• I do not understand – or the art of understanding: When do language barriers matter in art therapy and how to overcome them? A qualitative research into the experiences of art therapists when working with clients of other language origin

      Ridgway, Victoria; Shorney, Louise; Annett, Ros; Gallagher, Anja-Katharina (University of Chester, 2014-10)
      This research study, placed within interpretivist/constructivist paradigm and informed by phenomenologist tradition, set out to explore art therapist experiences whilst working with clients whose first language was not shared with the art therapist themselves. It aimed to explore questions such as: if language barriers would matter within art therapeutic practice; how and if language difference would be experienced and may influence the therapeutic relationship and processes, and how art therapists would overcome such situations in which communication may have been experienced as difficult. To answer such questions, this enquiry focused upon the strategies employed by the art therapists in order to overcome such difficulties, relating to language difference. Three monolingual art therapists were interviewed utilising a semi-structured interview approach. Their accounts were analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Six master themes were identified which were: ‘Language barriers / barriers of understanding (general)’, ‘Client group (bilinguals / language learner) specific observations’, ‘Language difference = cultural difference’, ‘Impact on therapeutic relationship’, ‘Approaches to aid understanding (non art based)’ and ‘Art as language’. Based upon these results it was concluded that language difference matters within art therapeutic practice. Art therapy can be seen already as a successful approach, when working with clients whose language origin differs from that of the therapist. However, it was also highlighted that there is a general lack of understanding of wider psychological and psychodynamic implications associated with language difference and bi or multilingualism. Proposing to be cautious upon the role of the image within this unique working relationship and to recognise bilingual/language learning clients as a subordinate client group, it was argued that promoting bilingual awareness and its inherent implications within art therapeutic training and practice would allow art therapy to become a truly powerful therapeutic approach, when working with this, indeed, suborientated client group. Recommendations for further research, art therapeutic training and practice were made.
    • If a service quality measurement questionnaire is applied across the key stages of the customer relationship lifecycle, would the results provide an insight into current deficiencies with existing service quality measurement tools?

      University of Chester, 2012-11
      Over the last three decades, researchers have been attempting to understand the dimensions associated with Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction. A conclusion is being drawn that improved Service Quality leads to greater customer retention and market share, therefore there are rich rewards for any service company that can adopt a strategic Customer Service philosophy in a cost effective manner. Many constructs have been developed in an attempt to derive a measure of Customer Satisfaction, but none to date have demonstrated a universal approach capable of coping with the nuances of all service typologies. As the goal of improved Customer Satisfaction is to increase customer engagements and therefore profit for the adopting company, this dissertation deploys a Service Quality Measurement instrument across the stages of the Customer Relationship Lifecycle. There are few academic examples of research instruments being deployed in this manner however; many of the existing constructs contain elements of this conceptual model. The research evaluates whether the stages of the Customer Relationship Lifecycle should be the starting point for service providers to build their own Service Quality customer surveys. It examines whether this process is an appropriate construct for service providers to evaluate how to capture customers, and then build the relationship through to successful and hopefully repeat transactions. The researcher goes on to examine the data captured to establish whether there are issues associated with the profile of the customer which would influence the results of a Customer Satisfaction Survey and consequently provide insight as to potential reasons why existing Service Quality questionnaire constructs produce inconsistencies. Finally, consideration is given to development of this conceptual model and its potential for understanding how Service Quality is influenced by different Service Typologies.
    • Immune Function Assessment with ABEL®-Sport Test in Trained Rowers

      Fallows, Stephen; Labedzka, Maria (University of Chester, 2017-08-18)
      Background and aims: Rowing induced muscle stress may have impact on athletes’ immune-system and lead to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the capability of ABEL®-Sport test used in the field of to assess the susceptibility of rowers to URTI pending their exercise-loads. Methods: 6 male (aged 50 ± 16.9 y) and 5 female (aged 47 ± 9.6 y) club rowers recorded their habitual training and URTI symptoms daily for two weeks and performed a 6.8 km race-simulation on a rowing ergometer at the beginning of third week. The immune function of the rowers was assessed via the quantification and kinetics of oxidative burst response of leukocytes in 10 μl capillary blood using ABEL®-Sport test throughout the study in the field. Results: The severity of URTI symptoms increased from pre-race median value of 0 (0 – 9) to 3 (0 – 13) within two weeks post-race but was not statistically significant (p>.0125). There was very high correlation between the frequency of the occurrence of abnormal ABEL® Sport kinetics up to the 48h post-race for 7 rowers with URTI symptoms two weeks post-race (r = .930, p = .002). All 4 participants with a final URTI score >10 had irregular oxidative burst kinetics before the race and 48h after and 2 of them have not reported any URTI symptoms before the race. Conclusion: The study results indicate that ABEL®-Sport test used in the field is capable of detecting susceptibility to URTI in club rowers and could guide individual athletes in training-loads suitable for their well-being.
    • Impact in law but what about practice? Intermediaries and how they aid vulnerable people to access the Criminal Justice System.

      Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Owen, Rebecca S. (University of Chester, 2016)
      Vulnerable people are more likely to encounter the justice system but less likely to achieve justice. This is due in part to the psychological and developmental challenges they face but also due to lack of recognition and appropriate adaptation in professional practice. Legislation has recognised the need for change by introducing special measures for vulnerable victims and witnesses, particularly appointment of an intermediary and further guidance for practitioners has developed in turn. To date, little is known of the practical application of such changes and whether the additional needs of the vulnerable are now adequately addressed within the justice system. To provide more insight, 20 participants engaged in a survey based study. Participants were questioned in relation to their previous experience of working with vulnerable people, their understanding of such additional needs, their use of special measures and their experience of The Advocate’s Gateway website (TAG). All respondents, primarily intermediaries were aware of how to identify vulnerabilities and the associated challenges faced in accessing the justice system. Respondents’ confidence within role increased with the number of vulnerable people worked with and communication aids were utilised appropriately but with further guidance needed. All respondents utilised TAG and found its resources invaluable. These findings build on the widespread knowledge surrounding intermediaries and vulnerable people in the justice system. However, a wider sample to include legal professionals is called for in future studies to better understand the current landscape for vulnerable people attempting to access the justice system.
    • The impact of a traumatic birth: An exploration of mothers’ experiences

      Parnell, Tony; Todd, Ann M. (University of Chester, 2013-10)
      This study took a qualitative approach to explore mothers’ experiences of the impact of traumatic birth. Four women who had experienced a self-defined traumatic birth took part in taped semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was chosen as the means of evaluation. The research found mothers experienced feelings of fear, shock and being out of control during the trauma. Coping mechanisms of dissociation and repression were reported. Feelings of failure, anger, inadequacy and depression featured postpartum. The trauma also impacted on marital relationships, mother baby bonding, attachment behaviour and decisions about future pregnancies. Post traumatic growth was also a feature of the impact of traumatic birth.
    • The impact of building customer loyalty as a means of sustaining continuous organisation growth in the highly competitive UK retail market

      Webb, Paul; Adeniyi, Esther (University of Chester, 2009)
      This research examines the impact of building customer loyalty as a means for sustaining continuous organisation growth in the highly competitive UK market. The research presents the results of a study undertaken in Sports Direct Unit 6 Chester. The study examined the antecedent factors of customer satisfaction and customer relationship management in the bid to understand the concept of loyalty. From the study, it was concluded that customer satisfaction is an important necessity to generate customer loyalty. It was also noted that service quality is an integral part of customer satisfaction that cannot be overlooked. The study also identified the importance of effective complaint handling as it helps shapes overall satisfaction and in turn affect customer loyalty. The second antecedent- CRM was critically looked into. The study found out that the image of the organisation plays a role in forming customers’ perceptions about the organisation. The use of database marketing and loyalty schemes were also considered in the research. Overall, the quantitative and qualitative data collected reveals that customer satisfaction and customer relationship management both contribute to customer loyalty. It was also noted that although both antecedents were important, they are not solely responsible for generating loyalty from customers. The study therefore agreed with other previous researches that customer loyalty is not as simple as it sound. It involves coordinating many antecedents to make it worthwhile for both the organisation and the customers. However, it was noted that as complicated as it seem, building a loyal customer base is worthwhile for organisations to survive in the fierce competition emerging everyday in the UK retail market.
    • Impact of different training regimes on adherence and “correctness” of exercises in elderly

      Fallows, Stephen; Lim, Peiying Serene (University of Chester, 2010-09)
      Introduction: Adherence and accuracy of home exercises contribute largely to the effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment. Poor memory attributed to aging can however impede these two key factors. Although exercise sheets are often provided to help the elderly remember their exercises, little is known about how different modes of training with exercise brochure may impact these factors over time. Aims: To investigate the impact of various training regimes on adherence and “correctness” of exercise in the elderly and its resultant effect on fall risk factors such as lower limb strength, dynamic standing balance and fear of falling. Methods: 17 community dwelling elderly (aged 78+6.5 years) from three falls prevention classes in Cheshire were recruited. Participants from the same falls prevention class were clustered as a research group. Five home exercises were taught to all participants individually. Each group randomly received exercise instructions through verbal instructions and live demonstration only (no brochure group), verbal instruction and live demonstration with reference and explanation to pictures in the brochure (brochure (before) group) or verbal instruction and live demonstration with an unexplained brochure provided only after the training session (brochure (after) group). Participants continued to perform the exercises unsupervised at home, for six weeks. Exercise adherence was assessed with an exercise log book and “correctness” of exercise was scored against an exercise assessment scale at the end of six weeks. Measurement of fall risk factors such as lower limb strength (using 30 seconds chair stands), dynamic standing balance (using four square step test) and fear of falling (using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale) were also assessed prior to the research and at the end of six weeks. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in exercise adherence and “correctness” of exercise scores between the no brochure group, the Brochure (after) group and the Brochure (before) group (62+ 26.6 %, 70+15.1 %, 77+13.7 %, p=0.448 and 33+8.7 marks, 34+4.6 marks, 38+1.3 marks, p = 0.175, respectively). Fall risk factors such as lower limb strength (r=0.205, p=0.429), dynamic standing balance (r=-0.253, p=0.327) and fear of falling (r=0.255, p=0.322) were also not found to be significantly correlated with “correctness” of exercise scores after six weeks. “Correctness” of exercise scores was found to be significantly correlated with exercise adherence (r=0.506, p=0.038). Conclusion: There is little evidence that a clearly explained exercise brochure coupled with live demonstation of the exercises improves exercise adherence or “correctness” of exercise in the elderly, compared to no exercise brochure or providing an unexplained exercise brochure. There is also little evidence to suggest that the more accurately exercises are performed, the better the improvement in fall risk factors. There is evidence, however, that accuracy of exercise performed is dependent on how well an exercise regime is adhered to. Hence, it is important that the elderly are encouraged to adhere to exercising regularly, in order to reap the benefits of exercise.
    • The impact of elected member development on Local Authority performance: How can effective elected member development be provided to enable performance improvement at Liverpool City Council?

      Robertson Collins, Laura (University of Chester, 2006-06)
      This dissertation aims to discover whether elected member development can lead to performance improvement in councils, and if so, how it can best be provided to do so at Liverpool City Council. Public funds are provided for elected member development on the assumption that this will assist performance by improving governance and leadership, but there is little conclusive evidence to show that this is the case. This dissertation shows there is a relationship between providing development for members and improved performance in councils, but cannot prove that the development causes the improved performance. However, the dissertation does identify particular elements within the provision of elected member development that are particularly linked to higher performance in local authorities. Liverpool City Council has had a member development programme since 2000, but its overall performance is apparently deteriorating, with particular issues around governance and leadership having been the subject of recent criticism. Liverpool received only two stars in its most recent Comprehensive Performance Assessment, and its 'direction of travel' was assessed at only level two on a scale of four - 'improving adequately'. If elected member development is linked to improved performance, it is important then to discover how development can best be provided to councillors at Liverpool to ensure this. Chapter 1 of the dissertation describes the changes in the councillor role and the consequent need for training and development to support elected members, who are part-time volunteers in their role as governors of local authorities. In Chapter 2 the literature review examines the improvement agenda for local government, and in particular the need for improvement at Liverpool City Council caused by the apparent decline in performance since 2004. Additional pressures on Liverpool City Council, for example the bid to become a 'City-Region', are also examined. The literature review contains discussion on the performance management of organisations via managing the performance of the individuals in them, and on how elected members do not easily fit the traditional human resource development models used in employment situations. Finally, the chapter examines the development issues specific to elected members, including the adversarial environment caused by the democratic system and the role of the political parties in recruiting and selecting the members, which leads to complexity in appraisal and identifying development needs. From this literature search three main issues emerge which require further investigation: first, whether elected member development can improve local authority performance; second, if so, how development can best be provided; and third, what special consideration is needed within the cross-party development provision for the political groups on the authorities? Chapters 3 and 4 look at the primary research undertaken for this dissertation. Chapter 3 describes the methodology of the research, including how both inductive and deductive strategies are used, as well as different data collection methods, to answer the three parts of the research question. The chapter also looks at the limitations of the research, which is conducted with members of one political party only due to the researcher's professional role, and at the small sample size. Chapter 4 gives an overview of all the authorities in the survey, showing that these are varied in political control and type. The chapter presents the results of the survey of each identified element of local authority provision of cross-party elected member development, and the provision of each element of development within the political groups there. It also presents some of the data from the semi-structured interviews with members from Liverpool City Council where this is directly related to the survey. 11 In the analysis in Chapter 5 the results of the survey on corporate provision are cross-referenced with the performance scores of the local authorities to investigate whether there is a relationship between the provision of development and the performance of the authority. Here we see that the higher performing councils do have higher levels of elected member development provision, although it is not clear if the development is the cause of better performance or the result of it. This shows that some of the identified elements of provision are particularly linked to performance scores. The second part of the analysis examines the situation at Liverpool City Council by examining the results of the case study and member interviews, in the light of the information from this cross-referencing. This indicates what changes can be recommended for Liverpool's provision of corporate, cross-party development for all its members. The dissertation suggests that such corporate development cannot of itself be sufficient, however, due to the nature of the political groups and the relationship of the political parties to the local authority. Thus the final part of the analysis examines issues specific to the political groups at the surveyed authorities and in Liverpool, in order to make recommendations for development and training within Liverpool's Opposition Group. In particular the need for training of potential candidates prior to selection and election is identified from the interview data, and the complexity of providing such training outside of the local authority is discussed. Chapter 6 summarises the recommendations for the provision of corporate (cross-party) member development which emerge from the analysis in Chapter 5. It also suggests recommendations for action within individual political groups' development, including the possibility of a 'Liverpool Academy' for potential elected members. Chapter 6 also contains recommendations for further research in this field. The dissertation shows that particular ways of providing elected member development can impact on performance, and that improvement in this provision at Liverpool City Council can be achieved requiring relatively little additional resources, but by more effective use of existing resources within the City Council and local government.
    • The impact of exercise training on endothelial function in heart failure patients: a systematic review

      Obinna, Ndukwu P. (University of Chester, 2015)
      9.1 BACKGROUND Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) is attenuated in Heart failure (HF) and this leads to worsening of symptoms. In Europe, the number of HF patients is estimated to be approximately 15 million and that number is set to rise due to ageing of the population. A research conducted between 1999 and 2000, showed that mortality rate was 50% in males and 46% in female within 5 years after the diagnosis of HF. It is estimated that 50% die within four years whereas the other 50% do not survive beyond the first year after diagnosis. Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in disease progression, however, it is known that increase in physical activity improves and corrects endothelial dysfunction. 9.2 OBJECTIVES The aim of this systematic review is to examine (i) the effect of exercise modalities (aerobic, strength or combined) on FMD in HF and (ii) to determine which modality confers the greatest benefit and to what extent. 9.3 METHOD The following databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane library, PubMed, science direct,) were searched for sources that met the inclusion criteria such as (i) randomized controlled trials of 31 exercise with non-exercise, routine care or sedentary lifestyle. (ii) Duration of the exercise should be at least 2 weeks (iii) age of participant should not be below 18 years. (iv) Endothelial function as measured by FMD before and after the intervention. 9.4 RESULTS 14 studies were included in this review with a total of 583 participants predominantly with reduced ejection fraction (<40%) and New York Heart Association II and III. Compared with control, there were significant improvement (p< 0.005) in endothelial function as measured by FMD in the exercise group across all the studies involving HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). Aerobic exercise at a moderate intensity resulted in significant increase in FMD in 12 studies but higher outcome were noted when it was performed in combination with resistance training at a higher intensity. Conversely, one study done among HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) did not show any significant improvement. 9.5 CONCLUSION Exercise training is effective in correcting the prevailing endothelial dysfunction common with HF. Combination of aerobic and resistance training as against only aerobic at moderate to high intensity offers the greatest benefit.
    • The impact of field vision on performance within an English Premier league academy soccer team: A case study

      Worsfold, Paul R.; Spearritt, Daniel (University of Chester, 2013-09-30)
      Previous perceptual-cognitive skill research in sport has often applied laboratory-based protocols to examine differences amongst elite and sub-elite performers. Contemporary research within the area has started to move away from such protocols and has begun analysing visual search behaviours within competitive adult soccer matches. The purpose of the current study was to develop an understanding of visual search behaviour in relation to performance outcome amongst elite level youth soccer players, within competitive match performance. Thirteen matches from an English Premier League academy soccer team (under 15 age group) were analysed using a specifically designed notational analysis system created in Microsoft Excel. Visual explorations conducted by individual players were collated, followed by their subsequent action when in possession of the ball. The results show significant visual exploration differences between higher and lower ability elite level youth players (p=0.000). The results of a series of categorical logistic regression analyses also show a clear positive relationship exists between visual exploratory behaviours that are initiated prior to a player receiving the ball and performance with the ball. This relationship remains when assessed amongst several match conditions including overall pass completion, attacking third pass completion and forward pass completion. Practical implications for coaches, scouts and players are discussed.
    • Impact of hand-held weights on treadmill walking in previously sedentary women

      Morris, Mike; Savin, Deborah J. (University of Chester, 2012-07-31)
      The aim of this dissertation was to study the physiological adaptations when hand-held weights are incorporated into a six-week programme of regular walking. Fourteen sendentary women aged 37+/-8 years were randomly allocated into one of two groups; hand-held weight group (HWG) and control group (CG). Twelve women (six per group) completed the study. Both groups completed a six-week unsupervised exercise programme comprising three 30min treadmill walks per week at 60-75% of predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). HWG carried two 0.91kg (2lb) hand-held weights using an active arm swing, CG exercised without weights. All walks were undetaken at 0% incline. Participant progress was monitored via the study website (www.sleepy8.com). Predicted VO2max, distance walked in 10min, body mass, waist circumference and sum of four skinfold sites were measured at Baseline, Week 4 and Week 6. The 12 participants completed 100% of the programme walks. Both groups experienced an increase in predicated VO2max; 37.0+/-4.7ml/kg/min to 40.0+/-4.7ml/kg/min (8%) for HWG, 33.4+/-6.4ml/kg/min to 38.9+/-2.8ml/kg/min (16%) for CG. These increases were neither statistically significant nor significantly different from one another. No significant differences between or within groups were found for body mass, waist circumference or sum of four skinfold sites. The addition of 0.91kg hand-held weights to a six-week regular walking programmes when undertaken by previously sedentary women, does not have a significantly greater impact on aerobic fitness or body composition than unweighted walking. Both forms of exercise were shown to produce meaningful improvements in aerobic fitness, but it is likely that the small sample size prevented these results from registering as statistically significant. There is no evidence to support the introduction of hand-held weights at the beginning of a walking programme for previously sedentary women if the objective is one of acelerating the improvement in aerobic fitness or body compostition. Conversely, no negative consequences of doing so have been observed here.
    • The impact of keeping the secret of childhood sexual abuse: A qualitative research study

      Le'Surf, Anne; Smith, Lyndsey P. (University of Chester, 2011-09)
      This is a small scale qualitative research study exploring the impact of keeping the secret of childhood sexual abuse. Five qualified counsellors who had experienced sexual abuse in their childhood explore the impact of keeping their secret. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and four of the participants produced creative illustrations relating to the impact of keeping their secret. The data were analysed using an inductive approach, the constant comparative method, as described by Glaser and Strauss (1967). The findings of the study indicate that the impact of keeping the secret is difficult to separate from the impact of abuse. However threats to ensure silence, children’s difficulty in using their voice, negative impact on relationships, loss of sense of self and seeing self as ‘different’, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms and withdrawing behaviour appeared to be more closely related to the impact of keeping the secret. Potential areas for further research are also indicated.
    • The impact of leadership and management approaches on the delivery of excellence in social care services

      Rowland, Caroline; Barker, Christine (University of Chester, 2010-06)
      This research examines the impact of leadership and management approaches on the delivery of excellence in social care. It focuses on four residential care homes with nursing, operated by a national Third Sector provider of services for disabled people. The purpose of the study was to investigate how services defined quality and to examine the extent to which leadership and management approaches facilitated staff engagement in quality improvement and contributed to 'Good' or 'Excellent' Care Quality Commission ratings. This multi-method, qualitative study was underpinned by a phenomenological research philosophy. Data collected from semi-structured interviews with managers and care supervisors was triangulated through the analysis of opinion data from rating questionnaires completed by frontline nursing, care staff and non-care staff. Data was analysed using methods adapted from Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The study did not establish a clear association between leadership and management approaches and the achievement of a 'Good' or 'Excellent' CQC rating. The collaborating organisation's comprehensive operational policy framework and ethos of service user empowerment appeared to be higher determinants of service quality than leadership and management approaches. However, findings did indicate that, where leadership and management approaches help followers to feel valued and psychologically safe, managers can engage staff successfully in the quality improvement process. An unexpected outcome of the study was that it identified a possibility that an individual's leadership and management approaches may change when they are highly stressed, causing a negative impact on their followers, the working environment and the service culture. It was beyond the scope of this research to take forward an exploration of these issues. However, it provides the opportunity for further research to examine the ways in which managers respond to high stress levels, how followers are affected when managers are overly stressed and the overall implications for staff welfare and service quality in the social care context.
    • Impact of living away from home country on the health behaviours of international students at the University of Chester, UK. A cross-sectional study

      Sowah, Soloman A. (University of Chester, 2016-09)
      Background: A fairly substantial body of evidence indicates that modifiable health behaviours may vary contingent upon a students’ residency, including whether students are studying away from their home country. This study aimed to investigate the impact of living away from home country on some lifestyles of international students at the University of Chester, UK. Method: Twenty-two international postgraduate students (23-41 years) at the University of Chester completed validated questionnaires relating to self-reported dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep quality based on circumstances before and after arrival in the UK. Self-reported body mass index (BMI) and self-reported waist circumference were also recorded. Results: Arrival in the UK was associated with a decreased adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p= .857), manifested in decreased fish, fruits and vegetables consumption. Decreased participation in sports (p= .007), as well as decreased sleep duration (p= .179) was reported upon arrival in the UK. Poor sleep quality was found to be prevalent within this sample (54.5%). The study observed both positive and negative lifestyle changes overall, although the latter was predominant. Conclusion: This sample of international students made more unfavourable changes in their dietary intake, physical activity levels and sleep duration upon relocating to the UK. It is imperative that close attention is paid to how international students adjust to life within the UK in order to provide healthier climate for learning.
    • The impact of perceptions and skills of teaching staff on the building of a dyslexia friendly school

      Tall, Rebecca J. (University of Chester, 2007-09)
      This dissertation comprises a study of the perceptions and skills of teaching staff working with children with Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD) in an inclusive, mainstream setting. The aims of the dissertation are to review recent and relevant literature, to audit the knowledge and skills of staff in this area, to identify strengths and areas for development in teaching and learning for children with SpLD within this setting, to enhance self-confidence of teaching skills of staff in this school and to put in place criteria to enable subsequent application of the Dyslexia Friendly Schools Initiative Quality Mark. The initial approach within a mainstream primary school setting was to gather data from a comprehensive, anonymous questionnaire (qualitative/quantitative data) designed using a combination of open and closed questions. All teaching staff were invited to participate. Data from the questionnaire was triangulated by selecting key participants for classroom observation and interview: a teacher of some years' experience, a newly qualified teacher and a teaching assistant working with children with a range of additional needs. The research and findings demonstrate the paradigm shift in the perception and management of dyslexia in recent educational history and evidence the importance of training staff in building positive perceptions and developing and implementing dyslexia friendly teaching skills and learning strategies. This dissertation suggests that such teaching and learning strategies are also appropriate for all children within this setting.
    • The impact of stakeholder voice upon the formulation of strategy within a small local authority

      Proctor, Tony; Charlson, Paul (University of Chester, 2008-06)
      This research presents the results of a study undertaken within a small local authority. It examines the relevance of both stakeholder theory and contemporary strategic thinking to determine whether stakeholder voice has an impact upon the formulation of strategy within the context of the local authority examined. The role of the stakeholder is argued as being fundamental in the development of effective strategy, and therefore "logical incrementalism" is challenged in favour of the need for strategic forward planning to formalise the involvement of stakeholders. However, whilst this research indicates a development toward a planned approach to strategy, this can be constrained by other factors that divert managers away from strategic issues, including a flat management structure, strategically indifferent political support and limited time and resources. Moreover, the multiplicity [in both number and influence] of the stakeholders to the local authority supports the situational and subjective nature of the stakeholder concept, which can lead to both positive and negative stakeholder influences. Accordingly, it is argued that stakeholder voice is ultimately related to an individual stakeholder's ability to sanction, support and/or exert power over the local authority. A model of stakeholder power has been developed, which postulates that such power is derived from the impact of legislation upon the stakeholder relationship in combination with the stakeholder's ability to control resources as well the stakeholder's impact upon the reputation of the local authority. The ability to comprehend the complexity and nuances of the stakeholder concept is therefore of paramount importance, however it was observed that managers do not fully understand the purpose and definition of strategy and therefore do not fully comprehend the stakeholder concept and its relationship to strategy. Therefore a significant need for training was identified with regard to both stakeholder involvement and strategy formulation. The research concludes that stakeholder voice does affect strategy formulation, but this relationship can be very situational, resulting in positive and negative connotations about the involvement of stakeholders to the various strategic processes of the local authority examined.
    • The impact on families and relationships of having lived abroad

      Swinton, Valda; Lawrence-Smith, Sally (University of Chester, 2013-10)
      This qualitative research examines the impact on four participants’ lives of having lived abroad. The data was collected from four counsellors who had been living back in the United Kingdom for at least two years. It was collected via semi-structured interviews and analysed by using the Constant Comparative Method of data collection. Analysis of the data highlighted the impact living abroad had had on participants and how they had coped with the struggle of re-entry. Participants were affected by going to live abroad and some had struggled to maintain relationships as a result of coming home. Resettlement had resulted in feelings of loss, pain and sadness which had been buried or unrecognised for what it was at the time. Participants felt like outsiders in their own country and spent some time feeling isolated. The findings from the interviews support research in this area.
    • The impacts of different cultures on leadership effectiveness

      Webb, Paul; Ozdemir, Ozlem (University of Chester, 2010-10-04)
      The objective of this research is to find out the main impacts of cultural differences and how they affect the process of doing business and managing in terms of leading. Describing the characteristics of leadership, leadership styles, cultural differences, identifying the factors that affect leading style and defining the difficulties of working within another culture also come under the scope of the study. Leadership is an important issue in any organization and various studies have demonstrated the increasing importance of leadership. According to many authors (Harris, 2004, Schein, 2004 and Adair, 1999) the first step in managing cultural differences effectively is increasing one’s general cultural awareness and leaders must understand the concept of culture and its characteristics before they can fully benefit from the study of cultural specifics. A vast number of businesses and companies work outside their country of origin and must therefore take into consideration the views, ideas and culture of foreign employees, suppliers and clients. Leadership is related to motivating, interpersonal behaviour and the process of communication (Mullins, 2007). This highlights the, critical need for leaders in international organisations to use their leadership skills to transform any differences in the cultures of their employees towards the benefit of their organisations. This study includes a review of literature and a field survey. With regard to the field survey, a sixth of the interviewees conducted face to face and a quarter was e-mailed directly to managers who are working outside their home cultures in an overseas market. Field surveys also covered questionnaires which conducted by these managers employees. Ninety two employees questioned in order to analyzing research questions. A third of the questionnaires were conducted face to face and two thirds were e-mailed directly to managers who are working outside their home cultures in an overseas market. The study will assess the level of understanding of cross-cultural leadership and examine the main impacts on a number of specific cultures of leadership effectiveness.
    • The implementation of the elite player performance plan: A sociological study of the experiences of education and welfare officers and coaches

      Waddington, Ivan; Bloyce, Daniel; Ashley, Nick (University of Chester, 2013)
      The recent poor performances of the English national side during the 2010 World Cup in South Africa and the European Championships in 2012, have caused journalists, fans and footballing figures to create a supposed moral panic for the state of the national game. A large part of the blame has fallen on our youth development systems accounting for the lack of young home-grown talent breaking into the first team squads of some of the country’s most successful clubs (Gibson, 2013; Independent, 2013; Sky Sports, 2013; Telegraph, 2013b). There have been various attempts to explain the lack of home-grown talent progressing through into the professional game in this country. The two of the most recognised arguments revolve around the influx of foreign players into the domestic leagues (Independent, 2013; Sky Sports, 2013; Telegraph, 2013b) and the quality of coaching (Football Association, 2008; McGowan, 2010; Premier League, 2011). In an attempt to tackle the supposed barriers to the success of young players, the Premier League (PL) in conjunction with the Football Association (FA) and Football League (FL) have sought to cultivate a new youth development system – the Elite Player Performance Plan (EPPP). Previously, under the Charter for Quality, youth professional football had been allowed to wane due to a lack of monitoring and evaluation of current practices (Brooking, 2007). As a result, the standards of football clubs varied greatly throughout the PL and FL (Brooking, 2007; Lewis, 2007). Moreover, due to the lack of direction from the governing bodies, football clubs have developed young players in ways which suited the club - which has accounted for the sporadic numbers of players progressing through over recent years (Lewis, 2007; McGowan, 2010). In response, the introduction of the EPPP is an attempt to address these apparent shortcomings by standardising and modernising coaching practices, recruitment practices and facility provision in order for clubs to create greater access to younger players (PL, 2011). Most recently in a speech by Greg Dyke, the new FA chairman, youth football, and the EPPP has been hailed as playing a pivotal role in the development of the national game (Bond, 2013; Telegraph, 2013b; Winter, 2013). As a result of Dyke’s speech, the England senior squad are being handed new key performance indicators: a semi-final appearance in the 2020 European Championships and a World Cup trophy in the 2022 games, in which the £320 million EPPP is supposed to be the catalyst for attaining such ambitious goals (Winter, 2013). With such a high level of expectation on the EPPP to improve the standard of youth professional football, it is important for us to understand how the EPPP has been implemented within clubs. However, given how recent its inception is within youth professional football there is currently no existing published sociological work surrounding the initiative. Therefore, in an attempt to broaden youth professional football research, the objective of this study is to examine the experiences of key stakeholders within youth professional football, namely education and welfare officers (EWOs) and coaches, to assess how they have implemented the EPPP within their respective clubs. The success of the EPPP is reliant on the compliance of such stakeholders to implement the initiative at club level. As such, the central objectives of this study are to: i) examine how EWOs and coaches have experienced implementing the EPPP within their respective clubs; ii) explore the ways in which the EPPP has affected the existing roles of EWOs and coaches; and iii) reflect upon how the implementation of the EPPP has differed throughout the PL and FL. In order to examine the central objectives of the study, the thesis will be broken down into five chapters. The first chapter reviews the existing literature that surrounds youth professional football highlighting the three major themes of research in the area: the culture of professional football, educational provisions and players’ perceptions of education and player welfare and safeguarding. The chapter also reveals, given how recently the EPPP has been introduced, there is currently no existing literature surrounding it, creating a rationale to undertake this study. The second chapter of the thesis focuses on the EPPP itself, and what changes have been made to youth professional football compared to the previous youth system the Charter for Quality. Additionally, given the thesis aims to measure the implementation of the EPPP, the later part of the chapter outlines the policy process in order to give the reader some perspective when making reference to compliance levels and the ways in which the EPPP has been implemented by the EWOs and coaches within their respective clubs. Chapter three explains the theoretical framework, namely figurational sociology, that will be used to help explain the experiences of EWOs and coaches implementing the EPPP at their respective clubs. The chapter will highlight Elias’ core concepts of figurational sociology which the researcher believes will help make sense of the attitudes of EWOs and coaches towards the initiative and the reasons why its compliance has varied between clubs.
    • Implications of job satisfaction shifts with different merger categories: Study of mergers & acquisitions in Georgian financial market

      Pyke, Chris; Gabunia, Valerian (University of Chester, 2009-12)
      This paper provides an important finding for the managers who believe that employee job satisfaction is a vital factor for the organisational health. Findings of this paper are especially useful for Georgian managers who are involved in M&A process and want to identify a crucial motivation determinant that shapes and influences job satisfaction. This research examines the theory developed by Price Pritchett, Donald Robinson and Russell Clarkson stating that adversarial merger types tend to decrease employee job satisfaction and undermine economical benefit of particular M&A. Theory divides all mergers in four basic categories: Rescues, Collaborations, Contested situations and Raids according to their degree of collaboration. Authors illustrate M&A case studies demonstrating success of collaborative mergers and failure of adversarial ones. Researcher tests precision of above mentioned theory in three Georgian post merger companies. Based on the interviews with the managers who have personally witnessed merger process of companies, researcher allocates merger deal to above mentioned four M&A categories. Then researcher measures shifts between employee pre and post merger job satisfaction using the satisfaction determinants proposed by famous satisfaction measurement instrument JDI (Job descriptive index) developed by Smith, Kendall, and Hulin. Putting together merger categories and job satisfaction shifts in three specific Georgian companies' researcher examines relationship between cooperativeness of mergers and shifts in employee job satisfaction.