. Using a thematic annalysis process to identify emerging themes, the research was able to achieve an indepth understanding of the contributions made by chaplains to patient and family experience, at the point of death and dying. The research concluded that death is perceived as a significant rite of passage which requires marking; subject to a variety of expectations and that those best placed to deliver this service are chaplains, perceived as practioners in this field. The research indicated that chaplains care and are compassionate, courageous, competent and committed to providing high quality patient and family experience. Recommending that there should be greater collaboration between clinicians and chaplaincy because chaplains use their experience and knowledge when they are alongside patients and family, normalising death and contribute to a good death.
    • The role of the school nurse in addressing the perceived health needs of students: An investigation through focus groups and questionnaires

      Hogard, Elaine; Jones, Julie H. (University of Chester, 2006-10)
      This study used focus groups and a questionnaire to determine the perceived health needs of a population of secondary school pupils and therefore provide a focus for the role of the school nurse. The participants for two focus groups were drawn from separate school years and the data used to inform the design of, and results from, a questionnaire. The questionnaire was self-completed by a cross sectional cluster sample of 247 students. Results from the questionnaire were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This study found that the main health concerns centred on mental health issues, risk taking behaviours, especially drunkenness, and support with medical conditions. Most students indicated a significant role for the school nurse in addressing their health needs and principally requested individual support closely followed by the provision of information within a class setting. Some gender differences were highlighted. The results provided a clear focus for a needs-led re-design of the provision of school nursing services to the students within the school and defined a distinct role for the school nurse.
    • The role of ‘Play Touch Rugby League’ and self-paced interval running for improving men’s health

      Dobbin, Nicholas (University of Chester, 2015-10)
      Over recent years, the use of team sports for health promotion has become a topical area of interest. Previous research has investigated the impact of small-sided games (SSGs) on cardiovascular, metabolic and musculoskeletal fitness, body composition, chronic systemic inflammation, enjoyment, social capital and adherence. However, research has primarily focused on inactive and/or diseased populations using interventions ranging from 8- to 40-weeks. With ‘time’ often being perceived as a ‘barrier’ to sports participation, prolonged interventions, like those typically used, might not appropriate to promote public health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of 4-weeks of Play Touch Rugby League (PTRL) and self-paced interval running (RUN) on several health markers within an active population. Sixteen men were recruited into a PTRL (n = 8) or RUN (n = 8) group and completed four consecutive weeks of PTRL or RUN. Health markers (resting heart rate (RHR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, body mass, fat mass (FM), percentage body fat (%BF), fat free mass (FFM), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ration (WHR), body mass index (BMI), stress and inflammatory markers) were measured before and after the intervention period. During each session, participants wore a global positioning system (GPS) and heart rate monitor to record the internal and external demands of each session. The external demands varied between interventions, with the RUN group covering a larger total, low intensity and moderate intensity distance at a higher average velocity compared to the PTRL group. In contrast, the PTRL covered more high intensity distance and achieved a greater maximum velocity. After 4-weeks of PTRL and RUN, RHR, SBP and FM were likely lower. In contrast, only the PTRL group reported a lower %BF and higher FFM after 4-weeks. WC and HC were possibly lower after the RUN intervention but were likely and possibly higher at the PTRL intervention. Changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) were unclear after 4-weeks of RUN and PTRL, but interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration was very likely lower in the PTRL group. Between groups differences for positive well-being, psychological distress and fatigue were unclear, but session RPE (sRPE) was likely lower during the PTRL intervention. In conclusion, 4-weeks of PTRL or RUN performed once per week, in addition to habitual physical activity, was sufficient to improve several markers of health in an active male population.
    • The runaway train: The railways and social anxiety in Victorian Britain

      Siddle, Yvonne; Price, Valerie (University of Chester, 2013)
      This essay examines whether the concerns and anxieties expressed over the railways in nineteenth-century Britain are in reality an expression of the wider concerns of the time. The Chester to Holyhead line, including the branch line from Llandudno to Blaenau, was taken as the basis for the essay as it encapsulates many of the points under consideration. Chapter one explores the physical problems of the railway looking at the apprehension over the speed of the locomotives and lack of control over expansion of the network as it destroyed housing and seized land. Social expansion was a source of concern epitomised by the rise of the new ‘middle class’. Wealth was generated rather than inherited allowing the permeation of class boundaries. Technology became more complex and less comprehensible to the people using it. The apparently unstoppable nature of the railway was causing anxiety across society. Chapter two examines the cultural impact of the railway, including the mobility of much larger proportions of the population and the incursion of mass numbers of people into areas previously considered the territory of the upper classes. The introduction of ‘Railway’ time across the country was also studied as well as the effect on language, culture and the economy in Wales. Chapter three looks at literature, with particular reference to Wordsworth, Dickens, Braddon, Gissing and Trollope and how the railways influenced their writing. Examination was made of the expansion of printing and the availability of cheaper literature and the effects this had on the structure of the reading public. Religious symbolism was explored and the use of the train as metaphor for modernity.
    • Safeguarding children in the National Health Service: A study of government policy development and its implementation by strategic health managers in the North West

      de Sousa, Eustace (University of ChesterNHS North West, 2012-10)
      There are approximately 1.6 million children and young people under the age of 18 living in the North West of England (NHS NW, June 2011). Each of them is entitled under international and national laws to protection from harm. This research sets out the context in which England‟s national policy for safeguarding children is developed and how this is implemented in National Health Services (NHS) across the North West. The context setting of legislation is important because of the cultural backdrop this sets for strategic health managers. These managers are responsible for ensuring local health services satisfy national and local requirements, and are keeping children safe. The timing of this research is particularly relevant because of the current reforms the NHS is undergoing, which means that from April 2013 new commissioning arrangements for health services will be in place. A conceptual framework sets out an ecological framework in which policy makers and these managers operate, highlighting key factors which influence decisions. Although much academic and action research has been undertaken in this field, very little has been done in respect of this strategic group of health service managers. This original research explores, through a quantative approach, some of the key influences on these managers. The research findings identify the powerful effect of public opinion on the managers, and that the influence of policy and prioritisation is strongest when this is applied locally. This is important when one considers the Government‟s commitment to local organisations taking greater responsibility for identifying local priorities rather than being set centrally. Finally, recommendations for utilising the learning from the research are proposed for the researcher‟s organisation, the Strategic Health Authority (SHA) for the North West.
    • The School Improvement Partner a ‘critical friend’ to strategic leaders in a Local Authority’s schools?

      Killen, Malik (University of Chester, 2009-06)
      This research project begins to address the gap in knowledge about the role of the School Improvement Partner. It considers the links between the external consultant, ‘critical friend’ and the School Improvement Partner. The findings of this research indicate that the School Improvement Partner role can be akin to a “critical friend” and that there is a match between factors of successful consultancy. The paper concludes suggesting further research to expand the knowledge base and inform the development of the School Improvement Partner role.
    • A secondary sisterhood: Revisioning nineteenth-century homosocial bonds between women

      Siddle, Yvonne; Joughin, Frances E. (University of Chester, 2014)
      This dissertation explores the ways in which revisionary fiction engages with understanding that nineteenth-century gender constructs negatively impacted women’s homosocial bonds. It examines three different periods throughout the nineteenth-century to reflect upon the ways in which revisionary texts engage with changing cultural ideologies throughout the period. Beginning with Austen’s Pride and Prejudice (1813), and comparing this to the text and television adaptation Death Comes to Pemberley (2011, 2013), Chapter one examines the ways in which James’s text interprets Austen’s potentially proto-feminist comment on female homosocialism. It draws upon the ways in which the ‘Jane Austen’ brand has potentially influenced James’s text, but also reflects on how the brand continues to move with changing modern cultures through recent representations such as the internet comic, Manfeels Park. Chapter two takes a leap forward into the mid- to late-Victorian period and explores the ways in which lesbian potential may have also been affected by the secondary conditions of women’s homosocial bonds. It examines how Sarah Waters’ neo-Victorian texts Fingersmith and Tipping the Velvet write over the dearth of lesbian representation in canonical literature of the period. Chapter three examines representation of the New Woman in The Odd Women (1893), the film, Hysteria (2011) and The Crimson Petal and the White (2002). It compares the ways in which her attempt to carve out a new kind of female homosocialism has a unique link to the present because of the New Woman’s ‘modern’ approach. It examines the representation of her as an individual in revisionary texts, compared to her as part of a collective in The Odd Women, and how this makes suggestions about the state of modern feminism.
    • Self-Respect and Prejudice: An Enquiry into Self-Respect as a predictor of Prejudice and Discrimination Towards Sufferers of Eating Disorders

      Clucas, Claudine; Rodrigues Bezerra, Marcus (University of Chester, 2017-09)
      The relationship between Self-Respect (specifically Recognition Self-Respect and Appraisal Self-Respect) and Prejudice has not yet been fully investigated, and there are indications that they relate to Prejudice through other components of Self-concept, such as Empathy and Unconditional Respect. To establish the dynamics of this relationship participants (N = 95, 54 females and 41 males) from an opportunity sample of students and members of the public from Cheshire County participated in a Cross-sectional survey study. Different scales were employed measuring: Recognition Self-Respect, Appraisal Self-Respect, Unconditional Respect, Self-Esteem, Empathy Scale, and Paid Respect Scale. Appraisal Self-Respect was found to be a significant predictor of Prejudice, and this relationship was mediated bf Empathic-Concern Empathy. Recognition Self-Respect was not found to be a significant predictor of Prejudice, after adjusting for global Self-Esteem. The discrepancy in findings within the concept of Self-Respect may be a reflexion of the complexity in the components that constitute Self-Respect, and of the dynamic manner, in which Respect and Self-Respect relate as a continuum.
    • Six sigma as a facet of change management at PCN Pharmaceuticals

      Page, Steve; Hughes, Clare (University of Chester, 2010-06)
      This study looks at the six sigma training program that has been introduced within PCN Pharmaceuticals as a facet of change management. It examines the perceptions of a sample group on the subject of both a six sigma program and the management of change through the use of a questionnaire. This methodology is utilised in order to understand the perceptions around the implementation of the six sigma program after the initial roll-out. The research concludes that PCN needs to gain an understanding as to why a number of six sigma projects have not yet been completed despite attendance at six sigma training by site employees. The research findings reveal that there is not enough communication and support around the six sigma program, especially from the PCN management team. This communication also needs to reinforce the concept of change being central to the six sigma process. The research finds that the drivers for change within PCN are understood, along with the strategic goals and objectives. Furthermore, the research finds that an effective infrastructure needs to be put in place at PCN to support the six sigma program in order that it may be successful.
    • A sky full of leaves

      Wall, Alan; Hill, Stephen (University of Chester, 2009-10)
    • Social and cultural construction of obesity among Pakistani Muslim women in North West England

      Ellahi, Basma; Cox, Peter; Ludwig, Alison F. (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2012-04)
      Higher rates of obesity, Type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease are observed in British Pakistani women compared to the general UK population. This qualitative research explored the links between the participant’s understanding of health risks related to obesity, body image and dietary patterns in a cohort of first- and second-generation Pakistani women, living in Greater Manchester, England. Pakistani women act as gatekeepers to family nutrition and health. The research aims to inform promotion strategies, focusing on healthier changes, and to create increased levels of awareness of the strategies. Beyond South Asian [SA] languages, effective and ethnically appropriate approaches are essential to reach these goals. Research outcomes can no longer just be interesting or show potential, as they ought to contribute to improving women’s health and advice public health professionals when making relevant recommendations. Qualitative techniques, using focus groups and one-to-one interviews, with 55 women, were recruited from the Pakistani community via snowballing and cold calling at community and resource centres. The participants were either active in their local communities or were deemed “hard to reach” in relation to accessibility. The interviews were conducted in the participants’ homes or at the venues. Third-person fictitious vignettes were used to stimulate and promote discussion. A series of vignettes were intended to resonate with the participant’s own lives. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed then analysed. One researcher as a community insider and the other as an outsider, along with sociological analysis, reflected upon then coded the data. Using ethnography and an interpretive, phenomenological framework, allowed for data description and interpretation of an emerging understanding. The rich data uncovered issues relating to faith, family and broader socio-cultural influences, all of which had an impact on daily life and in particular to food choices. Despite an acknowledgement of obesity in themselves and around them, there appeared to be a lack of awareness linking obesity to health outcomes. The participants in both generations turned to and, in part, relied upon both traditional food and western health beliefs. As an outcome of the data analysis, a multi-directional theoretical model was developed specifically for this group of women in Manchester, called the Health Action Transition (HAT) model. The HAT model is intended to be used as a working tool in a clinical setting to aid in understanding of the Pakistani women’s socio-cultural structures and to provide a framework for recommendations relating to health promotion for these women.
    • Social Class and the Therapeutic Relationship: The Client's Perspective: To what extent do perceived differences in social class between client and therapist impact upon the therapeutic relationship? A qualitative study using a questionnaire survey.

      Trott, Alison (University of Chester, 2016-05)
      The inequalities in society are often mirrored within the therapeutic relationship, particularly for those therapists working in the NHS or for charitable organisations, where therapists are often middle-class and clients working or lower-class. The aim of this research was to explore, using a questionnaire survey, clients’ perceptions of the impact of social class and whether, and if so how, perceived social class disparities impacted the therapeutic relationship. Forty-five completed questionnaires fulfilling the inclusion criteria were returned. Using a quasiphenomenological approach and Thematic Analysis, four primary themes were identified: 1) Perceptions of own social class; 2) Social class as a facilitative aspect of therapy; 3) Negative impact of social class on therapy; and 4) Clients perceptions of their therapeutic relationship. Regardless of social status of the client or their therapist, social class similarities and disparities were found to both help and hinder the therapeutic relationship. Despite many respondents believing social class to be an irrelevant factor within their therapeutic relationship, this study illustrates that social class was a silent but powerful force affecting clients’ feelings of equality, which were often ignored. Though many respondents felt intuitively understood and experienced a more effective therapeutic alliance when perceiving client/therapist social class similarity, there was a danger that therapists could assume too much and/or collude with their clients. The findings also show that where there was social class disparity, though the quality of the relationship, and in particular empathy, were found to be crucial, the explicit recognition and acknowledgement of this disparity were shown to have a positive impact on the client, improving equality, increasing rapport and enabling greater psychological growth. For a client to take full benefit from therapy therapists must recognise the importance of social class and classism and the impact these have upon the therapeutic relationship, and be prepared to attend to these dynamics when appropriate.
    • The social influences on the development of the self

      Yilmaz, Mandy; Robinson, Joanne (University of Chester, 2013)
      Self-awareness is defined as one’s ability to differentiate themselves from others, and is influenced by early life experiences (Fonagy, Gergely, & Jurist, 2003). Some children develop self-awareness earlier than others (e.g., Amsterdam, 1972; Lewis & Ramsey, 2004), however, the developmental field has largely neglected to consider how parents may influence the attainment of self-awareness. The present study aimed to explore how typical mother-child interactions might influence infant self-awareness and whether there was a link between object awareness and body self-awareness. In addition, it was predicted that there would be an association between infant mirror-recognition and body self-awareness as found in previous research (Moore, Mealiea, Garon, & Povinelli, 2007). Infants aged between 15-18 months (N=12) were recruited to test their body self-awareness and self-recognition by use of a toy shopping trolley task and mirror-recognition test respectively. The original hypothesis was not supported; there was no association found between infant mirror-recognition and body self-awareness. Additionally, the observed mother-child interactions did not influence infant self-awareness and there were no links found between object awareness and body self-awareness. The limitations of the study included the small sample size and the lack of longitudinal data. Implications for future research include a larger number of participants, together with collecting longitudinal and cross-cultural data to examine any cultural differences in infant self-awareness.