• Peer Victimization, Self-esteem and Social Anxiety as Predictors of Resilience: Gender Differences in Resilience Explored

      Boulton, Mike; Santos, Justine K. (University of Chester, 2017)
      Resilience has been highly studied in the last 40-50 years, however, there is still little known about what makes individuals that go through the same trauma have different life outcomes (Masten, 2011). 654 students, aged between 10 and 16 years, took part in this cross-sectional research. The student completed an online questionnaire comprised of; the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003), Self-report Victimization Scale (Boulton et al., 2008), RCMAS (Reynolds & Richmond, 1985) and a Self-Esteem Scale (Thomaes et al., 2010). The aim of this study was to tests whether these predictor variables were unique and collective predictors of resilience. Results showed that all three predictors could collectively predict resilience (F (3,516)= 71.8, p<0.01). Self-esteem and social anxiety were also able to uniquely predict resilience (F (1,516)= 24.87, p<0.01; F (1,516)= 57.65, p<0.01), however, victimization was not a significant predictor (F (1,516)= 1.79, p=0.18). The researchers also concluded that there was a significant gender difference (t(534)= 3.686 p<0.01), with males scoring higher than the females in this sample. The researchers concluded that individuals with high self-esteem and high social anxiety were more likely to bounce back from adversity and are at lower risk for negative effects. They also concluded that in adolescence males have higher resilience than females. The practical implications of this are discussed.