• A Comparison of the Characteristic Traits of Learning Theories in the Three Synoptic Gospels by Thematic Narrative Analysis

      Middleton, Paul; Thackray, Gordon J. (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      Many writers have discussed aspects of pedagogy in connection with the books of the New Testament but few have related pedagogical elements observable in the Gospels to current theories of how people learn and the consequent teaching methods. I perform, here, a thematic narrative analysis of the synoptic gospel texts, with the focus of contemporary approaches to learning and teaching. The project aims to identify traits of pedagogic themes throughout these gospels, with a view to establishing if it is appropriate to describe any of them as characterised by one or other of the commonly recognised theories of learning. While such a characterisation is not expected to be perfect across any one Synoptic, it could prove possible to demonstrate sufficient correlation with some theoretical learning model to argue that the gospel is typified by that pedagogy. This thesis also compares and contrasts the three synoptic gospels, in respect of their emphasis on those themes. The thesis outlines the salient features of the currently prominent learning and teaching approaches and considers the applicability of each model to this investigation. The three approaches found most useful for the analysis are: that referred to as behaviourism in teaching; a cognitive, constructivist pedagogic model; and the strongly situated learning theory. The synoptic gospels are examined for aspects of those themes, where possible, as a series of parallel passages, each regarded as a bounded text segment. Special Lukan material is also considered, separately. Any reader’s interpretation of such a narrative is constructed from within their own pre-existing framework for understanding it. My reading of the Gospels here is, therefore, a personal response to the text, which has arisen from my experience working in adult education and training. The conclusion of this work is that all three synoptic gospels exhibit textual features corresponding to a specific teaching and learning model sufficiently consistently to regard them as substantially informed by it. Furthermore, the Synoptics each exemplify a different pedagogical approach. Matthew’s gospel portrays a predominantly behaviourist pedagogy, the Gospel of Mark a generally cognitivist, constructivist approach to learning and teaching and Luke the characteristics of a strongly situative learning theory. It is anticipated that the comparison presented here will provide a new contribution to the discussion of the differences between the otherwise parallel accounts evident within the first three gospels.
    • An appraisal of judging criteria in relation to performance in elite male amateur boxing

      Thomson, Edd; Latham, James (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      This study intended to appraise the features of the judging criteria of elite amateur boxing and determine the impact such features have on unanimous and split contest outcomes. Appraising eight offensive actions and their outcomes, the technical demands of open-class boxing from 93 male boxers (age: 24.4 ± 3.3 y; height: 176.1 ± 10.5 cm; body mass: 65.8 ± 12.9 kg) during 87 bouts of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and 2017 World Amateur Boxing Championships were notated using computerized software. A 3 (round) x 4 (outcome) repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc statistical analyses were adopted. Twenty-five performance parameters differed between unanimous winners and losers, but only four between split winners and losers. Unanimous winners landed more punches than unanimous losers in total (P = 0.002) and in round 1, 2 and 3 (all P = 0.000). They also landed a higher percent of very successful punches than unanimous losers in total (P = 0.001) and in round 1 (P = 0.005), 2 (P = 0.027) and 3 (P = 0.02). Unanimous losers threw a greater percentage of air punches than unanimous winners per bout (P = 0.000) and in round 1 (P = 0.006), 2 (0.000) and 3 (P = 0.002). Unanimous winners landed a greater percentage of straight, hook, and uppercut punches thrown with the lead hand (P = 0.007, 0.000 and 0.049 respectively) and straight punches thrown with the rear hand (P = 0.003) than unanimous losers. Split winners landed a greater percentage of total punches than split losers in round 1 (P = 0.006) and 3 (P = 0.047). Judges use several performance indicators to assess superiority between boxers, albeit the technical disparity between split winners and losers is marginal compared to unanimous winners versus losers. This study proposes that the number of punches landed, punch accuracy and technical and tactical superiority all have an important influence during unanimous outcomes, but when judges are split on choosing the winner of a contest, only punch accuracy separates the two boxers.
    • Nutrition and Golf performance

      Robinson, Michael (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      Nutrition in Golf is a relatively new area of research with only a small amount of published studies. Golf nutrition is distinct from other sports primarily due to the variable conditions faced by players over an extended period of time. Despite that only a low to moderate exercise intensity is maintained, players are required to make multiple maximal velocity swings requiring high level motor skill whilst cognitive functioning is challenged through decision making on every shot, often under intense pressure. Caffeine supplementation has been the most investigated topic with findings of improved performance in certain areas of the game such as driving and putting whilst fatigue appeared to be attenuated towards the end of a round. Dehydration has been shown to be prevalent even in the elite amateur game with a significant decline in a range of performance variables found with only mild-dehydration. Carbohydrate consumption has been shown to prevent the decline in blood glucose experienced over a round, however an optimal consumption protocol has not been established. Future research should further investigate nutritional techniques to offset the physical and mental challenges arising over a round of golf.
    • 'Established in the fields of Great Britain': How can the study of dress further our understanding of the relationship between landscape, culture and identity? 1830 to the present

      Andrew, Rebecca; Brown, Jessica (University of Chester, 2018-09-20)
      This dissertation will explore how the study of dress can develop our understanding of the historic relationship between landscape, culture and identity in Britain from 1840 to the present. To do so, it will demonstrate how the growing social and cultural significance of rural landscapes, and their role within developing constructions of national identity were frequently reflected in changing styles of dress. Interdisciplinary in approach, this dissertation will weave together theories from the fields of history, cultural geography, sociology, dress and fashion studies to explore - through the lens of dress - how the rural landscape was understood and experienced. It will therefore be argued that the study of dress is a powerful analytical tool for the landscape historian, seeking to examine the social and cultural significance of past landscapes, and their role within constructions of national identity.
    • Soldier Endurance and the First World War Trench Press

      Craggs, Neal (University of Chester, 2018-09-19)
      Soldiers in the First World War, began publishing trench journals shortly after the German and Allied Armies entrenched along the Western Front. Although, they were not limited to the Western Front, and by the end of the war were present in many theatres. They were of varying quality, sometimes printed, sometimes hand-drawn. They constitute a unique collection of literature, poetry, and journalism, and give voice to a culture that, however briefly, emerged in the trenches of the Great War, and vanished with the signing of peace. These journal provide exceptional insight into the lives and thoughts of the inhabitants of the trenches. They are by no means a flawless historical source. They were subject to censorship, both official and self-imposed; the soldiers who wrote them were undoubtedly, in some ways, prejudiced and ignorant; they were written for an audience whose interests were particular and restrictive. Therefore, the soldier newspapers do not provide a comprehensive or uncomplicated view into the First World War, or the trench system. Nevertheless, they do represent an independent, unique, and under researched source of trench literature. This dissertation will comprise a limited study of a selection of trench journals, with the intention of analysing the ways in which these newspapers may have been beneficial to the soldier in the trenches. This analysis will be undertaken with a view to ascertaining ways in which soldiers were able to endure the harshness of trench warfare for years. It will consist of four chapters, the first being a source analysis and literature review combined, and the next three chapters will look into the ways that the trench journals present soldiers' perceptions of the trenches, the home front, and the enemy, respectively.
    • Exercise and physical activity practices of males in an Irish prison and its impact on quality of life.

      Fallows, Stephen; Dooley, Fiona (University of Chester, 2018-09-03)
      People in prison are generally deemed to be at a higher risk of several physiological and psychological conditions due to demographic factors and the prison environment, where overcrowding, lack of cleanliness and unhealthy lifestyle practices are common. In response to these influences prisoners tend to have lower quality of life and health related quality of life scores compared to the general population. While exercise provision is in place in prisons, sedentary behaviour is very common among prisoners. Physical inactivity such as this is described as a key modifiable risk factor for several health conditions. Exercise and physical activity has been widely recognised to be effective in managing an individuals’ health and the same is true in a prison perspective. Prison-based exercise programmes have increased the overall quality of life scores of prisoners most notably in the domains of physical and mental health. Cardiovascular and resistance training programmes have produced significant improvements in the cardiovascular health of prisoners reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Various exercise and sport interventions have also significantly improved the psychological wellbeing of prisoners reducing levels of depression, anxiety, stress and improving self-esteem.
    • The effect of glycomacropeptide-based foods upon blood phenylalanine control in adults and children with phenylketonuria

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Thomson, Roderick (University of Chester, 2018-09-03)
      Conventional treatment for phenylketonuria restricts dietary phenylalanine to ‘control’ plasma phenylalanine concentrations. Its widespread adoption has largely eradicated the severe neurocognitive defects that previously characterised phenylketonuria. However, interest in alternative treatments continues as deficits in intelligence and other health outcomes remain problematic, conventional treatment has limitations and adherence proves difficult. Glycomacropeptide-based foods (GMP) are a novel treatment that may improve the satiety and acceptability of dietary treatment and address suboptimal health outcomes. However, glycomacropeptide contains some phenylalanine, raising safety concerns regarding its effect on plasma phenylalanine in adults and particularly children who tolerate less phenylalanine. This narrative review attempted to resolve these concerns. Its findings suggest adults and children can maintain control on GMP but individualised titrations, adjusting the amount of GMP consumed whilst monitoring plasma phenylalanine, are necessary in children. Equivalent control is a supportive finding given GMPs many advantages but this must be viewed cautiously as only seven studies were located, predominantly employing bias-prone, heterogeneous designs. GMPs effect upon control thus requires clarification via a systematic review using evidence-based, transparent methods to synthesize the entire evidence base and consider the impact of design quality, bias and heterogeneity upon results.
    • Lifestyle behaviours associated with type 2 diabetes risk in Australian construction workers

      Markwell, Katherine; Botley, Sian (University of Chester, 2018-08-31)
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global problem with many unfavourable consequences. Obesity is the single largest predictor of T2DM. Additional modifiable risk factors include lifestyle behaviours such as poor diet and physical inactivity have also been identified to be key determinants of the disease, and are therefore key in delaying or preventing progression, as proven by many systematic reviews. The incidence of T2DM is increasing, despite efforts to reverse this trend, so barriers need to be identified and solutions proposed to aid individuals to achieve positive lifestyle behaviours. Habitual lifestyle behaviours can be determined by occupation and particular work stresses. The construction industry is a large working population in Australia whose health outcomes have not been fully explored in relation to T2DM risk. It is unknown if specific unfavourable lifestyle behaviours are adopted within this population which increase the risk of progression of this disease. This review will discuss the associated risk factors and how they can be modified to prevent progression of T2DM. A rationale will be proposed for further investigation of T2DM and its potential specific risk factors within the Australian construction industry.
    • The Effects of cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid on the Proliferation of A431 Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Griffiths, Samantha K. (University of Chester, 2018-08-31)
      Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a family of 28 positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid (LA), found predominantly in the meat of ruminant animals. The health benefits of CLA have been widely researched, with specific interest into its anti-obesity and anti-carcinogenic properties. Conclusions from in-vivo studies have suggested that, with further research, CLA supplementation may be used in conjunction with current treatments for breast cancer and rectal cancer. In-vitro research into the anticarcinogenic effects of CLA has revealed that different CLA isomers affect cancer cells through several different pathways. The anti-proliferative effects of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA have been demonstrated in-vitro, specifically on colon cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Ultimately, it has been concluded that the antiproliferative effects of CLA isomers are dependent upon the type and malignancy of the cancer cells targeted. After reviewing the literature, it is clear that there is a gap in the research. To our knowledge, no study has ever tested the effects of CLA on the proliferation of epidermoid carcinoma cells, specifically the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer. This research could add to the growing body of evidence surrounding the effects of specific CLA isomers on different types of cancer in-vitro.
    • Effects of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on exercise capacity in elderly heart transplant recipients: A systematic review

      Fallows, Stephen; Wipatin, Pattanakorn (University of Chester, 2018-08-30)
      Heart transplantation (HTx) not only reduces mortality of patients with end-stage heart failure (HF), but also improves the quality of life of these patients. However, heart transplant recipients (HTRs) experience a decrease in exercise capacity, which is associated with increased mortality of cardiovascular patients. This literature review provides not only the basic clinical application of HTx, such as recipient selection and surgical techniques, but also unique physiological abnormalities after surgery. Factors that are related to chronotropic incompetence, side effects of immunosuppressant medications, and deconditioning result in decreased exercise performance in HTRs. The benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are outlined in this literature review. Exercise training (ET), which consists of aerobic, resistance and flexibility exercises, is effective in improving peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle performance in HTRs. There is evidence that the use of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve chronotropic responses to exercise and reduce the progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), which limits long-term survival rates in HTRs. Finally, it should be noted that the normal ageing process may affect long-term outcomes of ET in HTRs.
    • Histomorphometric Analysis of Structural and Bone Remodeling Parameters in the Underloaded Ovine Calcaneus

      Power, Jon; Hughes, Stephen F.; Lister, Max (University of Chester, 2018-07-24)
      Osteoporosis is a disease that affects over three million people in the UK (NHS, 2016), and is categorized by a reduced bone mass leading to decreased bone strength and increased fragility. Clinical features of osteoporotic fractures include increased morbidity (physical impairment, reduced quality of life, pain), greater risk of new fractures and increased mortality (Geusens, 2008). During the lifetime of a typical human, bones are their strongest whilst a person is in their early-mid 20’s. As one ages bone loss begins to occur around the age of 35. One important causal factor leading to osteoporosis is lack of weight-bearing physical activity, which might impact the elderly human population at sites such as the femoral neck resulting in fragility fractures. Around 70,000-75,000 hip fractures occur in the UK each year, additionally every year an increase in incident rates has been observed partly due to an aging population (NHS, 2016). The relationship between a decreased mechanical load and resulting in reduced bone mass is well established. The structural and cellular consequences of mechanical underloading within a temporal animal model are yet to be fully explored. The objective of the current study was to determine the temporal structural changes occurring due to the influence of mechanical under-loading (experienced at day 0/baseline, week 4 and week 16) within an ovine skeletal model. Additionally, this experimental system provided insight into the cellular activity (in terms of bone remodeling) associated with a reduced mechanical loading environment. Within this model by week 16 of mechanical under-loading, an increase in cortical porosity (4%, p=0.017) within the dorsal region and reduced cortical thickness (19.7%, p=0.025) across all combined regions (as well as a regional decrease of 15% and 23% within the medial and ventral regions respectively) was observed. These changes indicating a reduction in bone mass were accompanied by increased cortical remodeling medially (58%;p=0.028) as evidenced by an increase in the proportion (%) of canals undergoing bone formation within that anatomical region. These data demonstrate a reduction in bone mass and increased bone remodeling associated with reduced mechanical load within this skeletal site. Additionally, the data presented here of decreased mechanical load appear to support the observed bone loss and elevated remodeling occurring within the osteoporotic human femoral neck. This investigation,therefore, validates the underloaded ovine calcaneus as a suitable experimental model to investigate the possible pathological events associated with disuse osteoporosis.
    • Does an Acute, Single Dose of Beetroot Juice Decrease 1000m Rowing Ergometer Time to Completion in Recreationally Active Females

      Nicholas, Ceri; Fildes, Jonathan G. (University of Chester, 2018-04-17)
      Beetroot juice (BR) has gained considerable research interest for its ergogenic effects in regards to improving exercise and sports performance. This increased interest is due to BR, which is rich in inorganic nitrate (N03 − ), providing an alternative pathway for increasing the pools of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) in the body. The literature has investigated the effects of BR in a variety of exercise and sporting scenarios. Of such, the vast majority has focused on trained populations in aerobic scenarios with chronic and acute dose protocols, while other research has focused on recreationally active populations. The outcomes of the research have not always been consistent, with many studies demonstrating significant ergogenic benefits of BR and others unable to provide favourable outcomes. It is clear from the research reviewed that BR can be used as an ergogenic aid in recreationally active, trained and clinical subjects. Although not all studies agree, performance outcomes range from reduced time to completion (TTC) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and increased power output (PO) and exercise tolerance, all of which have been demonstrated in well controlled study designs. Research is vast, particularly in trained populations, with this leading to a need for further research in recreationally active populations. In addition, the overwhelming majority of these studies have been conducted on males, both recreationally and trained, which opens up a requirement for specific female focused studies within the literature.
    • Clinical psychologists’ experience of trauma and trauma-related disclosure: perspectives and experiences from the profession

      Kiyimba, Nikki; Middlebrook, Laura J. (University of Chester, 2018-04)
      A high percentage of individuals will experience a trauma in their life time. A clinical psychologist’s work is often to provide intervention for those experiencing high levels of distress following a trauma. However, understanding of psychologists’ own experiences of trauma and trauma disclosure within the profession are unknown. This dissertation focuses on gaining deeper understanding of trauma-related experiences, and how clinical psychologists make sense of trauma within the profession. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data was analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). This study found that trauma of psychologists was rarely spoken about and complex interactions between anticipated, internalised and perceived stigma were evident. Anticipated stigma presented as the most dominant in influencing disclosure of trauma by clinical psychologists. This research recommends psychologists consider their own levels of openness about their personal trauma and experiences of trauma related disclosure. Psychologists need the understanding and support that psychologists offer to their clients, removing stigma and promoting openness in the profession is a vital step to supporting psychologists who have experienced trauma, with the profession as a whole learning from each others’ experiences.
    • Relationship Patterns between Self-esteem, Self-respect and Cognitive Effort as Measured by Story Recall and the Eye Tracker

      Clucas, Claudine; Kelecsenyi, Hedvig (University of Chester, 2018)
      High levels of self-esteem has been associated with success for decades, while at the same time its utility to predict achievement-related behaviours has been questioned. This controversy brought self-respect (an independent, theoretically grounded construct) defined as a person’s positive, affective self-regard for being a moral, principled, and honourable person, to the forefront of empirical research. Accordingly, the current study intended to examine the relationship between self-report measures of self-respect, self-esteem and cognitive effort as measured by story recall and eye tracker measures of eye fixation with pupil dilation while reading a morally neutral and a morally charged story. A total of 40 participants, comprising of 11 males and 29 females, with a mean age of 34, from a convenience sample completed the study. A stronger positive relationship was expected between self-respect and measures of cognitive effort than between self-esteem and the same measures. Also, there was an anticipation of a stronger interaction between self-respect and the type of story tested, because higher self-respect might have implications for the processing of moral information. Four repeated measures of ANCOVA analyses demonstrated significant negative relationship between self-respect and cognitive effort. They also revealed a strong trend towards a negative relationship between self-esteem and cognitive effort. The results quite interestingly are contrary to the declared hypotheses of the study with regards to the direction of the relationship. Findings indicate that the interaction between self-respect and story type on recall and eye tracker measures were not significant. Hence, failing to support the theory that high levels of self-respect enhances sensitivity to moral information through the link to the moral self. The outcome also highlights the possibility that certain factors undermine the effort or more meaningful engagement is needed, perhaps, through a more complex task. It would help to establish not only relationship patterns, but determine whether self-respect is unique enough as an independent construct that could add to the prediction of cognitive effort above and beyond what is explained by self-esteem.
    • The relationship between pretend play skills and language development in children aged three to five

      Kirkham, Julie; Nowell, Rebecca (University of Chester, 2018)
      Pretend play is a crucial component within child development, especially with regards to language. Pretend play and language both share commonalities which involve symbolic abilities (Lewis, Boucher, Lupton, & Watson, 2000). This study examined the influence that cognitive and affective aspects of pretend play and symbolic play has on expressive and receptive language development and whether these pretend play domains uniquely predict language development. This study also assessed whether age and sex effects pretend play and language development. A convenience sample of 50 children age three to five years old was used to collect the data. The Preschool Language Scale (Zimmerman, Steiner & Pond, 1997) was used to assess Auditory and Expressive Communication, the Affect in Play Scale – Brief Rating Version (Cordiano, Russ & Short, 2008) was used to measure cognitive and affective pretend play, and the Pretend Actions Task was used to measure symbolic play (Overton & Jackson, 1973). The results suggest that cognitive and affective pretend play and symbolic play did not uniquely predict expressive and receptive language. Only symbolic play was found to be a positive significant unique predictor of expressive language. There was also a significant effect of age on all three pretend play scores and expressive and receptive language, with five year olds scoring higher than four year olds and four year olds scoring higher than three year olds. There was no effect of gender on the play tasks. However, boys scored significantly higher on the receptive language test than girls. These findings demonstrate that pretend play is an important component for language development; however it may not be the only predictor. The results suggest that more research needs to be done in order to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between cognitive and affective pretend play and expressive and receptive language.
    • Who cares for the carer: the impact of supporting those who self-harm on professional carers.

      Heath, Hannah; Armstrong, Laura (University of Chester, 2018)
      Self-harm is a serious health issue in the UK. One of the most vulnerable populations for self-harm is thought to be young people who are removed from their families and live in group home settings. There is existing literature about the effects and attitudes of medical professionals who care for those who self-harm, however very little that looks at self-harm from the prospective of residential care workers. From ten semi-structured interviews with residential care workers, analysed with Thematic Analysis, similar attitudes that have been reflected in recent studies with medical professionals were reflected in the residential care worker’s accounts. Participants felt it is necessary for better and more robust self-harm training for staff, and more available and structured organisational and colleague support. Additionally, over time, the care workers became accustomed to the behaviours, with some becoming emotionally disconnected from the care they provided. The study explores the previously unheard voices of the residential care workers and highlights the need to provide better support for residential care workers.
    • Parental Wellbeing: Stress, Parental Sense of Competence, Social Support and Hope in parents of children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

      O'Neill, Linda; Keane, Kerry (University of Chester, 2018)
      Parents of children raising a child with a disability, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), often report higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing (TD) children. Much research focuses on the psychological impact of caring for a child with additional needs, with little providing a more inclusive insight into the overall effect on parental functioning. The current study used multiple self-report measures to explore stress, parental sense of competence, social support and hope in parents raising a TD child compared to those raising a child with a disability or ASD. Results showed significant differences between the groups. Parents raising a child with ASD reported the highest level of stress, and alongside parents raising a child with a disability, had significantly higher levels than parents raising a TD child. Additionally, parents of children with a disability and ASD had significantly lower perceived parental competence, social support and hope than parents of TD children. Further variations between the groups were discussed. The results highlighted that raising a child with a disability or ASD is a unique and variable experience, shaped by a body of factors that need to be reviewed comprehensively to support positive parental adjustment. Implications and suggestions for future research were also discussed.
    • Understanding right from wrong: A quantitative study exploring accidental bullying in British school children.

      Boulton, Michael; Pritchard, Jessica (University of Chester, 2018)
      This study aimed to investigate a controversial new sub-type of bullying known as accidental bullying, which claims to explain why some children and young people can unknowingly bully others. This study did this by exploring possible causes including individual’s abilities to recognise bullying, and levels of kindness and moral disengagement. A total of 421 participants (females: n = 19, males: n = 180, undisclosed: n = 48) completed questionnaires within Primary and Secondary British schools. The data was subjected to several forms of analyses that included Pearson’s correlations, simple linear regression’s, a hierarchical multiple regression, and a series of two-way between subjects ANOVA’s. The findings identified that 84 % of the participants had previously accidentally bullied, and that primary school students were more likely to accidentally bully than secondary school students. In addition to this, an individual’s poor ability to recognise bullying behaviours was found as a significant negative predictor of accidental bullying. Furthermore, if individuals have low levels of kindness and high levels of moral disengagement, they are more likely to have a poor ability to recognise bullying behaviours. In conclusion, this study identified that it is possible that accidental bullying is taking place within British schools at a higher frequency than traditional bullying. Future studies may wish to further understand the complexities of accidental bullying to support educators to identify and address this often hidden form of bullying.
    • Issues, response and support needs of parents if their child had self-harmed, from a parents and professionals perspective

      Heath, Hannah; Ruck, Samantha (University of Chester, 2018)
      Self-harm for young people has been considered to be a significant health concern (Byrne et al., 2008) and is understood to be typical amongst young people (Hawton et al., 2002). Parents experience an array of overwhelming emotions on finding out about their child’s self-harm (Raphael et al., 2006). To date, little attention has been paid to exploring the understanding and experiences of parents whose children have not self-harmed or looking at the role of mental health (MH) professionals supporting parents from the professional view point. The aim of this research was to understand from both a parents and professionals perspective, what the perceived issues for parents are if their child self-harmed; how would/do parents respond to self-harm; and what support needs do the parents have. A multiple qualitative perspectives design was used. Seven parents were interviewed, alongside two focus groups and one interview with six Mental Health (MH) Professionals and were analysed with Thematic Analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The results indicated that parents had a perceived lack of knowledge about self-harm and available support services. How parents respond to a child’s self-harm is influenced by their lack of understanding, how they find out and their natural desire to protect their child. Education about self-harm, strategies for parents and peer support group were identified as key mechanisms for professionals to provide support to parents. Parents and professionals both highlighted the lack of knowledge parents have about self-harm and their desire for support to help their child. There is a future research need to explore the processes which parents follow to seek information and help regarding self-harm and the impact of parent peer support in both community and clinical settings.
    • How to catch a liar: The Effect of Communicative Channels on Accuracy in Detecting Deception in High-Stakes Situations

      Wright, Clea; Murphy, Molly (University of Chester, 2018)
      Much past research states people are generally quite poor at detecting deception, with meta-analytic findings reporting an average accuracy rating of 54% (Bond & DePaulo, 2006). However, the majority of these previous findings stem from the use of ‘low-stakes’ lies as stimuli. This current study used real-life video clips of a ‘high-stakes’ nature, investigating the effects of three different communicative channels on a novice lie detector’s ability to detect deception; an Audio-Visual channel, a Visual-Only channel and an Audio-Only channel. The effects on both participant accuracy and participant confidence scores were analysed, with further investigation into a potential relationship between participant accuracy and confidence. On reviewing previous literature, the current study hypothesized the following; participant accuracy in detecting deception across all modalities will score above the level of chance; the highest accuracy scores will be found within the Audio-Visual condition; the Audio-Only condition will produce higher levels of accuracy than those found in the Visual-Only condition; the Audio-Visual condition will produce the highest confidence ratings; no relationship will be found between overall levels of accuracy and confidence ratings reported. The current study also explored what behavioural cues are relied upon by novice lie detectors in their attempts to identify deception. No hypothesis was generated for the justification of decisions i.e. (the cues participants report using). However, information provided will help identify what behavioural cues members of the general public rely upon when detecting deception. A total of 60 participants were recruited for the current study, with an equal number of participants observing video-clips within each presentation modality (n=20). 8 video-clips were shown, all involving real-life ‘high-stakes’ situations i.e. an appeal for a missing relative. Half of the clips involved innocent individuals (telling the truth and not involved in the crime) and the other half were deceitful (involved in the crime and attempting to deceive observers). Overall, participant accuracy scored significantly above the level of chance (M=55, t(59)=2, p=0.05.). No statistically significant differences were found in participant accuracy and participant confidence between the three presentation modalities F(2,57)=.36, p=.70, n2=0.01; F(2, 57)=.58, p=.84, n2=0.02. Nor was a significant relationship observed between participant accuracy and participant confidence r(60)=.11, p=.43. Participants reported relying on behavioural cues involving ‘Nervous Behaviours’ and ‘Fake Emotion’ when determining a sender’s veracity. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.