• Access and / or conservation? An examination of the issues surrounding the use / re-use of historic buildings and the questions raised more specifically surrounding disabled access, particularly in buildings used in an educational context

      Pardoe, James; Freeman, James W. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2003-10)
      This dissertation proposed to examine the issues surrounding the use/re-use of historic buildings and the questions raised more specifically surrounding disabled access, particularly in buildings used in an educational context. Within this context, the author demonstrated that the re-use of historic sites is dependent on a value being assigned to that property. That value can be a subtle and complex combination of several factors. The author showed that the government has had to create a legislative framework based in practicality to counterbalance these individual notions of value, and that the framework needs to be accountable and flexible. The author described how the relatively recent rise in the concept of social inclusion has manifested itself in the notion of equality for all, and focused on the implications of this cultural change in terms of specific needs access to the historic environment. The author discussed how, in certain circumstances, accessibility issues play a more prominent role than usual. In these cases, accessibility (particularly in a specific needs context) is viewed as essential to the majority of stakeholders and can balance out or even outweigh any conservation considerations. Finally, the author examined three case studies that illustrated specific needs access approaches to historic buildings in an educational context. Of these case studies, two showed a reactive management approach that had resulted in limited specific needs access. The third case study had employed a proactive policy and is a clear example of the benefits of doing so. The author has shown that rather than being mutually exclusive, conservation and specific needs accessibility can and should be viewed as mutually viable options for historic buildings.
    • Analysis of information systems value and formulation of investment appraisal framework strategy on the context of local government in Wales

      Jones, Stephen (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1998-11)
      Local Authorities have the responsibility of delivering a wide range of services to the general public and have a number of significant problems in many service delivery areas. The Information Technology and Information Systems field is arguably the most challenging. A current information systems issue within the author's sponsoring organisation - a new Welsh Unitary Authority - is getting value from IS investment. The Authority has recently implemented an organisational-wide Office Automation (OA) system. This system was introduced to consolidate and integrate the many departmental systems, working environments and business cultures. Although individual users appeared comfortable with existing departmental paper and technology based OA arrangements, there was no corporate OA environment and it was difficult to communicate and share information. It was perceived that this situation was both inefficient and ineffective. The corporate OA system was therefore introduced to deliver a coherent business information system on a single information technology platform, across a large geographical area and several organisational sites. This initiative had the key objectives to improve information flow, working arrangements and organisational efficiency. This dissertation investigates the rationale for the implementation of an organisational-wide, corporate OA system and investigates and analyses how IS value and benefit was defined and measured. This task has enabled the author to utilise the skills and knowledge gained on the MSc Information Systems degree course. Upon completion of the research dissertation, IS value has have been defined, identified and analysed with regard to a specific case study situation. An IS Investment Appraisal Framework Strategy has been proposed for the Local Authority. This could have a direct benefit to the author's organisation and may assist others in the future.
    • An analysis of Nicolas Berdyaev's philosophy of spirit

      Partridge, Christopher; Tyers, John H. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2003-10)
      This dissertation is about the philosophy of religion. Its purpose is to find a basis for the articulation of the reality of spirit. It considers Berdyaev's philosophy of spirit, aiming to answer four questions:- 1. How did Berdyaev come to this sense of the priority of spirit? 2. How did he verbalise the reality of spirit in his philosophy? 3. Can he help us to find ways in which we and others might grow in awareness of the spiritual realm? 4. Is his philosophy still of value today? I have surveyed Berdyaev's books as translated into English, and other relevant literature, and have attempted to present his ideas in a logical order. I offer an assessment of his philosophy, and give some account of its application to current issues. I conclude that his existential methods are still relevant today, that any philosophy of spirit must use methods comparable to them, and that we have much to leam from both his emphesis upon the manifestation of spirit in secular life, and his questioning faith. He represents an important but often forgotten strand within Orthodoxy.
    • An analysis of probate inventories from the Runcorn area, 1602-1766

      Dunn, Diana; Howman, Brian (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1999-10)
      This dissertation is a qualitative, rather than quantitative analysis of one hundred and one probate inventories from the Runcorn area, dating from 1602, to 1766. It aims to assess three main themes; the relationship between non-elite people and their physical surroundings; their relationships with each other; and the level and nature of the area's isolation from other regions. Results of work carried out on probate inventories from other parts of the country are used to provide comparisons to conclusions drawn from the local inventories. The opening chapter provides a brief historical background. Evidence from contemporary sources is used to illustrate the local landscape of the period, and broad, perceptions of Runcorn's history are considered and challenged here. In chapter 2, artisans' retention of agricultural interests is addressed, alongside the level of yeomens' diversification into other economic areas than farming. Conclusions drawn here help illustrate the similarities between the economic activity local non-elites', and those elsewhere. Chapter 3 addresses the issues of debt and investment, widows, and low valued inventories. The evidence from these 'exceptional' inventories helps provide a picture of tensions within the local community, as well as a snapshot of the domestic arrangements of some of its poorer members. The final chapter examines the contents and functions of rooms within non-elite homes. Evidence is found which indicates a later evolution in domestic practices, suggesting a certain level of insulation from outside forces. Conversely, ownership patterns of certain goods indicate a significant level of communication with other areas. The appendices contain a list of the inventories used (including testators' occupations and home township), and three charts, showing their distribution; by decade, occupation, and settlement.
    • Analytical and numerical solution methods for integral equations using Maple symbolic algebraic package

      Ford, Neville J.; Edwards, John T.; Little, Alexander J. M. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1998-12)
    • Anti-Judaism in the Gospel trial narratives: Can the narratives be read in a way that is not anti-Jewish?

      Evans, Robert; Wright, Gertraud F. L. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2000-09)
      The aim of this study is to explore the issue of anti-Judaism in the Gospel Trial Narratives, and to question whether the text can be read in a way that is not anti-Jewish. Since many scholars argue that anti-Judaism is not found in the gospels but originates from the teachings of the Church Fathers, I persue this matter in chapter one. In an historical overview from the post-biblical period to the present, I scrutinize the role which the Church Fathers assigned to the Jews, that is placing the blame for the death of Jesus Christ solely on the Jews, thus initiating Christian hatred and persecution of the Jews for centuries to come. The second and more extensive part focuses on the Trial narratives and investigates the view of scholars that the roots of anti-Judaism are found in the gospels. These views are contrasted with others who dismiss these allegations. The first section deals with the arrest of Jesus, and with Jewish involvement The next section treats of the Jewish trial and the conflicting issue of Christology. The Roman trial in section three explores whether the Roman governor or the Jewish leaders bear the greater responsibility for Jesus' death. In this investigation I probe how far the Trial narratives are anti-Jewish, and question whether theology rather than history controls the text, and how tensions and conflicts can be understood if seen in a sociohistorical, political and cultural context. The reinterpetation of the narratives by modern scholars, Christian and Jewish, offers new insight into the texts, and largely affirms my theory that the Trial narratives can indeed be read in a way that is not anti-Jewish. In the concluding chapter, I investigate Ihe needs of contemporary readers with their prejudice and presuppositions to gain a well-informed understanding of the gospels. Next, from a post-Holocaust position, I consider the pervasive influence of anti-Judaism on Christian culture, and how recent changes in church teaching, in liturgy, and prayer, seek to correct distorted teachings. I further notice the positive efforts made to overcome the presistent anti-Jewish influence in literature and art, as seen in the recent Oberammergau Passion play with the excision of large parts of anti-Jewish elements. A brief investigation of Gospels Passion stories for children witnesses pro-Jewish attitudes emerging. Finally, I examine how the beneficial effect of a Christian-Jewish dialogue fosters mutual understanding, which is, as I learnt at my recent visit to Germany, of particular importance for the German Lutheran Church with its special needs of renewal, and how Christian-Jeewish dialogue promotes co-operation and Christian recognition of the Jewishness of Jesus and the Jewishness of the scriptures.
    • An assessment of the impact of the annual codes of the Education department on the development of a rural school

      Skinner, Katherine (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education)Chester College of Higher Education, 1994-10)
      This masters dissertation discusses the impact that Codes of the minutes of the Education department (contained in the Annual Report of the Committee of the Council on Education) had upon Thornton-le-Moors Elementary School, 1875-1902. The curriculum, managers, attendence, punishment, and gender studies are discussed.
    • Beeston Castle, Cheshire: An analysis of interpretation and presentation methodology

      Pardoe, James; McGuicken, Rachel (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2000-11)
      The aim of interpretation is to display a thing of significance to the public by communicating its values. It is argued here that, while acknowledging its significance, the heritage management of a monument should not isolate it, either from its continuity, or from its wider context. Although heritage interpretation and presentation methodologies are discussed, the definition of 'heritage' itself is not, this being considered a subject and debate in its own right. The dissertation effectively consists of two parts: Chapters 1 and 2 discuss issues and considerations regarding interpretation and presentation for both monuments and their exhibitions, and attempt to place English Heritage's role within this process. The second part, Chapters 3 to 5, is a case study based on Beeston Castle, Cheshire. Its significance historically, architecturally and archaeologically, is discussed before placing it in a wider context and concludes with an analysis of English Heritage's interpreation and presentation methodology at the site, drawing on comparisons with other monuments and their exhibitions. The dissertation finds that Beeston Castle embodies a power that has metamorphosed over centuries, now lying with the visitor and English Heritage. A sustainable future for Beeston Castle is dependent on English Heritage's ability to serve different people, managing conflicts and balancing the needs of each group with the need to preserve the site for future generations. Such balancing results in the failure, in the main, to convey the continuity of this site and isoloates it from its wider context, this opinion itself being open to interpretation.
    • Care in Trinity: A paradigm for pastoral care

      Walker, Mark; Battye, Lisa (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1999-10)
      Care in Trinity answers the question, "What makes care pastoral?" It tests the hypothesis that the doctrine of the Trinity can be applied to the question in such a way that a paradigm for pastoral care emerges. The context for the study was the author's need for a working model for her own practice when ordained. It therefore employs a postmodern epistemology. It proceeds by correlating the results of a literature search in three areas and basing its conclusions on the result. The areas examined are The Trinity, contemporary anthropology and pastoral care. All are found to be inherently relational. Their shared relationality is taken to support the claims that human relationships may be patterned on divine relationships, and that (Christian) pastoral care should display the core features of Trinitarian life. Three core features of Trinitarian life are then ascertained by examining the features of a diagrammatic representation of Trinity that has been adopted in the course of the argument. When translated into the language of human behaviour these are Encounter Empathy and Empowerment. 'By-products' of the research process include critique of the use of gendered language for God and of an immanent-transcendent dualism. It is also recommended that the category 'being for' should be added to 'being' and 'doing' when describing pastoral conduct, and that all three parameters in the new pastoral care paradigm will ideally be present in a balanced form.
    • Comparison between the behaviour of junior aged children attending a unit for pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties and similar children in mainstream classes

      Morgan, Gill; Wood, Michael H. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1995-07)
      This case study examines some of the children with the greatest frequency of behavioural problems on the playground of a particular junior school serving a socially deprived area. It looks at the historical factors which led to its present situation of having a special needs unit for children with emotional and behavioural difficulties and summarises the definition, assessment and provision for maladjusted/EBD children. It seeks to compare the unit children with their mainstream peers in order to ascertain whether the children are correctly placed within the unit, and whether others might not be equally deserving of places. It concludes that there may be considerable overlap between statemented unit children and mainstream children, with uncertainty as to which children should be referred, and what might be expected from the referral process. In the process the research examines the current situation with regard to providing consistent and workable criteria for assessing EBD children, concluding that the search for this is not yet over.
    • Compatible 'ways of being'?: A theoretical study of the compatibility of the person-centred approach and the Buddhist concept of mindfulness

      Mintz, Rita; Elias, David (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2001-11)
      The aim of this study is to examine the compatibility of the philosophical and conceptual frameworks underpinning the person-centred approach and the Buddhist concept of mindfulness to clarify whether or not there is theoretical consistency for practitioners influenced by both approaches. The methodology used is a critique of the literature presented thematically, with arguments supported and extended by the authors own views and experience. It was concluded that, with the exception of relationship as a medium for change, there is a high degree of theoretical compatibility between the two approaches.
    • Component based development: A methodology proposal

      Southall, Garfield; Botel, Paul (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1999-05-01)
      Enterprise architecture is undergoing considerable change with recent developments in client server technologies and middleware. Each in turn has a significant impact on the way systems are designed, and a more component-based approach to development is beginning to emerge. While we now have the Unified Modelling Language as universal notation for design modelling, there is currently no consistent standard for the definition of components. A pragmatic architecture for application development is needed that delivers business benefit without the need for significant investment in tools and training. It should minimise risk and maximise return on investment by leveraging investment in legacy systems, and provide the means to more closely relate business requirements to each phase of the development process. This paper suggests that a better way of controlling technology is by adopting a service based approach to design and development, concentrating on pragmatic techniques and models that add value through reuse within a sound architectural framework. Given a set of business requirements, the focus is on business oriented component modelling techniques (e.g. process models, use cases, service allocation), and the delivery of a complete component design specification (e.g service definitions, service package architecture). Unusually, this does not involve the definition of a domain class model, but rather a definition of implementation independent, and therefore reusable, services (or contracts) that component packages will deliver. The component package is regarded as a ‘black box’ from which components will be designed and built by specialists in the technology of the component domain. This approach also provides the means for legacy and packaged applications to be reused in the same way. The methodology was evaluated by a peer group of six senior IT professionals from the insurance and IT services sectors, who together represent over 110 years of industry experience. The methodology was presented in the form of a case study and questionnaire, and from the feedback it was concluded that there was merit in the approach. Reservations over how it would scale to larger systems have been addressed by the agreed need for a suitable repository for the documentation of data and business rules, and the need to separate the definition of technical non-functional requirements.
    • Conservation management planning: Identification of appropriate management for two woodland SSSI, within the Snowdonia National Park

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Jones, Ifan E. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1999-11)
      Two woodland SSSI Management Plans have been produced, conforming to the CCW guidelines for appropriate conservation management planning (CMS). The planning procedure has proven successful in its ability for enabling flexibility, where the different conservation interest of the two woodlands have enabled their national designations. Plan 1 identifies appropriate management objectives for Coed Afon Pumryd, which is nationally designated for its unique assemblage of ravine slime moulds, myxomycetes. This is an unusual plan as it not only identifies management objectives for the qualifying features of slime moulds, but also states management objectives for the woodland as a site feature. This is justified as the humid conditions provided by the woodland canopy is essential in providing the bryophytes host, and therefore, the slime mould assemblage in a favourable conservation status. Plan 2 adopts a standard approach to woodland, Coed Llechwedd, management planning. Management objectives are stated for each of the qualifying features, which are the woodland quality, assemblage of breeding birds and assemblage of invertebrates. The successful completion of management plans from the CMS format proves to be a very helpful tool for any site manager determine whether the features of a site are in a favourable conservation status. Targets and Limits of Acceptable Change are stated for each feature, from which the current status of each feature can be precisely indicated. Factors that may influence the features are also identified, and are also targeted and given Limits of Acceptable Change. One of the main benefits of the planning system is the continuity it provides between plans and managers. This ability could prove to be of great value in the huge task of producing the numerous Biodiversity Habitat and Species Action Plans. Indeed, much of the terminology used in these plans are derived from CMS. CMS has received much global acceptance, with plans implemented in areas of India and Costa Rica.
    • A critical survey of the development of charismatic influences in the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus

      Lemon, Nigel J.; Djaleta Djaldessa, Tesso (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1994-05)
      The onjective of the study is the consider how the charismatic movement has influenced the doctrine and life of the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus. The whole critical survey is constructed through a study of academic theological texts, chariamatic literature, numerous EECMY documentary reports and the writer's own personal experience. Following a study of the Biblical understanding of the Holy Spirit and a dicussion of the retrieval of its place in the life of the church, traditional pneumatological perspectives of the church are surveyed. The invisible personal work of the Holy Spirit is indicated, notably beyond the appointed liturgical means of grace. A critical examination follows of the worldwide roots of the charismatic movement; its emergence in Ethiopia, particuarly within the EECMY; the social and ecclesiastical reactions to that movement, and the tension between the traditional doctrine of the Spirit and its current experiential manifestations. This study shows that the chariamatic challenge has led the church to restate its teaching about the Holy Spirit within its congregations. The particular charismatic roots and sources of baptism in the Holy Spirit, with its charismatic interpretation and the needs and pattern of his empowerment, is then explored through its contemporary theological and pastoral aspects. Recognising varying views on the seond baptism or experience, the conclusion then discusses the place of further fillings with the Spirit subsequent to its initial reception. The substantive discussion indicates that the charismatic influences seem to provide the church with a reasonable challenge and also with opportunities to reappraise its traditional theology and liturgical practice in the light of a fresh understanding of the work of the Holy Spirit. This gives opportunities to involve many members in renewal, supporting such developemnt so that the whole spiritual status of members and their church life are enriched. There remains the likelihood that the process of charismatic renewal has yet to unite all members in a common understanding: further educational processes, both theological and experiential, are necessary in order to avoid harmful confusion.
    • Do psychological factors influence magistrates' behaviour towards mentally disordered defendants?: An empirical study

      Whittington, Richard; Dawson, Lindsey-Jane (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1996-07)
      The aim of this study was to assess magistrates' knowledge of, and attitudes relating to, mentally disordered defendants / offenders and the effects upon 'disposal' [decision making]. Method: A combined quantitative and qualitative empirical study supported by a literature review was chosen. The research instrument used was a questionnaire distributed to a combined local and national sample of magistrates. The knowledge, attitudes and decisions of the whole sample were analysed and comparisons made according to gender, professional experience and length of service. No effort was made to control the three ' grouping' variables gender, professional experience and length of service. The possible influence of these three 'grouping' variables were considered and analysed. The significance of the 'grouping' variables upon knowledge and attitude were statistically analysed using the Mann Whitney U-test, Kruskal Wallis Test and chi-square test. Qualitative data was used to support the statistical analysis. Results: The level of magistrates' knowledge of the procedure for disposal of mentally disordered defendants/offenders was low. Professional experience did not indicate improved knowledge. Magistrates 'knowledge of other agencies' responsibilities and policies with regard to the mentally disordered defendant were demonstrated to be seriously deficient. Magistrates were shown to have negative attitudes towards mental disorder but a more positive attitude towards the history of mental disorder when considering the disposal of defendants/offenders. Female magistrates and longer serving magistrates were significantly inclined to a more positive attitude towards mentally disordered defendants, giving greater weight to the issue of mental disorder. Magistrates showed variable estimates of the importance of mental disorder in criminal behaviour. Magistrates find facilities and options for the handling and 'disposal' of the mentally disordered in the Magistrates' Court extremely deficient,limited and frustrating. Conclusion: The research has shown that there is in general, poor knowledge and understanding of the main issues associated with mentally disordered defendants/offenders. The study has also demonstrated that these deficiencies adversely affect magistrates' decision making 'disposal', in respect of mentally disordered defendants/offenders. The study has shown that in order to reduce the number of mentally disordered remanded to prison and thus adhere to policy outlined in Home Office circulars 66/90 and 12/95, it is necessary to take steps to improve the knowledge and understanding of the issues related to the mentally disordered defendant/mentally disordered offender for all magistrates.
    • Effective prediction of intercensal population levels

      Ford, Neville J.; Norton, Stewart J. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1999-10)
      This dissertation is concerned with the prediction of population levels for the years following a census until the next census is counted. It reviews standard interpolation and extrapolation tecnhiques, population models and neural networks. The population levels are required by government for allocating money to local authorities for spending on local services. This project was initiated by Chester City Council who consider that an underestimation of the Chester levels is causing a shortfall in the city's allocation of money.
    • The effects of attentional focus on the reliability of exercise regulation in children

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Thompson, Janice (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2000-10)
      Many studies of effort perception in children have focused on physiological mediators; far fewer studies have sought to investigate the psychological factors involved in perceived exertion. This study investigates the influence of a psychological factor, attention on effort perception. More specifically this study endeavours to establish whether an internal focus enables children to be more reliable than an external focus at regulating their exercise output on the basis of their effort perception. Thirty-six children (20 girls and 16 boys) aged between 9-11 years, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; external focus (EF), internal focus (IF) and a control group (CG). Each group received two exercise trials (Tl & T2) seven days apart. On both occasions all subjects were introduced to the 1-10 Children's Effort Elating Table (CERT) and were instructed to produce 3 randomly ordered exercise intensities on a cycle ergometer. These 4 minute bouts corresponded to levels 3, 5 and 7 of the CERT scale, and were interspersed with 2 minute rest periods. Heart rates (HR) and Power outputs (PO) were recorded during the final minute of each level. The variability of these variables was analysed using a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, and their reliability was quantified for each group via interclass (Pearson) and intraclass correlation coefficients and the 95% Limits of Agreement (LoA, expressed as bias +/- 1.96 x Sd diff). A significant two-way interaction (F = 2.602; p<0.05) was observed between groups and across levels for the HR data. Post hoc analysis revealed significant differences between the EF and both the IF and CG at CERT level 3. These findings appear to support the proposal that psychological factors such as attention are more influential at lower intensities, as heart rates for all groups were similar at the higher intensities. No significant differences were observed between groups for the PO data. Whilst the three reliability statistics lend themselves to different interpretations, there does not appear to be a group effect. The results from this study were interpreted in terms of limited attentional focus. However, with no clear group effect in terms of reliability, there appears little advantage in encouraging children to focus their attention internally to aid them in producing a required exercise intensity.
    • An empirical investigation into a manager's learning with respect to stress and burnout among mental health practitioners

      Somerville, David; Sexton, Kenneth John (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1996-07)
      There is growing evidence that nursing is a stressful occupation, particularly mental health nursing. (Nolan 1995). The objective of this dissertation was to assess the degree and nature of occupational stress and burnout in psychiatric nurses. Two questionnaires, The Professional Life Scale, (Fontana 1989), and Are you burning out ? (Freudenberger 1980), were administered to a group of psychiatric nurses, (n=15). The data was supplemented by series of individual qualitative interviews (n=9). Additional statistical data regarding occupational sickness and leaver profiles was also evaluated and integrated into the main research outcomes. Setting - A National Health Service hospital trust, specialising in psychiatry. There were 15 subjects in the quantitative study, representative of nursing staff from acute residential psychiatric admission wards, community psychiatric nurses, and staff from a therapy day hospital. There were five staff from each clinical area involved with the study, which represented approximately 10% of the staff from the clinical areas. Three female and two male staff were randomly selected for each study group. There were nine subjects involved in the qualitative study, two female, and one male from each clinical area. Freudenberger's questionnaire revealed few burnout factors in ward staff, and a low to moderate burnout factor in day hospital and CPN questionnaire respondents. Fontana's questionnaire did not indicate professional stress of any significance in any of the respondent groups but the CPN group scored a relatively higher professional stress factor. A series of qualitative interviews (n=9) confirmed that the outcomes of the quantitative questionnaires were considered by subjects to be a reasonable indicator of stress and burnout. Respondents felt that stress that they encountered was reactionary, not sustained, and normal. Non-occupational stress issues were considered by the staff groups as major influences in potentially creating occupational stress. Other indicators, including low sickness and leaver rates led to a conclusion that the staff groups did not display occupational stress or burnout of any significance. Supervision and training were consistently cited as positive variables in reducing stress and burnout factors, and were professionally valued.
    • An empirical study of anxiety, depression & post-traumatic stress after miscarriage and the implications for counselling

      Mintz, Rita; Gibbon, Kim (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2002-10)
      This research was designed to investigate the effect of miscarriage on the psychological health of women. Two hypotheses are tested. First, that miscarriage produces anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder at rates significantly higher than those found in the general population. Second, that certain life experiences or predisposing factors, when preceding a miscarriage, produce anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder at significantly higher rates than found in women who have not had such an experience. Data was gathered using two standardised and one purpose designed questionnaire. Women who suffered miscarriage were sent the questionnaires one month post miscarriage. A control group of women attending gynaecology outpatient clinics also completed the questionnaires where appropriate. The findings of the research are that there is significant evidence supporting both hypotheses. Miscarriage has a significant impact on the psychological state of women, here looking at anxiety, depression, intrusion and avoidance. Women certainly suffer from post-traumatic distress, and as this is a subset of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), further work may show PTSD to be of significance. There is a complex of predisposing factors which can point to vulnerability to such response, as well as factors which although unrelated might have been expected to be significant. Miscarriage should therefore be taken seriously as a psychological issue by counsellors, health professionals and society in general. Counselling should be offered and note taken of predictors of response, as well as of the individual's context and understanding of their situation. Cognitive concepts may well be important in understanding these psychological responses and in structuring counselling responses.
    • An epidemiological study of injuries during 'Police Mutal Aid Standard' training in the Greater Manchester Police

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Maher, John (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2002-10)
      Background - Greater Manchester Police (GMP) has 6,794 officers most of which receive Police Mutual Aid Standard (PMAS) training. Aim - To collect data on PMAS training injuries, describe the occurrence of injuries and identify possible risk factors. Method - Chi square analysis was used to test 4 hypotheses. Exposure time was taken into account. Hypotheses 1: The injury rate during PMAS training in GMP is different to other forces. Hypotheses 2: Some components of training have a higher incidence of injury than others. Hypotheses 3: Some mechanisms cause more injuries than others. Hypotheses 4: Some parts of the body are more frequently injured than others. Results - During the period 1 April 1999 and 31 December 2001, 10,609 officers were trained and 300 injuries were recorded. There were 0.0118 injuries per day. The difference between injury rates in GMP and other forces was not significant (p = 0.108). There was a highly significant difference in the incidence of injury during different components of training (p < 0.0005). The 'Violent Deranged Person' scenario was the component causing most injuries . The 'Warm Up' had a high incidence of injury considering its nature and purpose. The difference in incidence of injury caused by different mechanisms was highly significant (p < 0.0005). Being struck by missiles was the mechanism causing most injuries. There was a highly significant difference in the number of injuries to different parts of the body (p < 0.0005). The leg and ankle received most injuries. Conclusions - The evidence from this study can be used to guide future injury prevention strategies for PMAS training.