• Determinants of participation in cardiac rehabilitation phase IV

      Fallows, Stephen; Mansley, Jennifer C. (University of Chester, 2008-09)
      Reducing the wide spread incidences of coronary heart disease (CHD) is a clinical challenge for the public sectors within the NHS in the UK. The current study aimed to highlight the key barriers that affected participation within exercise based provisions of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The study concentrated on the two exercise based phase (CR phase III and phase IV) and targeted those who had completed CR phase III. Information on patients who had completed the CR phase III within the previous year were sent a questionnaire to collect information on the patients’ actions after completing the CR phase III exercise based class. 35 (64.8%) males and 19 (35.2%) females returned questionnaires indicating their activity levels following a cardiac event and/or procedure. The results showed that from the patients that responded, 11 (20.4%) were currently attending the CR phase IV exercise based class, 7 (13.0%) has previously attended the Cr phase IV class and 36 (66.7%)had not attended the Cr phase IV exercise based class. The results were analysed using SPSS (version-16.0) for frequencies between the answers given. The results showed that despite the barriers expressed by the participants who did not participate in the community based phase IV exercise class, the service could be enhanced to encourage more to utilise the services provisions. As CHD is becoming more prevalent in younger adults, many of the participants who responded to the questionnaire stated that they had resumed employment and no longer had the time to participate in CR services. Despite this finding many acknowledged the importance of remaining active and living a healthier lifestyle in the aim of reducing further risk factors associated with CHD.
    • The role of physical education, sport and exercise in a female prison

      Fallows, Stephen (University of Chester, 2008-09)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of physical education, sport and exercise in the rehabilitation process of female prisoners. Research in this area is limited and often focuses on young offenders and male prisoners. Nine female prisoners from HMP Drake Hall, between the ages of 21 and 40, who participated in gym activities, at least three times a week were interviewed. This was a qualitative study using a grounded theory approach through in-depth open ended interviews. Questions focused on experiences and perceived outcomes related to their sport and exercise involvement. The data collected was then analysed using open, axial and selective coding. Five phenomena emerged from the raw data including Participation outcomes; General health awareness; Role of sport and exercise on rehabilitation for release; Developmental skills and experiences; Influence of sport, exercise or dietary awareness on plans post prison. Links between the phenomena were identified and a theory emerged beginning with the initial incarceration of a female through to participation in exercise and sport and results in the final release of a rehabilitated woman armed with the tools to cope with society in an acceptable manner. The Progression Model of Behaviour Changes through Sport and Exercise in Female Inmates developed from this research summarises the theory which evolved from grounded research. There were clear psychological, social and physical benefits of sport and exercise participation for the interviewees including increased confidence and self-esteem which contributed to the attraction to exercise and sport. The female prisoners also found that sport/exercise could be used as a coping mechanism to release feelings of aggression and anxiety. Due to the many positive outcomes associated with sport/exercise the prisoners planned their futures around this discipline. They chose to undertake coaching and academic qualifications, gained experience of instructing exercise and sport in Drake Hall and planned their careers upon release around sport and exercise. The prisoners expressed a desire to lead a healthy, socially acceptable and crime free life. This study will add to the limited body of literature in this minority population and will inform other female institutions of the rehabilitative processes associated with sport and exercise participation.