• A qualitative study of counsellors’ experiences and perceptions of the evolving political and professional environment

      Parnell, Tony; Mintz, Rita; Johnson, Geraldine (University of Chester, 2013-12)
      Since the early 1990s, the counsellor’s world has become increasing professionalised and politicised requiring counsellors to fulfill ever more increasing obligations and responsibilities in order to practice. Counsellors undergo extensive training, adopt ‘ethical frameworks for practice’, are insured for purpose, commit to regular supervision and undergo regular CPD. They often volunteer or work with marginalised clients from some of the hardest to reach communities. There is a huge demand for counselling, yet career prospects for counsellors are both bleak and at the mercy of government policy and national economics. Using the data from 8 semi-structured interviews, this qualitative, phenomenological research explored counsellors’ experiences and perceptions of the evolving political and professional climate. The data was transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method and found counsellors entered training from a position of confidence believing themselves to be the right type of person for a career in counselling. However, the training process was difficult to manage, with many strands to the learning and they felt unsupported and overwhelmed. Counsellors had polarised experiences of placements, finding unprofessional practice in some placements, whilst others were reported to be very professional, exceptionally well run and emotionally supportive to them. Counsellors struggled to find paid employment, exacerbated by government’s massive funding of IAPT to the Health Service. They saw their own voluntary organisations lose funding, apply redundancy measures and reduce counsellor delivery hours. The government’s planned statutory regulation of counsellors and psychotherapists however, was viewed with optimism, anticipating that it would provide them the necessary validity to work professionally as a counsellor. The research offers the opportunity for a longitudinal study, to explore participants’ existing experience within the current political and professional climate. It also contributes to the body of research tracking the trajectory of the political and professional development of the counselling profession.
    • A qualitative study of counsellors’ personal experiences of alcoholism

      Mintz, Rita; Roberts, Tracey (University of Chester, 2011-11)
      This dissertation aimed to provide an understanding of the impact of alcoholism and how it has affected counsellors who are in recovery from alcoholism. The research also focused on how the participants’ lives are different today, being in recovery. This small scale qualitative phenomenological research study was undertaken using six semi-structured face to face interviews. Counsellors were asked about their experiences of alcoholism and recovery and what impact their experiences may have had on their decision to train as counsellors. The sample included three females and three males who had a minimum of five years of sobriety. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. The findings from this research indicated a number of factors that contributed to the development of alcohol dependency, including a family history of alcoholism. The outcomes also highlighted the debilitating psychological, physical and social impact of alcoholism. The process of recovery, often preceded by a ‘spiritual awakening,’ reflected the joy of being in recovery and how participants’ lives are different today. Participants predominantly had a positive outlook on life. The findings of this research help to confirm that being in recovery from alcoholism had a major impact on the decision to become a counsellor and also was perceived as having a positive impact on the counsellors’ practice.
    • A qualitative study of men’s perceptions and attitudes towards weight management and weight management services

      Ellahi, Basma; Thorp, Paula (University of Chester, 2011-10)
      This study investigated men’s perceptions and attitudes to weight management and weight management services. A qualitative study design used one-to-one interviews to gain insight into the thoughts and feelings of the participants involved. A semi-structured topic guide was prepared to help guide the encounter. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was used to make sense of themes that emerged. An article was circulated on the intranet at a single local government workplace in Chester in the north west of England inviting men to take part in the study. Eleven white British men aged between 27 and 59 years of age were recruited. The study found that weight management was viewed as important for health but the pursuit of a healthy body mass index was not a consideration for the majority of the men who set their own paramaters for a healthy weight. Appearance and image were important motivators but the men noted that there did not seem to be pressure to conform to a particular ideal. Being able to take part in sports or activity to maintain fitness were very important to the participants and this became a problem when injuries were sustained, especially recurring ones. Changing priorities along the lifecourse presented individuals with different challenges for managing their weight. An interesting concept raised was that maintaining one’s health through a diet and exercise regime was seen as ‘work’. The men viewed weight management as a personal responsibility and would not attend the health service for support unless it was associated with other symptoms. They viewed traditional weight management practices such as calorie counting and weighing oneself in public as being aimed at women and preferred to put the emphasis on physical activity rather than diet when managing their weight. Flexible and expert services were a key theme with the men seeking a personalised service that went beyond the general healthy eating and exercise messages in order to make it worth their while to attend. This study illustrates that a ‘one size fits all’ approach will not be sufficient if services are to attract and engage men in health behaviour change. Implications for practice are that weight management services should be accessible without the need for a health referral and offer a range of services to allow men to find the best fit for their lifestyle. They should make the most of current technology using the internet, mobile phone apps and other forms of communication. Services should be marketed creatively to remove the stigma from attending weight management services which are seen to be for women only. Whilst developing services for men practitioners should consider the differences in men and women’s attitudes to food and activity and tailor services accordingly. For example, focusing on body composition and fat loss rather than weight alone and consider using incentives in some settings. Three main areas for further research were identified. These were exploring further men’s views on appearance and body image because this was a strong motivator for weight management; the implications of long term injuries caused by exercising on men’s ability to manage their weight along the life course and the concept of health as work.
    • A qualitative study of the impact on the counsellor of engagement in long term empathic relationships with survivors of childhood sexual abuse

      Le'Surf, Anne; Watkin, Howard E. (University of Liverpool (University College Chester), 2004-10)
      This dissertation is a qualitative study of the impact on the counsellor of engagement in long term relationship with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Five counsellors, experienced in working with adult survivors, were interviewed. Discussion focused on questioning their training and preparation for working with the particular needs of adult clients seriously damaged by traumatic child abuse; the counsellor's experiencing of long term empathic engagement; the quality and availability of supervision and other means of supporting the counsellor; the impact on counsellors exceeding their emotional and physical limitations; and changes caused by the nature of this work in the counsellor's perceptions of the world, their feelings, and the impact on their domestic, social and spiritual life. The study examines the particular nature of childhood abuse and the circumstances that arise working with survivors which may put the counsellor at risk. The results of the study indicate that careful preparation and appropriate training are required for counsellors who wish to be involved in this work, and that constant awareness of the potential dangers combined with self-care and experienced support will help the counsellor to avoid or lessen the risks involved.
    • A qualitative study to explore factors that influence the vocabulary used by Cancer Nurse Specialists in a District General Hospital

      Boothman, Helen C. (University of Chester, 2014-03)
      There are 1.6 million people living with a diagnosis of cancer. A plethora of reports and studies have demonstrated that effective communication between health professionals and patients forms the foundation for caring for people with cancer. Effective communication has been shown to reduce levels of depression and anxiety, improve levels of self-esteem and well-being, reduce psychological morbidity and increase survival. Despite this there are ongoing concerns regarding the language used by health professions and the impacts on people with cancer. The literature search reveals there is research available concerning the language used by professionals and the effect upon people with cancer however there does not appear to be any research on factors that have influenced the vocabulary and language used. The sample population consists of 14 CNS’s across a range of cancer specialities. All 14 CNS’s were invited to participate; the eight respondents form the study sample. The setting is a DGH in the North West of England. Qualitative data was collected via digitally recorded semi-structured interviews using an interview guide. The recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the framework of Cohen, Kahn and Steeves. Four broad themes representing four key factors that influence CNS’s vocabulary emerged; people with cancer, personal, process and publicity. Each of the four themes encompasses sub themes. ‘People with cancer’ includes the vocabulary of people with cancer, non-verbal language, narrative and the influence of relatives. The ‘personal experience’ of the CNS includes level of experience in the role, knowledge of speciality, confidence, personal experience of cancer, reflection and listening and learning. The third theme ‘process’ includes themes concerning consultants, stage of the patient journey, training courses, cancer type, environment, terminology, policy and team working. The fourth theme ‘publicity’ includes the influence media awareness, the internet and literature. The study reveals multiple factors influence the vocabulary CNS’s in a DGH use when communicating with people with cancer. The study provides new insight into how CNS’s form and choose their vocabulary in response to the stimuli and influences of the people they care for and work with. The findings reveal new data on the interaction and interconnectedness of the experience, knowledge and confidence of the CNS and how these factors influence vocabulary and communications with people with cancer.
    • A quantitative and qualitative evaluation of a 10 week play touch rugby league programme for improving physical activity in adult men and women

      Ashton, Ruth (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      Government guidelines recommend all healthy adults (18-65 years) complete 150-minutes moderate-intensity aerobic activity weekly (Department of Health, 2011a; Department of Health, 2011b; Garber et al., 2011; Haskell et al., 2007; Nelson et al., 2007) with the aim of expending ~1000 k/cal to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD; Department of Health, 2011b; Garber et al., 2011). Team sport activity, when sustained for ~8-24-weeks, elicits changes in risk factors of CVD (Barene, Krustrup, Jackman, Brekke & Holtermann, 2014b; Krustrup et al., 2009; Mendham, Duffield, Marino & Coutts, 2014). The Government does not focus on recreational team sport, but physical activity (PA) as a whole, despite the potential of recreational team sports to promote health and reduce disease. Modified versions of team sports, such as walking football and Touch Rugby League, have emerged to encourage individuals to engage in PA. Numerous leagues have resulted from the Play Touch Rugby League (PTRL) initiative developed in 2013 by the Rugby Football League (RFL). Touch Rugby League is a modified version of Rugby League and is an intermittent team activity (Beaven, Highton, Thorpe, Knott & Twist, 2014). Touch allows players some degree off-pitch recovery however, it is dependent upon the context of the match. A Touch Rugby League match consists of 2 x 20 minute halves, with a single or mixed sex team of 6 players on the pitch at any given time. A tackle is made by touching the ball carrying player therefore reducing risks of repeated high-impact collisions. Accordingly the aim of this review is to provide an overview of modified versions of team sports and the benefits to be gained from participating.
    • A questionnaire survey to determine the effectiveness of the “Making a Difference” weight management programme on the lifestyle choices of the whole family unit

      Coogan, Aine (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      The health, social and economic implications of childhood obesity are well documented(Lobestein, Baur & Uauy, 2004). However, little effective action has been taken to address the childhood obesity epidemic. The global concern over the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity has been the focus of researchb and debate over the past three decades. Feasible and sustainable approaches to prevent further increases in childhood overweight and obesity, to date, have remained mostly elusive. Conversely, there is a consensus regarding the role of the living environment as a determinant of obesity. Recent research provides strong evidence of the importance of living environments as determinants of obesity (Rosenkranz & Dzewaltowski, 2008; Kumanyika, Parker & Sims, 2010). As a result, it is essential to explore and assess practical family based interventions that are effective to understand the parental influences that may contribute to the development of childhood obesity.
    • Reading between the blurred lines: A discussion into the representation of rape and rape culture in contemporary fiction

      Rees, Emma L. E.; Davies, Alice L. (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      In this dissertation, the focus will be on the representation of rape and rape culture within contemporary fiction; the aim of this is to discover how prevalent rape and rape culture is within this particular area. The thesis is split into three chapters, the first of which discusses the depictions of male rape and gender shifts in contemporary fiction, focusing on Lisbeth Salander as a rapist in The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo. The second chapter follows on from this, discussing the portrayal of victims of rape within contemporary fiction; and the last chapter debates whether or not a perpetuating rape culture means that women cannot be as sexually experimental as they wish to be. The aim of the dissertation is to focus on how authors depict rape, and whether or not this depiction is perpetuating rape culture, or simply addressing the issue within fiction. The introduction is a larger part of the dissertation, setting up exactly what rape and rape culture is, and how rape myths prevail in modern western society. There are certain areas that the dissertation has not addressed, such as race, because they are such complex issues that merely by giving them a single chapter within the dissertation would not be enough. The dissertation’s main purpose, and main area of focus, is to illustrate the perpetuating rape culture in western societies through gender inequality.
    • A realistic evaluation of an NHS community weight management programme

      Ellahi, Basma; Hogg, Samantha (University of ChesterNHS Ashton, Leigh and Wigan, 2010-11)
      The “Lose Weight, Feel Great” (LWFG) pathway was commissioned by NHS Ashton, Leigh & Wigan with the aim to reduce the rising tide of obesity within the Wigan Borough (Hogg et al. 2010). The Community Weight Management Programme (CWMP) is one of the services offered and involves dietary advice, physical activity sessions and methods for behavioural change. Approximately 35% of service users are successful at losing 5% or more of their initial body weight; however other service users are not as successful. The aim of this dissertation was to understand the context and mechanisms which may facilitate or impede success. Method: Following a framework of Realistic Evaluation (Pawson & Tilley, 1997), 25 semi-structured telephone interviews where undertaken with people who had previously accessed CWMP. The interviews where transcribed verbatim and then analysed using Thematic Analysis to identify common themes (Howitt & Cramer, 2007). Findings: Seven Themes emerged from the interviews. Four themes related to mechanisms of CWMP, two themes related to contexts surrounding CWMP and one theme related to outcomes from CWMP. Mechanisms involved: group sessions; Slimming World consultant & Wigan Leisure Culture Trust activity officers; physical activity sessions; the Slimming World Eating Plans. Contexts involved: the Healthy Foundations Segmentation Model; motivation & Readiness to Change. Outcome: Change in Lifestyle. Conclusion: Changes could be made to CWMP, such as increasing the number of free sessions, offer other LWFG services if CWMP does not appear to be appropriate, and provide more extensive information during the induction sessions. However, it is also important to take into account people’s motivation to change, the segment that they may fit into and that changes to lifestyle are not just limited to the service users, but also family members. Changes to the programme will improve success rate and ensure that resources are used effectively.
    • Recovery is a constant battle: Online exploration of sufferers' perspectives on anorexia and bulimia

      Sorfova, E. (University of Chester, 2016)
      Research into the problem of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) has previously focused predominantly on perspectives of these eating disorders from an external point of view. The subjective experiences of AN or BN sufferers, however, have not been sufficiently explored. Experiences, shared online, provide a rich source of data to provide a comprehensive understanding of eating disorders and their treatment. This study provides an insight into how individuals with AN/BN make sense of their eating disorder in the online world. Data were collected retrospectively from three online pro-recovery forums. Thematic Analysis revealed three inter-related themes: Paradox of control, Challenges, and Ambivalence, all of which describe the lives of individuals with eating disorder (ED), and demonstrate how they made sense of their eating disorder. Moreover, this study further shows differences between individuals with AN and BN that occurred within the key themes. Implications of the findings for clinical practice are discussed.
    • The relationship between compulsive overeating behaviour and self-harm: An analysis of YouTube videos

      Heath, Hannah; Wyatt, Claire (University of Chester, 2017-09)
      Self-harm behaviour and the relatively unrecognised behaviour of compulsive overeating are secretive and isolating in nature. Compulsive overeating behaviour is under-researched and frequently misaligned with Binge Eating Disorder due to a lack of understanding and knowledge. Research investigating self-harm behaviour exists, although qualitative research is limited. This study looked to address the research question, ‘How do those who have compulsive overeating behaviour differ from those who self-harm?’ The design of the study was a qualitative Thematic Analysis based on Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six stages of analysis. Twenty participants’ describing their personal experience of compulsive overeating and self-harm behaviour, through the platform of YouTube, were analysed, revealing 18 main themes. The findings illustrate similarity in the psychological, emotional and behavioural processes of self-harm and compulsive overeating behaviour, although several differences were identified relating to the research question. Key differences identified were the age of onset of behaviour, with existing research and the results of this study showing the prevalent onset of self-harm behaviour in adolescence whereas the results suggest compulsive overeating emerges at a much younger age. Differences were also highlighted in the participants experience and response to life events, their need to belong, in the formation of self-esteem and in the recovery process. Future research furthering intrapersonal and interpersonal understanding of compulsive overeating behaviour as a disorder may inform the design of better prevention and treatment, in addition to exploring the concept of compulsive overeating behaviour as a method of self-harm. Further qualitative research exploring the self-harm recovery process is recommended, to further develop preventative measures and treatment.
    • The relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and declarative nutrition knowledge of residents in Blacon aged 17-45 years

      Woodall, Alison; Morris, Mike; Gleave, Mark (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      Despite the reported health benefits of consuming fruit and vegetables on a daily basis, many residents of areas of deprivation, such as Blacon, still do not appear to be meeting the ‘5 a day’ recommendations. This study assessed the correlation between declarative nutrition knowledge (the awareness of processes, events and constituents of food substances) and fruit and vegetable intake in a LLSOA (low-level super output area) in the North West of England. The aim was to understand the relevance of providing factual advice and recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Method: 42 participants (16 males and 26 females) took part in this cross sectional, correlational study. All participants completed a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (adapted from Parmenter and Wardle, 1999) and a dietary instrument for nutrition education (DINE) (Roe et al, 1994). During analysis, the participants were categorised in to age and gender groups. Average scores for fruit and vegetable consumption and declarative nutrition knowledge were compared. Nutrition knowledge was used as the independent variable against fruit and vegetable consumption in order to observe a correlation between the two. Spearmans Rank Correlation Coefficient showed that a statistically significant positive correlation was apparent between combined daily fruit and vegetable intake and total declarative nutrition knowledge (rs = 0.33, p = 0.033). Although numerous correlations were observed, none appeared stronger than combined daily fruit and vegetable intake and expert advice (rs = 0.368, p = 0.016). Females scored significantly better than males in expert advice (U = 124, p = 0.020) and daily fruit intake (U = 129.5, p = 0.035). The eldest age group (35-44 years) performed significantly better than the middle age group (25-34 years) for answers on health and disease (F(2,39) = 5.588, p = 0.007). The significant findings from this study indicate that, while food intake is a complex issue involving a wide range of factors, declarative nutrition knowledge could be used to predict a small percentage of variance of fruit and vegetable intake in Blacon. This is significant for health authorities, governments and local communities, as efforts should continue to convey health messages and provide advice to the people who consume the least amount of fruit and vegetables in the least affluent areas.
    • The Relationship Between Nutrition Behaviour and Physical Activity Levels on Body Mass Index in Students of the United Kingdom

      Fallows, Stephen; Oguz, Fadime M. (University of Chester, 2017-09)
      Objective: Adoption of an inactive lifestyle and inappropriate eating behaviour increases the risk of developing chronic illness in adulthood. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between the body mass index (BMI), a critical factor in determining obesity, of the students of the University of Chester in the United Kingdom with their nutrition behaviour/habits and physical activity levels. Methods: Volunteers and randomly selected 377 students who are studying at the University of Chester were included in the study. Nutrition behaviour/habits, anthropometric measurements and physical activity levels of the participants were determined by a questionnaire. Results: This study included 150 males (39.8%) and 227 females (60.2%) with a mean age of 22.3 ± 4.2 years. There was no significant relationship (p=.856) between the score of positive attention to diet (33.58 ± 5.92) and BMI levels (24.19 ± 4.59 kg/m2) of the students. There was no significant relationship (p=.548) between weekly physical activity levels (3385.62 ± 3046.23 MET.min/wk) and BMI levels (24.19 ± 4.59 kg/m2) of the students. There was a significant relationship (p=.003) a very low positive correlation (r= .155) between the score of positive attention to diet (33.58 ± 5.92) and weekly physical activity levels (3385.62 ± 3046.23 MET.min/wk) of the students. Conclusion: It has been found that physical activity level correlates positively with positive attention to diet. However; positive attention to diet and physical activity levels may not solely effective factors on the body mass index. There might be some other factors affecting body mass index. More research is needed to assess the relationship between BMI and other factors which contribute to obesity.
    • The relationship between pretend play skills and language development in children aged three to five

      Kirkham, Julie; Nowell, Rebecca (University of Chester, 2018)
      Pretend play is a crucial component within child development, especially with regards to language. Pretend play and language both share commonalities which involve symbolic abilities (Lewis, Boucher, Lupton, & Watson, 2000). This study examined the influence that cognitive and affective aspects of pretend play and symbolic play has on expressive and receptive language development and whether these pretend play domains uniquely predict language development. This study also assessed whether age and sex effects pretend play and language development. A convenience sample of 50 children age three to five years old was used to collect the data. The Preschool Language Scale (Zimmerman, Steiner & Pond, 1997) was used to assess Auditory and Expressive Communication, the Affect in Play Scale – Brief Rating Version (Cordiano, Russ & Short, 2008) was used to measure cognitive and affective pretend play, and the Pretend Actions Task was used to measure symbolic play (Overton & Jackson, 1973). The results suggest that cognitive and affective pretend play and symbolic play did not uniquely predict expressive and receptive language. Only symbolic play was found to be a positive significant unique predictor of expressive language. There was also a significant effect of age on all three pretend play scores and expressive and receptive language, with five year olds scoring higher than four year olds and four year olds scoring higher than three year olds. There was no effect of gender on the play tasks. However, boys scored significantly higher on the receptive language test than girls. These findings demonstrate that pretend play is an important component for language development; however it may not be the only predictor. The results suggest that more research needs to be done in order to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between cognitive and affective pretend play and expressive and receptive language.
    • The relationship between Samuel Wilberforce and William Ewart Gladstone, 1835-73, with special reference to contemporary religious issues

      Swift, Roger; Whitehouse, Graham (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2010-12)
      This thesis examines the private and public relationship between Samuel Wilberforce and William Ewart Gladstone, who became great friends between 1835 and 1873. Wilberforce (1805-1873), who became Bishop of Oxford in 1845, was an outstanding preacher and diocesan, an effective speaker in parliament, and the best known Anglican clergyman of his time. Gladstone (1809-1898), who became Liberal prime minister on four occasions, was the most fervently religious prime minister of the Victorian period. The thesis is divided into two parts. Part One examines the nature and development of the private friendship between Wilberforce and Gladstone. Chapter One describes their early lives and the start of their friendship in the mid-1830s. The two men had much in common; they both came from devoutly Evangelical backgrounds, yet both became High Churchmen; both their fathers were Tory Members of Parliament, and both went to Oxford University. Chapter Two examines the consolidation of their friendship from the 1840s until Wilberforce's death in 1873. It shows their mutual respect and admiration, and enjoyment of one another's company. Their friendship reflected sympathetic and empathic responses to various family crises, including the defection of some of Wilberforce's relatives to Roman Catholicism, and the deaths of close friends and relatives. Wilberforce's ambitions for promotion were thwarted, but Gladstone was able to appoint him to the venerable bishopric of Winchester in 1869. Gladstone was clearly distraught by Wilberforce's sudden death in 1873 and fulsomely eulogised his friend. Part Two examines the public relationship between Wilberforce and Gladstone, with particular reference to contemporary religious issues in which they shared a mutual interest. Chapter Three examines the response of Wilberforce and Gladstone to problems faced by the Church of England during the mid-Victorian period, including the divisions between Evangelicals and High Churchmen, Tractarianism, Ritualism, the Broad Church and various other doctrinal disputes. On these and other issues the two friends frequently acted in tandem. Wilberforce and Gladstone both argued with the protagonists of Darwinism in the debate on Evolutional Theory, which challenged Christian belief. Chapter Four examines the views of Gladstone and Wilberforce on the difficult relationship between Church and State during the mid-Victorian period, and explores, by reference to the Hampden controversy, the Gorham Judgement, the re-establishment of Convocation and Papal Aggression, the extent to which they were mutually supportive. Finally, Chapter Five considers the parliamentary roles of Wilberforce and Gladstone regarding ecclesiastical legislation, where they frequently co-operated in the promotion of, and support for measures including the development of an independent Colonial Church and regulation of the Anglican clergy. Whilst Gladstone's aim to disestablish the Church of Ireland was initially opposed by Wilberforce, he came to accept it as a decision of the electorate and was instrumental in persuading the English and Irish bishops not to oppose the legislation promoting disestablishment in 1869. The parliamentary co-operation between Wilberforce and Gladstone also extended to some social legislation, including the question of divorce and the extension of elementary educational provision in 1870. In summary, this original thesis offers the first detailed examination of the relationship between Samuel Wilberforce and William Gladstone - a relationship hitherto largely ignored by historians - and argues that theirs was a true and enduring friendship which equated with Aristotle's criteria forphilia, despite differences in their personalities and occasional differences of opinion, and which also extended to mutual co-operation and support in their public lives.
    • Relationship between skinfold and optical density at upper and lower body measurement sites

      Sykes, Kevin; Lamb, Kevin L.; McLachlan, Alistair C. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1994-07)
      This study examined the relationship between Skinfold (SKF) and Optical Density (OD) at upper and lower body sites in 20 active (>30 mins per day) male subjects (19-34 years). The use of lower body measurement sites in regression equations developed to predict %BF was also investigated. Percent Body Fat (%BF) was calculated by Hydrostatic Weighing (HW), SKF and Near Infrared Interactance (NIR) using the Futrex 5000. SKF and OD measurements were taken at ten anatomical sites. Estimations of %BF by SKF and NIR were found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from %BF by HW. OD1 and OD2 values generated from NIR and SKF thicknesses at each site were found to be poorly correlated in this population. Regression equations developed from SKF and OD data found that upper body sites were generally the best predictors of %BF (r2=.63, SEE +/- 2.15%). A combination of upper and lower body SKF and OD sites showed good predictive accuracy for Fat mass (r2=.96, SEE +/- .97Kg) and Fat Free Mass (r2=.98, SEE +/- .87Kg). In the population studied upper body measurement sites were generally the better predictors of %BF.
    • The relationship between the living and the dead - Contemporary interaction and deposition at mortuary sites as Intangible Cultural Heritage? How this illustrates collective memories and identities in North Wales

      Williams, Howard; Capper, Morn; Bound, Scott L. (University of Chester, 2018-10-10)
      The way in which the living interact with the past in the contemporary is ever-changing. New mortuary practices and forms of commemoration are formed by different groups and cultures, expressing the way in which they perceive death and so life. This interaction can be studied through the contemporary depositions and archaeological evidence left at sites, however, this has seen little coverage heritage and mortuary studies. Given the recent acknowledgement of intangible cultural heritage as an existing element of society within British heritage management these practices that exemplify interaction with ancestral, national or collective memories and identities could be protected or promoted by governing bodies. This thesis therefore aims to highlight such contemporary practices by giving close study to the three mortuary sites that experience this in North Wales, and the forms of intangible heritage that become evident from this. Bryn Celli Ddu passage tomb in Anglesey; Gelert's Grave fictitious dog grave in Snowdonia; and St Winefride's Well site of pilgrimage in Holywell all illustrate these practices, illustrating differing cultural group's formation of memory and identity in the process. By utilising the work on heritage established by Smith on authorised heritage discourses and outstanding universal value, and Houlbrook and Wallis' research on contemporary depositions this thesis expands on the already established, yet young, discourses, providing new information on a particular context within the United Kingdom. This thesis successfully highlights this, illustrates their importance as contemporary expressions and forms of heritage, and briefly sees the function of these within British governance.
    • The relationship between workplace stress and physical activity: A correlational study

      Fallows, Stephen; Grant, Loren C. (University of Chester, 2010-09)
      Objectives: This study examined associations between levels of physical activity (PA) in both leisure and work time and stress in a specific population of NHS managerial and administrative staff (n=174). Methods: Data was gathered via a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) on physical activity (PA), perceived stress levels at work and in personal life, health status, age, gender, job band, commuting distance and methods of transport, caring status and a range of perceived barriers to PA. The sample was stratified into low, moderate or high categories of activity using the IPAQ scoring protocol to calculate MET-mins/wk. Stress levels were coded 1(low) to 6 (high) from a Likert-scale type question. Results: Overall, there was a significant difference in stress levels between low activity and moderate and high activity groups. As levels of PA increased, levels of stress tended to decrease. The mean difference in stress scores between the low-activity and moderate activity groups was 1.14 (SE: 0.45) (p = 0.01) and the mean difference in stress scores between low-activity and high activity groups was 1.68 (SE: 0.48) (p = 0.00). However, there was no significant difference between the moderate- and high-activity groups although the high activity group had the lowest mean of stress (2.8). When results were separated for age groups, gender and income levels, some of these effects, especially for job bands (as a proxy for income levels) and health, could be confirmed. There were significant differences between some age groups in levels of PA, showing that older age groups are more active; and significant differences in PA amongst people in different job bands, with people on the highest job bands achieving the highest levels of PA and reporting the lowest levels of stress. ii Conclusions: Individuals reporting low levels of physical activity report higher levels of stress, with a trend showing that as PA levels increase, stress levels decrease. However, as this is a cross-sectional study, the direction of the effect could not be confirmed. Further investigation into some of the barriers to PA amongst similar sedentary working populations may be of value for workplace health interventions.
    • Relationship Patterns between Self-esteem, Self-respect and Cognitive Effort as Measured by Story Recall and the Eye Tracker

      Clucas, Claudine; Kelecsenyi, Hedvig (University of Chester, 2018)
      High levels of self-esteem has been associated with success for decades, while at the same time its utility to predict achievement-related behaviours has been questioned. This controversy brought self-respect (an independent, theoretically grounded construct) defined as a person’s positive, affective self-regard for being a moral, principled, and honourable person, to the forefront of empirical research. Accordingly, the current study intended to examine the relationship between self-report measures of self-respect, self-esteem and cognitive effort as measured by story recall and eye tracker measures of eye fixation with pupil dilation while reading a morally neutral and a morally charged story. A total of 40 participants, comprising of 11 males and 29 females, with a mean age of 34, from a convenience sample completed the study. A stronger positive relationship was expected between self-respect and measures of cognitive effort than between self-esteem and the same measures. Also, there was an anticipation of a stronger interaction between self-respect and the type of story tested, because higher self-respect might have implications for the processing of moral information. Four repeated measures of ANCOVA analyses demonstrated significant negative relationship between self-respect and cognitive effort. They also revealed a strong trend towards a negative relationship between self-esteem and cognitive effort. The results quite interestingly are contrary to the declared hypotheses of the study with regards to the direction of the relationship. Findings indicate that the interaction between self-respect and story type on recall and eye tracker measures were not significant. Hence, failing to support the theory that high levels of self-respect enhances sensitivity to moral information through the link to the moral self. The outcome also highlights the possibility that certain factors undermine the effort or more meaningful engagement is needed, perhaps, through a more complex task. It would help to establish not only relationship patterns, but determine whether self-respect is unique enough as an independent construct that could add to the prediction of cognitive effort above and beyond what is explained by self-esteem.
    • Reliability and validity of the Chester treadmill walk test for the prediction of aerobic capacity

      Morris, Mike; McGuigan, Ross A. (University of Chester, 2009-09-30)
      The aim of this dissertaion is to assess the validity and reliability of the Chester Treadmill Walk test (CTWT) for the prediction of aerobic capacity. Four males and three females aged 25.1 (±3.3) years old that were active and healthy volunteered to take part in this study. The CTWT was carried out on two separate days and on the third occasion participants completed a maximal test called the Bruce Protocol treadmill test. Each day of testing was separated by no longer than seven days. Heart rate and RPE were measured during the sub-maximal testing and heart rate, RPE and VO2 were measured during the maximal testing. The bias ±95% limits of agreement technique was used to assess the validity of the CTWT against the maximal testing. No significant differences were found between trial one and maximal testing (0.226) and between trial two and maximal testing (0.252). The CTWT showed over-estimations in VO2max in trial one and trial two by 4.0±15.4 ml•kg-1•min-1 and 4.8±19.7 ml•kg-1•min-1 respectively. Trial one, two and maximal testing obtained VO2max mean values of 49.5±7.8, 50.3±8.4 and 45.5±10.7 ml•kg-1•min-1 respectiviely. 95% LoA technique found an over-estimation of HRmax by 6.4±14.6 beats/min, woth no significant difference found (0.062). ICC and 95% LoA techniques were used to assess VO2 (-0.8±5.2 ml•kg-1•min-1), HR (3.0 ±2.8bpm) and RPE (-0.2±0.6) reliability between trial one and trial two. ICC of 0.95, 0.99 and 0.99 were found between trial one and two in VO2, HR and RPE respectively. It is questionable whether or not the CTWT is a valid sub-maximal test to conduct, however it was found to be a reliable test. VO2max was over-estimated in both trials when compared to actual VO2max but positive relationships were found between the HR and RPE values in trial one and trial two.