• The effects of exercise on body mass and body composition in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: A sytematic review

      Fallows, Stephen; Hart, Sarah (University of Chester, 2012-09)
      The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effects of exercise on the body mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), body fat percentage (BF%), bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (BCSs). Records were located via; electronic searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ProQuest, Sport Discus, PEDro, ZETOC and SCIRUS and handsearches of key journals and book chapters. All searches covered the period from the start of 1989 to the end of June 2012. All identified records were screened against predetermined eligibility criteria. Records that met the full eligibility criteria were included in the final review, and assessed for methodological quality using the Downs and Black Checklist (1998). A total of 5714 records (excluding duplicates) were located; five studies and six groups of exercising postmenopausal BCSs were included in the final review. The differences in the mean change between exercising and control postmenopausal BCSs ranged from 0.70kg to -2.42kg for BM; -0.28kg/m2 to -0.86kg/m2 for BMI; -0.54cm to -3.00cm for WC; 0.1kg to 1.0kg for LBM; 0.5kg to -2.0kg for FM; 0.2% to -2.0% for BF%; -46g/cm to 68g/cm for BMC; 0.000g/cm2 to 0.033g/cm2 for total BMD and 0.004g/cm2 to 0.260g/cm2 for lumbar spine BMD. The findings from individual studies were mixed, however overall exercise had a small favourable effect on the body composition of postmenopausal BCSs (↓BM, ↓BMI, ↓WC, ↑LBM, ↓FM, ↓BF%, ↑BMC and ↑BMD). Further research into the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise over longer total exercise durations of 6 to 12 months are warranted. Future studies should include larger sample sizes so that results can be stratified by important confounding factors, without statistical power being compromised.