• Barriers to healthy eating and the prevention of overweight and obesity: A qualitative study of sixth form student’s perceptions

      Ellahi, Basma; Witherup, Amy (University of Chester, 2012-02)
      This dissertation aimed to elicit the views of sixth form students on barriers to healthy eating and the prevention of overweight and obesity. It explores the kind of interventions that should be in place to support them to make healthier choices and also considers the type of services that should be available for those who are overweight or obese. This study used qualitative research through conducting 4 focus groups in sixth form college settings. A topic guide was developed for use in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was used to identify key themes and sub themes. 4 focus groups were conducted in 3 college settings, with a total of 25 participants, 18 females and 7 males aged between 16 and 19. 11 participants were studying A levels, 3 were studying BTEC’s and 11 were studying vocational courses. Whilst participants could define a healthy diet, they did not appear to endeavour to meet these guidelines. There was recognition of the long term health consequences of a poor diet, but this did not have a strong influence food choice in the here and now. Cost appeared to be the biggest barrier to healthy eating and this related to both within and external to, the college environment. The role of parents and college seem to have the greatest influence on facilitating healthy eating. There were clear and consistent views about what support they would like in college; water, more information on foods served in the canteen and inputs in tutorials. In relation to treatment services, participants felt that these should be located outside of college and be young person friendly. Young people in general are aware of the components of a healthy diet; however knowledge does not appear to be enough to facilitate behaviour change. Whilst colleges are taking steps to become healthier settings, there is more that could be done, namely; provision of free drinking water, nutritional information on food available at college, better use of tutor time for healthy eating information and practical cookery skills. Any treatment services should be young person friendly, specific to this age group, delivered by individuals with experience of working with young people and offered outside the college setting.
    • An investigation into experimentation as a means to encourage a police service to work more effectively

      Bailey, Nicholas (University of Chester, 2013-06)
      The research to be considered is an investigation into experimentation as a means to encourage a police service to work more effectively. The research aims in more details are: • To understand contemporary literature on ‘police learning methods’. • To understand contemporary literature on ‘delivering effective policing and improvement’. • To investigate the current approach to experimentation in Cheshire Police. • To analyse the impact of experiments in developing police practice. • To draw conclusions around the factors which act as contributors or blockers to successful experiments in policing practice. This qualitative phenomenological analysis of experimentation seeks to review a sample of case studies within Cheshire Police. Taking the learning from the limited literature around experimentation in policing the research seeks to analyse the impact that learning and recognised success factors and barriers and blockers have on the ability of the organisation to develop operational effectiveness. The research demonstrates evidence of learning and an understanding of the success factors and blockers and barriers, but draws the conclusion that often there is no evidence of improved operational effectiveness. The evidence shows improved effectiveness in management understanding and at a time of recognised austerity, an ability to effect structure change. However the focus to achieve operational delivery of ‘what works’, Neyroud (2011), still requires greater focus in experimentation within the organisation.
    • Physicians’ attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccination programme: A systematic review

      Fallows, Stephen; Franco, Maria F. (University of Chester, 2011-12)
      Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a newly introduced vaccine against cervical cancer in adolescent girls. Uptake of the vaccine will be dependent on parental acceptability and physician recommendation. To review physicians’ attitudes towards HPV vaccine and identify factors that may influence their intent. Also, to determine if there is any difference in the views of different medical specialties with regards to HPV vaccination. Articles were obtained through computerised searches of CINAHL, Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library and Science Direct, as well as manual searches in recognised scientific journal. Articles involving physicians’ attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards HPV vaccine published from 2007 onwards. One reviewer independently assessed relevant studies, risk of bias and data extraction. Twenty nine studies were included in the final review. Twenty four studies used survey for data collection and five studies used interview. Majority of the studies revealed positive view of physicians towards HPV vaccine with high intent to provide vaccination. Barriers identified against HPV vaccination include the following: cost and reimbursement issue; providers concern about vaccine safety; parental concern over vaccine’s safety and efficacy; age is considered too young for vaccination; issue that HPV vaccine could promote sexual activity, recommendation of HPV vaccine from organisations; communication related to sexuality; need for education and other factors like dosing, patient overload, boys should also be vaccinated and parental religious beliefs. No significant difference was noted between specialties with regards to their view about HPV vaccine. Physicians’ role is important in the promotion of HPV vaccine with their high intent and positive attitudes. In order for the HPV vaccination programme to succeed, vaccine should be made available and affordable especially to countries with high incidence of cervical cancer.