• e-HR transformation projects within the UK public sector: Critical success factors

      Nicholas, Alison (University of Chester, 2010)
      The paper sets out the findings of a study of e-HR Transformation Projects within the UK Public Sector using the lens of Critical Success Factors. Key problems of training (knowledge transfer) and post-implementation management are critically examined. The vast field of e-HR Transformation theorisation is mapped and the project management approaches are scrutinised. Base on qualitative, interpretive research methods, the results provide a rich empirical data set and show clearly the contested nature of “traditional” Critical Success Factors related to these specific projects. Information is based on the assessment of staff involved in both pre and post implementation situations and their experiences in a project and operational capacity. It is concluded that there are specific Critical Success Factors related to e-HR Transformation Projects which should be highlighted as a focus for attention in the construction of the initial Business Case and prior to the selection of the technical solution. Therefore, implications for the e-HR agenda are advanced and specific recommendations are made for project managers and practitioners.
    • Early rebellion and its links to later success and conquest: Why was it that some Norman rulers profited from rebellions early in their reigns, whilst others did not?

      Doran, John; McLay, Keith A. J.; Burke, Matthew P. (University of Chester, 2011)
      The subject of this dissertation is the Normans. Its objective is to analyse the development of their civilisation, and to give reasons for their numerous accomplishments, both in Northern Europe and in the Mediterranean. Yet, unlike the many scholars who have studied the Normans before, the main focus here will be on rebellion, and in particular those rebellions which followed the succession of each Norman ruler (either a king or a duke/count), as it will be argued that when dealt with correctly these revolts did not hinder, but instead created the seeds of power and progress; since they gave the new ruler an opportunity to establish a lasting precedent early on, that insolence to their authority would not be tolerated; which if accomplished, then led to harmony (internal peace), development and conquest for the rest of the ruler’s reign.
    • East Sussex school nurses' experiences of the National Child Measurement programme in 2008/09 and their views on the role of school nurses in tackling childhood obesity

      Fallows, Stephen; Bunker, Caroline (University of Chester, 2009-11-08)
      The National Child Measurement Porgramme (NCMP) is one element of the government's Healthy Weight, Healthy Lives strategy. It aims to gather population level data to analyse trends in childhood obesity, inform local planning and engage with families about healthy livestyles and weight issues. Routine feedback of NCMP results has recently been introduced in order to inform parents if their child's weight is unhealthy. Moreover, Primary Care Trusts are being encouraged to proactively follow up children with unhealthy weights and offer parents appropriate advice and referral.School nurses are instrumental in weighting and measuring reception and year 6 aged children for the NCMP on an annual basis. As health professionals working in an educational setting, they also have a unique position in schools and are viewed as playing a pivital role in tackling childhood obesity, often being the first point of contact for parents who are concerned abouth their child's weight. Yet there is a dearth of studies into their experiences of how the NCMP is working in practice, how they perceive their role in the routine feedback of results and how they view their wider role in tackling childhood obesity in school settings. This study undertook one-to-one interviews with a sampe of 15 school nurses working in East Sussex primary schools. It aimed to find out their experiences of the NCMP in 2008/09, how the programme is working in practice and their views of the role of school nurses in tackling childhood obesity, particuarly when routine feedback of results is introduced in the county in 2010. Findings suggest that measuring children has impacts on school nurse workloads and is often viewed as an inappropriate use of time. Moreover, it is not always easy to adhere to some of the NCMP guidelines for measuring children. The findings also suggest that issues suck as a lack of training provision and care pathways for childhood obesity undermine the competence and confidence school nurses to tackle childhood obesity in East Sussex. recommendations are made as how this might be addressed.
    • Eating habits and body weight control methods of national hunt and flat race jockeys in the UK

      Fallows, Stephen; Higham, Arabella (University of Chester, 2012)
      Horse racing is a high risk sport requiring jockeys to have strength, balance, cardiovascular fitness, specific handling skills and the ability to maintain high levels of concentration. Racing's handicapping system makes it unique because the ability of the horse determines the jockey's weight with jockets being required to make weight repeatedly and for prolonged periods year round. Jockeys must weight-out 30 minutes prior to a race and maintain their weight throughout to weight-in immediently after with no opportunity to refuel or rehydrate. The challenges of making weight appear to be an entrenched and accepted culture of the sport. Forty-six jockeys (29 National Hunt, 12 Flat and 5 Dual Purpose) completed a 27 item questionnaire designed to gather information on the methods of weight control used and the perceived associated negative physiological or psychological effects. National Hunt jockeys were taller (p=0.006) and significantly heavier at their non-racing weight and lowest racing weights than flat (p=0.000; p=0.000) and dual purpose jockeys (p=0.001; p=0.004). Dual purpose jockeys were heavier than flat jockeys at their non-racing and lowest racing weights (p=0.008; p=0.002). Only National Hunt jockeys had a significantly heavier non-racing weight than lowest racing weight (p=0.000). Rapid weight loss methods were used 1+/-1.5 days prior to a race. There were no significant differences between weight control methods, perceived negative effects or between jockey codes. Several weight control methods were associated with a number of negative physiological and psychological effects. The strongest correlations existed for weight control methods promoting dehydration, fluid restruction, sauna, holt salt bath and exercise induced sweating. Jockeys often have low levels of body fat and increased muscle mass and therefore induce dehydration to further reduce their body weight. Jockey code does not influence weight control demands as flat jockeys tend to be naturally shorter and lighter than their National Hunt counterparts.
    • Ebb and flow: A collection of short stories

      Wall, Alan; Hopper, Denise R. (University of Chester, 2009-10)
    • The effect of beetroot juice on intermittent shuttle running performance involving different numbers of directional changes

      Highton, Jamie; Francis, Ben (University of Chester, 2018-10-01)
      The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to submaximal shuttle running and performance during intermittent shuttle running involving different numbers of directional changes. Eight male recreational team sport athletes (age: 22.6 ± y, body mass: 79.4 ± 4.4 kg, stature: 179.4 ± 5.4 cm, predicted VO2max: 48.5 ± 4,1 ml·kg·-1·min·-1) completed submaximal shuttle running at 60% of their predetermined VO2peak and intermittent shuttle running to exhaustion over a 20 m course or a 10 m course involving more directional changes. Participants performed each protocol twice across four trials; once following the ingestion of NO3 - concentrated beetroot juice 2.5 h before exercise and once following the ingestion of NO3 - depleted beetroot juice. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and time to exhaustion during intermittent shuttle running were assessed. Increasing the number of directional changes increased the VO2 and HR response to submaximal shuttle running (p < 0.05). However, NO3 - did not affect blood pressure, the physiological responses to submaximal exercise or performance during intermittent shuttle running (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that increasing the number of directional changes during shuttle running elevates the physiological and metabolic demand, but that NO3 - does not impact upon the physiological responses or performance during submaximal and intermittent shuttle running.
    • The effect of beta blockers on heart rate response during the Chester Step Test

      Buckley, John P.; Gilchrest, Joanne (University of ChesterCountess of Chester Hospital, 2011-10)
      The objective of this study is to ascertain that as the intensity of exercise increases through the stages of the Chester Step Test (CST) does the difference between the beta blocked(BB) and the non beta blocked(NBB) participants heart rate(HR) response increase. The study utilised a repeated measures design. Twenty males with a mean age of 58.9 (±6.1) taking Beta Blocker medication completed the CST on two occasions within one week of another. A further Seven males and thirteen females with mean age 61.5 (± 6.3) who were not taking Beta Blockers data from previous study data using the Chester Step Test was used to compare the HR and Rating of Perceived Exertion(RPE) responses at each stage of the CST. Each stage of the CST lasted two minutes after which HR and RPE were collected until the participant achieved 80% of predicted Maximum Heart Rate or RPE 15. HR was significantly different between the two groups at each stage of the CST p=<0.05. RPE was significantly different between the two groups at each stage of the CST p=<0.05. Limits of Agreement suggested test-re-test reliability of the CST for BB participants with the worse case HR being 11bpm above the mean in the final stage of the CST. The data suggests that as intensity of exercise increases as does the difference between the BB and NBB HR response. The data implies there may be some sex differences which will need investigating further. RPE was shown to be significantly different between the two groups. The data also showed that the CST is reliable for participants taking BB.
    • The Effect of Channels of Communication on Accuracy in Detecting Deception in High-Stakes situations

      Wright, Clea; Parry, Jonathan (University of Chester, 2017)
      Much of the past research into deception detection has utilised low-stakes lies as stimulus, with globally poor results in accuracy levels. The present research used real-life recordings of high-stakes lies to investigate a between-subjects model of four different channels of communication: Audiovisual; Visual Only; Audio Only; Transcript Only. The dependent variable was the accuracy score obtained in each channel of communication in detecting deception. Considering available research results, it was hypothesised that the Audio Only group would score significantly higher than the Visual Only group, the Audiovisual group would score significantly higher than the Transcript Only group, and that the Transcript Only group would score significantly higher than participants in the Visual Only group. The lack of research into the channel of communication of Transcript Only provided further rationale for the present study. Due to the high-stakes nature of stimuli materials it was hypothesised that all participants would score higher than chance. Each participant group (N=20) observed 20 clips of people making public pleas for information about a missing or murdered relative. Half of the clips included people involved in the crime (attempting to deceive the public) and the other half were innocent (truthful, and not attempting to deceive the public). Scores ranged between 50.8% accuracy (audio visual) and 56.5% accuracy (visual only). There was no statistically significant difference between mean scores, F(3,76)=.30, p=.826, η²=.01. T-tests were conducted to test accuracy levels within each group. Accuracy levels were not significantly above chance. Suggestions for further research are discussed.
    • The effect of cultural diversity on team work in the postgraduate school of the Chester Business School

      Webb, Paul; Fadeyi, Oluwafisayo (University of Chester, 2010)
      The research examines the effect of cultural diversity on team performance. The research presents the findings of a study on team work in the postgraduate class of the Chester Business School. The study examines the concept of team work and cultural diversity. Team working is increasingly being used by many organisations to improve employee performance. To be effective, a team should comprise the right number of people with the right skill, knowledge and expertise. On the other hand cultural diversity in a broad sense refers to the variety of human culture in the world. However, in the context of this study, cultural diversity means that the people have a different way of viewing the world and how it operates and this difference affects every aspect of their life. Culture provides a selective screen between man and the outside world. Culture determines what we pay attention to and what we are most likely to ignore. Merely putting people from different cultural background together in teams does not guarantee that the team will function effectively. How well these people will work together remains a major concern. From the study it was concluded that there is an indirect relationship between the cultural background of the members of a team and the team’s performance. The study also found out that while the cultural background of each member of the team influences how they learn, what they learn and how knowledge is shared; education, work experience, life experience and personal aspiration provide the platform and drive to learn. All these factors work together to influence the participation and contribution of each individual team member in the team’s activity. It was also noted that what makes a team perform better than another team is not determined solely by the cultural background of the team members. Other factors, internal or external also influence team performance.
    • The effect of exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) on outdoor running performance

      Twist, Craig; Graham, Oliver (University of Chester, 2014-08)
      This study examined the effect of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) elicited by a bout of plyometrics on outdoor running performance. Seventeen males (mean ± SD: age 37 ± 8 years, height 180 ± 5.3 cm, body mass 75.4 ± 7.5 kg) were recruited from running and triathlon clubs within Cheshire. They were randomly assigned to the treatment (n = 8) or control group (n = 9) with the study adopting a randomized, controlled, repeated measures design. Before and 48 hours after treatment the subjects underwent testing on EIMD markers (muscle thigh circumference, muscle function and muscle soreness) and ran a 5 km outdoor time-trial. During the time-trial speed, heart rate and RPE were measured at each kilometre along with blood lactate at the finish. On completion of the 5 km run the treatment group completed a bout of 10 x 10 drop jumps from a 35 cm bench to elicit EIMD. Multiple independent t-tests along with multiple two-way and three-way ANOVAs were used for analysis. Muscle soreness significantly increased within the treatment group after EIMD (p<0.05), however no significant change occurred in muscle circumference and force production (p>0.05). During the time-trial RPE, heart rate, average running speed and blood lactate did not significantly change in the treatment group (p>0.05). Although average running speed did not significantly change, a decrease was observed with a significantly slower time-trial completion times between the two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, EIMD significantly affects endurance performance among well-trained athletes through an altered perception of effort.
    • The effect of flavonid supplementation in alleviating the symptoms of eccentric exercise induced muscle damage in humans: a systematic review

      Hansson, Josefine (University of Chester, 2016-09)
      Background: Eccentric exercise can cause damage to skeletal-muscle fibres, which can lead to loss of strength, swelling, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and increased blood levels of muscle damage markers. Antioxidant supplements containing flavonoids are used by many athletes and recreationally active individuals hoping to counteract the damage produced by eccentric exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the evidence for flavonoid supplementation on the symptoms associated EEIMD. Methods: Four electronic database literature searches were conducted (PubMed, Sport Discus, Science Direct, and Wiley Online Library) to identify studies investigating the effect of flavonoid supplementation on symptoms associated with EEIMD. Randomised controlled trials that utilised supplementation of flavonoids on human subjects exhibiting EEIMD were included. The Jadad scale were used to assess the quality of the studies. Results: Six studies were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria. All studies were randomised, whereas four were double blinded. One study demonstrated reduced muscle strength-loss and pain after supplementing with cherry, and one study found that blueberry supplementation enhanced muscle speed recovery. Black currant supplementation reduced circulating markers of muscle damage but had no effect on pain. Three studies were unable to demonstrate any significant effect of flavonoid supplementation (fruit/berry/vegetable supplement, quercetin, and grape) on recovery from eccentric exercise. Conclusion: For any particular flavonoid studied within an eccentric exercise context, few papers are available, and there is a variation with regard to the supplementation dose and regimen, the mode of exercise as well as outcome measures. However, in the majority of the well- designed, bias-controlled studies compared to placebo receiving subjects’ flavonoid supplementation were unable to influence symptoms associated with EEIMD.
    • The effect of glycomacropeptide-based foods upon blood phenylalanine control in adults and children with phenylketonuria

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Thomson, Roderick (University of Chester, 2018-09-03)
      Conventional treatment for phenylketonuria restricts dietary phenylalanine to ‘control’ plasma phenylalanine concentrations. Its widespread adoption has largely eradicated the severe neurocognitive defects that previously characterised phenylketonuria. However, interest in alternative treatments continues as deficits in intelligence and other health outcomes remain problematic, conventional treatment has limitations and adherence proves difficult. Glycomacropeptide-based foods (GMP) are a novel treatment that may improve the satiety and acceptability of dietary treatment and address suboptimal health outcomes. However, glycomacropeptide contains some phenylalanine, raising safety concerns regarding its effect on plasma phenylalanine in adults and particularly children who tolerate less phenylalanine. This narrative review attempted to resolve these concerns. Its findings suggest adults and children can maintain control on GMP but individualised titrations, adjusting the amount of GMP consumed whilst monitoring plasma phenylalanine, are necessary in children. Equivalent control is a supportive finding given GMPs many advantages but this must be viewed cautiously as only seven studies were located, predominantly employing bias-prone, heterogeneous designs. GMPs effect upon control thus requires clarification via a systematic review using evidence-based, transparent methods to synthesize the entire evidence base and consider the impact of design quality, bias and heterogeneity upon results.
    • The effect of increasing foot rigidity on maximal cycling power through the use of cycling specific orthotics

      Sharland-Wong, Luke (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance enhancing capabilities of cycling specific orthotics during maximal cycling and how they relate to subject specific foot morphology and function. Twelve recreational cyclists took part in the study: eight male (age, 38 ± 8 yr; height, 180.41 ± 3.55 cm; body mass, 80.90 ± 6.50 kg) and four female (age, 35.92 ± 20.82 yr; height, 176.57 ± 1.94 cm; body mass, 77.20 ± 2.05 kg). Navicular height measurements were taken in weight bearing and non-weight bearing conditions to describe foot mobility. Subjects performed 2 maximal sprints (4s) on an isokinetic cycling ergometer at a cadence of 120rpm separated by 4mins of recovery in either conventional insoles or CSOs. Once completed the insole type was changed and the sprint protocol was repeated. Crank and joint-specific powers were obtained from instrumented force cranks and inverse dynamics methods respectively. Results from the paired samples t-test show no significant difference on a group level. Single subject analyses using magnitude based inferences show subjects could be grouped based on response (positive=2, non-responders=4, negative=6). Post-hoc analysis of joint-specific powers revealed negative responders tended to demonstrate reduced ankle reduced ankle power and range of motion (F= 4.97; d.f. 1, 9, p= 0.05), (F= 7.52; d.f. 1, 9, p= 0.02). The results highlight the need for caution when considering orthotic interventions and confirms the importance of the dual role of the ankle plantar flexors in cycling.
    • The effect of manipulated understanding of the task end point on pacing during simulated rugby league match-play

      Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; Mullen, Thomas (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      The aim of this study was to examine the effect of manipulated understanding of the task end point on pacing profiles during simulated rugby league match-play. Thirteen male rugby players performed three trails of the rugby league match simulation protocol (RLMSP-i). In one trial, subjects were informed they would perform 2×23 min bouts (20 min rest between; control trial, CON). In a second trial, subjects were told to perform 1×23 min bout, following this they were asked to perform an additional 23 min bout (deception trial, DEC). In a third trial, subjects were not told the duration of the RLMSP-i they would perform (up to 80 minutes), but stopped after 2×23 minute bouts (unknown trial, UN).Movement demands, heart rate and blood lactate were measured during all trials, with muscle force/soreness and session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) recorded immediately after the protocol. Maximum sprint speeds were significantly different between trials, significantly rising at the end of bout two in CON (23.5 ± 1.5 km.h-1, P <0.05), and at the end of bout one for DEC (23.8 ± 1.6 km.h-1, P <0.05), whilst remaining significantly lower in the UN trial (P <0.05). Session RPE for DEC (7 ± 1.6) was significantly higher than CON (5.6 ± 1.7) and UN (4.8 ± 2.6; P <0.05). Results suggest pacing occurs during simulated match-play, but when an individual’s understanding of the end-point of exercise is manipulated (DEC or UN) their pacing schema significantly differentiates to when knowledge of the end-point is known (CON).
    • Effect of n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Hyperlipidemic Patients Taking Statins on Lipid Profile, Including Small Dense LDL: A Randomized Controlled Trial

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Dogay, Gediz (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      Background: Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that high-dose intake of long-chain OM-3 FA have a favourable role in altering blood TAG and non-HDL-C when combined with statins in hyperlipidemic patients. Their efficacy in altering LDL-C particle size and concentration is yet to be confirmed. Aim: This study evaluated the effects of adding 4/day EPA+DHA to stable statin therapy on non-HDL-C, TAG, HDL-C, LDL-C and small&dense LDL-C particle concentration in a group of hyperlipidemic patients. Methods: In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel group study, 44 subjects who were already on statin therapy for >8 weeks and had non-HDL-C levels above the National Lipid Association Recommendations were randomized into two groups. For 8 weeks, together with their prescribed atorvastatin, the intervention group received 4 g/day EPA+DHA (in ethyl ester form) while the control group received 4 g/day olive oil (placebo). Baseline measurements of non-HDL-C, TAG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C and LDL-C particle concentration were repeated at week 8. Differences in dietary intake was assessed with a weighted 3-day food diary at week 4. Primary outcome measures were the percent change in LDL-C III non-HDL-C and particle concentration from baseline. Results: At the end of treatment, the median percent change in LDL-C III particle concentration was significantly greater with OM-3 FA plus atorvastatin compared with placebo plus atorvastatin (-67.5% vs -0%, respectively; P <0.001). OM-3 FA plus atorvastatin was associated with significant reductions in non-HDL-C (-9.5% vs 4.7%, P<0.01), TAG (-21.5% vs 6.2%, P <0.001) and VLDL-C (-36.9% vs 4.0%, P<0.001) and TC (-6.6% vs 2.1%, P<0.001). Between the groups, no significant difference in percent change in LDL-C, HDL-C, as well as LDL-C I and LDL-C II particle concentration was observed. Conclusion: In these adult, white patients with hyperlipidemia, P-OM3 plus atorvastatin improved LDL-C phenotype, non-HDL-C and other lipid and lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than atorvastatin alone.
    • The effect of post-activation potentiation on the roundhouse kick in martial arts

      Boyce, Samuel J. (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      Acute enhancement of the contractile properties of skeletal muscle has been observed during explosive movements following heavy resistance exercise (HRE) and explosively loaded exercise (ELE). It is undetermined whether this phenomenon, termed post-activation potentiation (PAP), can augment the kinetic profile of the roundhouse kick (RHK). This investigation aimed to determine whether RHK force and power could be enhanced if preceded by HRE or ELE. Nine resistance trained, competitive martial artists (mean ± SD: age, 22.8 ± 3.1 years; stature, 1.77 ± 0.03 m; body mass, 73.7 ± 8.2 kg) performed 3 RHKs at 6 times (baseline, post-2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 minutes) under 3 conditions (control, HRE and ELE). The initial control condition contained no intervention. The latter HRE, 3 repetition maximum back squat, and ELE, 2 x 5 drop jump (DJ), conditions were performed in a counterbalanced order. Peak force (Fpeak), peak power (Ppeak), average force (Faverage) and average power (Paverage) were analysed. No significant differences from baseline were revealed at any time, in any condition (p > 0.05). Effect sizes revealed a possibly positive effect on Fpeak from 4 to 16, Ppeak at 4, Faverage and Paverage at 4 and 8 minutes (0.13 – 0.25) following ELE, Ppeak at 12 minutes (0.12) following HRE and Faverage at 8 and Paverage at 2 and 8 minutes (0.13 - 0.19) in the control condition. A significant enhancement of RHK force and power was not achieved via PAP. Competitive martial artists would unlikely benefit from a PAP protocol for this purpose.
    • The effect of trunk orientation upon knee joint loading during unanticipated sidestep cutting manoeuvres

      Smith, Grace; Smith, Matthew W. (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between sagittal and frontal plane trunk orientation and the most commonly accused attributors to anterior cruciate ligament injury. Twenty-one male (mean age 31 years; height 1.8 metres; weight 75 kilograms) with at least 10 years soccer experience, participated in this repeated measures study of experimental design. Forty-four reflective markers were attached to specific landmarks to identify the lower limb and trunk segments. Three-Dimensional and force plate data were recorded for 5 successful trials. Participants were instructed to achieve an approach speed of 3m/s, facilitated by timing gates, complete a right-foot contact on the force plate and execute a sidestep cutting manoeuvre, responding to the movements of the defender. The independent variable tested was trunk orientation (sagittal and frontal plane). Peak values of 7 selected dependent variables were subjected to a two-tailed Spearman’s rho correlation co-efficient test. A bonferroni-corrected p value of 0.007 was used to denote statistical significance. No significant correlations were found to exist. Certain patterns emerged from the results. Subjects who exhibited knee valgus moments also exhibited a posteriorly directed anterior-posterior ground reaction force, whereas some subjects exhibited an anteriorly directed anterior-posterior ground reaction force and exhibited knee varus loading. The results of this study suggest natural trunk movements during sidestep cutting manoeuvres has no relationship with the selected dependent variables in the confines of this experiment.
    • The effect of walking aids on gait symmetry and speed in hemiplegic patients

      Sykes, Kevin; Ma, Sau L. (University of Chester, 2008-09)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a stick and a quadripod on force distribution, temporal asymmetry and gait speed in sub-acute stroke patients. Thirty subjects (mean age is 64 ± 13 yr.) with first stroke who were able to walk unaided under supervision took part in this study. They walked randomly for at least fourteen meters for three walking conditions (walked unaided, with stick and with quadripod). The gait parameters, ground reaction force (GRF), temporal symmetry values and gait speed for each walking condition were measured with the Infotronic Ultraflex Gait Analysis System. The Mann-Whitney Tests, repeated measures ANOVA, Friedman test, and post-hoc test, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were adopted. The results showed 74% of the subjects walked with asymmetry gait pattern which presented with prolonged swing phase and shorted stance phase in the paretic limb. Then there was no significant difference in the mean GRF in mid-stance phase between the paretic and non-paretic limbs in walking unaided (p=0.79) and walking with stick (p=0.15). However, use of quadripod significantly decreased the weight bearing on the paretic limb (670.17±156.80 vs 688.80±186.63 Newton, p=0.004) compared with unaided walking. Furthermore, walking speed was significant slower if stick (0.40±0.16m/s) or quadripod (0.39±0.14m/s) were used when compared with unaided walking (0.43±0.18m/s, p=0.019). Finally, walking aids was found to have no effect on all temporal symmetry values when compared with no aid (p>0.05). In conclusion, to achieve a symmetrical gait pattern in mild to moderate severe sub-acute stroke survivors under rehabilitation, walking aids, especially quadripod, was not encouraged.
    • Effective horse behaviour consultancy: An exploration by means of a social cognition approach

      Creighton, Emma; Jobling, Ruth (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2010-05)
      Behaviour problems are common in domestic horses. It is suggested that the aetiology of these problems may lie in a lack of understanding of horse ethology, in particular learning theory. Horse behaviour consultants offer a vehicle for educating owners and promoting a thorough understanding of these principles which, in turn, will help to resolve behaviour problems and minimise the associated welfare concerns. Where the services provided by horse behaviour consultants are effective they are likely to be promoted. An effective service is dependent on the client's adherence to the advice given and, therefore, this research aimed to establish recommendations to horse behaviour consultants on how to foster adherence to their advice. The established science of human behavioural change has largely been applied in the field of health psychology to indentify predictors of adaptive behaviour. A thorough review of human behavioural change literature identified ten cognitive variables that had the potential to predict adherence to the advice of a horse behaviour consultant. Established self-report questionnaire methodology was adopted to survey an opportunistic sample of 52 clients of horse behaviour consultants before they received the advice (initial cognitive profile), ten days after (changes post-communication) and at three months follow-up (long-term changes). The self-reported responses were validated by telephone. Data were preliminarily analysed using correlation analyses and subsequently multiple regression analyses were used to generate a model for adherence. Of the client's initial cognitive profile, less attribution of the horse's behaviour problem to external factors (r = -0.316) was associated with increased adherence ten days after the communication. Horse behaviour consultants cannot influence what clients come into the process perceiving, however, they are able to influence cognitive variables during the communication. The amount of post-communication change in value of the outcome of adhering to the advice (beta = 0.338) and attribution of the horse's behaviour problem to external factors (beta = 0.309) were significant elements of a multiple regression analysis that explained 23.6% of the variance in adherence ten days after the communication (F2,35= 6.700, p = 0.003). At three months follow-up there were no associations between adherence and the earlier cognitive profiles, but clients who showed a three month increase in positive attitude towards horse behaviour consultants were more likely to adhere long term (r = 0.389). The findings suggest that horse behaviour consultants will benefit clients by demonstrating the effects of the advice early in the communication, so that clients value their efforts to adhere and continue to do so. Horse behaviour consultants may also foster adherence to their advice by developing the client's perception of an external, controllable cause of their horse's behavioural problem, which may build confidence in the client's ability to address the problem.
    • Effective prediction of intercensal population levels

      Ford, Neville J.; Norton, Stewart J. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1999-10)
      This dissertation is concerned with the prediction of population levels for the years following a census until the next census is counted. It reviews standard interpolation and extrapolation tecnhiques, population models and neural networks. The population levels are required by government for allocating money to local authorities for spending on local services. This project was initiated by Chester City Council who consider that an underestimation of the Chester levels is causing a shortfall in the city's allocation of money.