• Causes and Consquences of Victimisation: Associations between Social Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Friendship Quality and Gender.

      Boulton, Mike; Breen, Cara J. (University of Chester, 2017)
      Bulling in schools is a worldwide issue and its consequences have been found to be detrimental to young people’s lives (Anderson et al, 2015). To provide a further insight into victimisation, the current study specifically looked at social anxiety, self-esteem and friendship quality as possible consequences and risk factors for being a victim of bullying. To accomplish this, 654 participants consisting of 327 females and 281 males from 6 schools across the U.K and Gibraltar engaged in an online questionnaire. It was concluded that not only does victimisation contribute to levels of social anxiety and low self-esteem, but also that social anxiety, low self-esteem and friendship quality predicts victimisation. As a result, demonstrating that these variables are both consequences and risk factors of victimisation and suggests a possible “cycle” involved. Gender differences in victimisation were also explored. Although no significant gender difference was found for overall victimisation, there were clear differences in the various subtypes of bullying. Specifically, that males were more likely to suffer from physical bullying whereas females were more at risk of indirect and cyberbullying. A practical implication of the results concluded in this investigation is the need for intervention strategies that aim to target the victim’s well-being, such as anxiety levels and self-esteem. As a result, this will in turn help to weaken the victimisation cycle.
    • Peer Victimization, Self-esteem and Social Anxiety as Predictors of Resilience: Gender Differences in Resilience Explored

      Boulton, Mike; Santos, Justine K. (University of Chester, 2017)
      Resilience has been highly studied in the last 40-50 years, however, there is still little known about what makes individuals that go through the same trauma have different life outcomes (Masten, 2011). 654 students, aged between 10 and 16 years, took part in this cross-sectional research. The student completed an online questionnaire comprised of; the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003), Self-report Victimization Scale (Boulton et al., 2008), RCMAS (Reynolds & Richmond, 1985) and a Self-Esteem Scale (Thomaes et al., 2010). The aim of this study was to tests whether these predictor variables were unique and collective predictors of resilience. Results showed that all three predictors could collectively predict resilience (F (3,516)= 71.8, p<0.01). Self-esteem and social anxiety were also able to uniquely predict resilience (F (1,516)= 24.87, p<0.01; F (1,516)= 57.65, p<0.01), however, victimization was not a significant predictor (F (1,516)= 1.79, p=0.18). The researchers also concluded that there was a significant gender difference (t(534)= 3.686 p<0.01), with males scoring higher than the females in this sample. The researchers concluded that individuals with high self-esteem and high social anxiety were more likely to bounce back from adversity and are at lower risk for negative effects. They also concluded that in adolescence males have higher resilience than females. The practical implications of this are discussed.
    • A secondary sisterhood: Revisioning nineteenth-century homosocial bonds between women

      Siddle, Yvonne; Joughin, Frances E. (University of Chester, 2014)
      This dissertation explores the ways in which revisionary fiction engages with understanding that nineteenth-century gender constructs negatively impacted women’s homosocial bonds. It examines three different periods throughout the nineteenth-century to reflect upon the ways in which revisionary texts engage with changing cultural ideologies throughout the period. Beginning with Austen’s Pride and Prejudice (1813), and comparing this to the text and television adaptation Death Comes to Pemberley (2011, 2013), Chapter one examines the ways in which James’s text interprets Austen’s potentially proto-feminist comment on female homosocialism. It draws upon the ways in which the ‘Jane Austen’ brand has potentially influenced James’s text, but also reflects on how the brand continues to move with changing modern cultures through recent representations such as the internet comic, Manfeels Park. Chapter two takes a leap forward into the mid- to late-Victorian period and explores the ways in which lesbian potential may have also been affected by the secondary conditions of women’s homosocial bonds. It examines how Sarah Waters’ neo-Victorian texts Fingersmith and Tipping the Velvet write over the dearth of lesbian representation in canonical literature of the period. Chapter three examines representation of the New Woman in The Odd Women (1893), the film, Hysteria (2011) and The Crimson Petal and the White (2002). It compares the ways in which her attempt to carve out a new kind of female homosocialism has a unique link to the present because of the New Woman’s ‘modern’ approach. It examines the representation of her as an individual in revisionary texts, compared to her as part of a collective in The Odd Women, and how this makes suggestions about the state of modern feminism.
    • A study of gender issues within hip hop dance in contemporary society

      Pritchard, Ian; D'Andrea, Cristina (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      The principle aim of this dissertation is to examine how members of a British all-female hip hop dance group have become professional hip hop dancers despite the gender issues attached to hip hop dance and its originally underground nature. The theoretical perspective of postmodern feminism will be employed to analyse the key concepts of gender and commercialisation in hip hop dance. Hip hop culture could be understood as a postmodern phenomenon and therefore shares concepts with the theoretical approach of postmodern feminism, which justifies why this research will employ the theory of postmodern feminism in the analysis of women’s participation in professional hip hop dance. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with five female members of a unique, professional all-female hip hop dance group based in London. The common themes that were identified from the interviews included: hip hop dance is both a commercialised and an underground culture; participants expressed both positive and negative feelings towards the commercialisation of hip hop dance; hip hop dance was originally male orientated but this is changing now; and, commercialisation has changed the nature of hip hop dance. In summary, hip hop has been described as an unstable and malleable cultural form that is not one fixed idea but an amalgamation of practices that are constantly in flux (Taylor & Taylor, 2007; Drissel, 2011; Forman, 2004b). This could explain the changing nature of hip hop dance and therefore, is how the female participants have become professional hip hop dancers despite the gender issues described that are attached to hip hop dance.