• Are reference nutrient intakes for key micronutrients and macronutrients set by COMA (1991) met and are their importance understood among pregnant women, attending antenatal clinics in Liverpool

      Currie, Lindsey (University of Chester, 2010-12-01)
      Introduction: The aim of this project was to investigate if intakes of key micronutrients and macronutrients during pregnancy reflect the understanding of specific micronutrients and macronutrients. The study further hypothesised if age, marital status, occupation, trimester of pregnancy, number of previous pregnancies and smoking affects total micronutrient and macronutrient intake and affects understanding of key micronutrients and macronutrients. Design: A prospective observational study. Subjects and methods: Pregnant women (n=47) were recruited from 3 different antenatal classes across Merseyside, UK. Subjects completed a non validated questionnaire and 3 day food diary. Questionnaires were analysed using SPSS and intakes were analysed using dietary analysis software. Results: Occupation had a significant positive influence on dietary micronutrient intakes (p=0.004). Occupation had further affects on nutritional knowledge (p=0.009). Other significant differences were established between trimester and mean dietary intakes (p=0.008). The majority of mean intakes of micronutrients and macronutrients were lower than UK recommendations set by COMA (1991) for pregnant women. Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that intakes of key micronutrients and macronutrients during pregnancy did not reflect the understanding of specific micronutrients and macronutrients. The participants from this study possessed a sound understanding of food sources for the different micronutrients and macronutrients. However it appears that this did not influence dietary intake, as RNIs in general were lower than recommended.
    • Nutrition knowledge and food intake

      Stroud, Joshua R. (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      The rates of many diet related diseases are increasing; obesity most notably. Adverse shifts in dietary behaviours have contributed to the rise in non-communicable diseases. In the UK fat and sugar intakes are above recommended levels and fruit, vegetable and oily fish intakes are below recommended levels. Increasing nutrition knowledge may be a means of bringing intake in-line with the recommendations. It was the aim of this review to assess the evidence for and against a relationship between nutrition knowledge and food intake. Intervention studies suggest that improving nutrition knowledge correlates with improvements in food intake. However, cross-sectional evidence of a correlation is much less clear although a low correlation does appear to exist. A mediatory effect of nutrition knowledge on the influence of demographic variables may also exist. Further research into the correlation with regard to specific nutrients and demographic variables is required as is exploration of the long-term benefits of nutrition education interventions.