• The acute effects of static-stretching, dynamic exercise and combined warm-up protocols on the speed, agility and muscular power of trained youth rugby union players

      Bailey, Paul (University of Chester, 2008-09-30)
      Several minutes of low intensity aerobic exercise followed by static stretching is typically administered and considered the norm for youth performers. While the active aerobic component of a warm-up has been demonstrated to improve short term, intermediate and long term performance, scientific evidence supporting the performance attributes of warm ups including static stretching are sparse. As a result there has been a growing interest in warm-up procedures that involve dynamic exercise. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine the differing acute effects of a dynamic exercise warm-up with that of a static stretching warm up and a combination warm up (static and dynamic) on the sports specific actions of youth rugby union players; namely speed, agility and muscular power. 20 male youth (age 12-13) rugby union players participated in a Vertical Jump, ‘L run’ and 20 meters sprint after three different warm-up protocols. All sessions were administered in a random order with at least 3 days apart. Before testing, participants performed 5 min of walking/jogging followed by one of the following warm-up protocols: a) six static stretches (2 × 15 s) designed to replicate a typical youth team procedure, or b) ten low to high-intensity dynamic movements (2 × 15 meters), or c) 5 low to high-intensity dynamic movements (2 × 15 meters) interspersed with 5 static stretches for the major muscle groups (2 × 15 s). After each warm-up routine, participants performed the selected tests designed to measure muscular power, speed, and agility. Each subject completed all test with each warm up protocol within 21 days. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that on all tests, except 20 meters sprint , the dynamic exercise warm-up significantly (p <0.017) improved performance over the static stretching and combination protocols. Performance on the 20 meters sprint was significantly improved after the dynamic protocol than after the static but not the combination protocol.The results of this study indicate that pre-event dynamic exercise might be more beneficial than both pre-event static stretching and combination warm up protocols for preparing for performance in youth rugby union players and youth sports of a similar nature.
    • Adjustment to University: Investigating the Effect of Emotional-Cognitive Predictors on Students’ Transition to Higher Education

      Tytherleigh, Michelle; Adams, Stephen (University of Chester, 2017)
      Attending university is acknowledged as a major life transition during which students experience a range of demands and trials, often for the first time and attempting to understand why many fail to thrive is a key area of concern and research. This study used multiple regressions to predict the effect of hope, coping strategies and levels of flourishing on the adjustment to university of 81 first year UK and international students undertaking a variety of courses at the University of Chester’s Foundation School. Findings from this study suggest a significant and positive relationship between students’ active coping strategies and their overall university adjustment, academic adjustment, social adjustment and personal-emotional adjustment though not to students’ attachment to the institution. It was also found that maladaptive coping had a significant negative effect on student adjustment. Hope Agency showed correlations to academic and social adjustment but was subsumed by Coping as a predictor, whilst Hope Pathways and Flourishing showed no significant effect on adjustment.
    • Adolescent girls’ osteoporosis knowledge and understanding with analysis of their current lifestyle choices

      Fallows, Stephen; Savin, Debbie M. K. (University of Chester, 2009-09)
      Adolescent girls especially, need to be aware of the possible onset of osteoporosis in future years so that it’s effects can at least be reduced if not totally prevented. Recently, it has been reported that one out of three adolescent girls had neither heard nor read anything about osteoporosis (Gurney, 2007). The aim of this research was to assess osteoporosis awareness and related behaviors amongst adolescent teenage girls with a view to help prevent osteoporosis occurring in later life. One hundred and forty two female students from a secondary comprehensive school aged 12-16 took part in a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 40 questions and was split into four sections: Section A: An assessment of current osteoporosis knowledge. Section B: An assessment of dietary and physical activity knowledge. Section C: An assessment of current dietary intake for participant. Section D: An assessment of current physical activity for participant. General osteoporosis knowledge, risk factors, prevention, lifestyle behaviors, calcium intake, physical activity, smoking and alcohol intake were central aspects within the questionnaire. The following hypothesis was tested: that adolescent girls have adequate osteoporosis, dietary and physical activity knowledge and understanding (Hi). The null hypothesis (Ho) for this research was therefore given that adolescent girls have inadequate osteoporosis, dietary and physical activity knowledge and understanding. Descriptive statistics, using excel were used to tabulate and analyse the data. Section A focused on osteoporosis knowledge. An average of 31% of questions were answered correctly (mean score of 7 out of 23 correct answers and a standard deviation of 4.4). Section B focused on dietary and physical activity knowledge. An average of 57% of questions were answered correctly (mean score of 10 out of 18 correct answers and a standard deviation of 2.3). Section C focused on an assessment of current dietary intake, most calcium consumption amongst the adolescent girls occurred around one to three times a week which consisted on average of seven to twenty one calcium containing products. The results from section C also showed other products such as cakes, buns, biscuits, pizza, cola and fizzy drinks were consumed amongst adolescent girls most frequently two to three times a month. Overall the results from section C showed that most adolescent girls consume calcium rich products more frequently than the other less healthier portions of food. Section D focused on current physical activity levels, most of the adolescent girls spent two to four times a week participating in physical activity. Adolescent girls mostly tended to spend one to two hours per week and one two hours over the weekend watching the television (a relatively small proportion of their time). One to two hours was spent on homework during the week. Over the weekend one to two hours was also spent on homework. The null hypothesis (Ho) that adolescent girls have inadequate knowledge and understanding of osteoporosis was confirmed as the adolescent girls’ current knowledge of osteoporosis was found to be ‘poor’. Their dietary and physical activity knowledge however, was found to be ‘good’. Overall this research supports the null hypothesis. The average percentage of correct answers in sections A and B was 44% equating to ‘poor’ osteoporosis and related dietary and physical activity knowledge. Adolescent girls were generally unaware of osteoporosis issues and are currently doing moderate exercise and have a moderate consumption of calcium rich food, both of which must be increased to prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis in later life. Targeted education programmes are needed and should be aimed at improving osteoporosis knowledge to affect health beliefs and lifestyle choices in a manner appropriate and appealing to these girls. The National Osteoporosis Society is focusing on secondary education awareness in 2010.
    • Adult reflections on being an ‘only-child’

      Gubi, Peter M.; Fletcher, Caroline (University of Chester, 2014-10)
      This qualitative research project explores the significance that individual counsellors attach to being an ‘only-child’ in terms of their development in childhood, their adult lives and their work as counsellors. The academic literature tends to deal with the advantages and disadvantages of growing up without siblings. Yet, for this researcher, these studies seem to diminish the unique lived experience of individuals and almost to perpetuate stereotypes – even when they seek to challenge existing negative stereotypes by positing new, more favourable stereotypes. Four experienced counsellors were interviewed about the impact that being an onlychild has had – and continues to have – on their lives and were invited to reflect on their own reactions to the stereotypes. My research indicates that the stereotypes bear little relation to the lived-experience of the participants. It also concludes that the process of becoming a counsellor has helped the participants to understand the part that being an only-child has played in the complex picture of their overall development. For all participants, this awareness seems to be an important aspect of their work as counsellors.
    • Aerobic fitness and cardiovascular health profile two years after completion of cardiac rehabilitation

      Buckley, John P.; Padmore, Stephen (University of Chester, 2011-09)
      The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate the impact of a 12 week hospital-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme on long-term aerobic fitness and cardiovascular health two years after completion. Nineteen male and five female participants (mean age 65 years + 2 years) who had completed the CR programme, were randomly recruited to the study. 15 (63%) participants had a diagnosis of MI, 4 (17%) had undergone PCI and 5 (21%) had undergone CABG. The study was a repeated measures design. Participants performed three sub-maximal exercise tests (up to 75% HRmax and/or RPE 12/13) on a cycle ergometer to assess aerobic fitness (determined by work rate in watts and METs achieved) at baseline, end of CR and at two year follow-up. Secondary measures for cardiovascular health profile (including body anthropometrics, HADS score) were also examined. A one-way (Repeated Measures) ANOVA and the Friedman test examined differences at baseline, end of the programme and at two year follow-up. Compared to baseline aerobic fitness improved significantly at the end of CR (p = 0.0005) and at two years (p=0.0005). At two years there was no significant difference in work-rate (p=0.41) or METs achieved (p=0.63) compared to levels at the end of CR, indicating that participants maintained their aerobic fitness. The mean work-rate achieved by participants was 56.9 (+4.0) watts at baseline, 78.8 (+5.5) watts at the end of CR, and 76.8 (+5.2) watts at two years. Median METs achieved were 4.3 METs (IQR = 0.9) at baseline, 5.2 METs (IQR = 1.4) at the end of CR and 5.2 METs (IQR = 1.7) at two years. A 12 week CR programme can lead to positive health behaviours, an improvement in participant’s aerobic fitness and aspects of their cardiovascular health profile, which is maintained two years following completion.
    • The agreement on ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam: The impact of ‘peace with honor’ on the Nixon administration’s foreign policy

      Hughes, Glenn (University of Chester, 2014)
      The aim of this dissertation is to assess the significance of Nixon’s ‘peace with honor’ by evaluating the intentions of the Nixon administration’s foreign policy with regard to ending the Vietnam War. In addition, this dissertation will evaluate how far Nixon’s foreign policies achieved their aims.
    • Airbus international mobility in the U.K.: A case study of how international transfers contribute to global integration

      Page, Steve; Sesmero-Moreno, Enrique (University of ChesterAirbus UK, 2013-06)
      The today’s global market brings with opportunities to many companies to do international business but brings with many challenges in dealing with that complexity; especially in the high competitive global context of the multinationals. To capitalize on those opportunities, multinationals have the imperative need to integrate their operations globally as a source of competitive advantage. Companies have found that people are an essential asset if they want to achieve this integration. As a consequence the job market is experiencing a significant increase of international mobility of the employees. This study will assess the level of understanding about the international employee’s assignment in a global company such Airbus and particularly in one of its subsidiaries: Airbus UK. In exploring the roles and purposes of the expatriates’ activities in Airbus UK, it is the aim of this research to drawn any conclusion about how Airbus strategy to achieve global integration is being effective through the use of international assignments. As some studies indicates more a more multinationals are making use of horizontal mechanism of global coordination such as social architecture, in moving forward beyond the more traditional vertical control over the subsidiaries. This research will be focused on how expatriates are contributing to this social architecture and whether Airbus constitutes a paradigmatic case of the deployment of this capability through the enhancement of the international transfers among its employees. Key findings suggest Airbus is a good example of a multinational firm that consciously uses expatriates to transfer the company culture, common values, beliefs and behavioural norms to different parts of the corporation, in this case Airbus UK. Hence this contributes to the development a more integrated transnational organization. The expatriates have shown that socializing is one of their prime activities in Airbus UK; in doing so they are contributing to build and shared a strong company culture. Therefore it seems that Airbus more than intents to deemphasize national cultures or to replace them, is trying to strength a one global company culture.
    • All Emotions Matter: A Literature-Based Exploration into the Value of Emotions that can have Negative Connotations in Today’s World

      Colam, Veronica (University of Chester, 2019-05)
      This research explores the value of integrating all emotions for well-being, including those that can have negative connotations in today’s world. Contemporary Western culture, possibly influenced by the positive psychology movement, has placed emphasis on the pursuit of happiness. Emotions that may be classified as negative can be rejected, distorted or denied as they may be viewed as undesirable or harmful. This study has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the vital functions that emotions with negative connotations can serve. The basic emotions of anger and sadness are highlighted for closer examination. The study is literature-based using thematic analysis as the qualitative research method. The key findings indicate support for emotions with negative connotations such as anger and sadness making a constructive contribution to the maintenance of healthy, close interpersonal relationships. Influences on how emotions are experienced and expressed are diverse and can include the following: biological, historical, cultural, social and gender role stereotypes. Assertively expressing emotions can be beneficial whereas chronic suppression may be detrimental to health and well-being. The ability to choose flexibly between both expression and suppression of emotions is the most valuable approach, depending on the context, relationship and the individual. The main conclusion drawn from the study is that the experience and expression of emotions that can have negative connotations can contribute to our health and well-being, when used intelligently. This dissertation recommends promoting the potential value of emotions that can have negative connotations through emotional intelligence competencies, emotion regulation and therapy.
    • “All together now”: A sociological investigation into the local deliverance of the Cycling Demonstration Towns Project ‘Cycle Chester’

      Bloyce, Daniel; White, Christopher (University of Chester, 2014-10)
      In 2007 it was announced by Cycling England that Chester was to become a Cycling Demonstration Town (Cycling England, 2010). Rather than the typical English local authority spend on cycling promotion, this meant that Chester would receive a sum of money similar to seemingly pro-cycling cities, such as Amsterdam (DfT, 2008). However there is yet to be an official evaluation of the second round of Cycling Demonstration Towns. This thesis is designed to demonstrate the context of delivering parties in one specific case-study, the Cycling Demonstration Towns Project ‘Cycle Chester’. Fifteen semi-structured interviews explored the views and experiences of various different concerned actors, both inside and outside the core delivery group. The concepts of figurational sociology have been employed to help understand the findings. The principal finding was that the complex figuration in which deliverers were situated meant that the project encountered several unintended outcomes. In addition to this, two key areas were found to have the potential to further complicate the delivery process. Firstly the way in which potential towns and cities were encouraged to apply for funding was found to have large impacts on the project at a later stage. Secondly, and perhaps most importantly, the differing goals of the many groups and individuals who were eventually involved with the project meant that interventions were often ‘watered-down’.
    • ‘Amazed anew’: The Posthuman Dream, the Repetitive System, and Novum Decay in Modern Works of SF

      Stephenson, William; Hay, Jonathan D. (University of Chester, 2018-11-22)
      This study contends that modern texts within the Science Fiction genre can be seen to espouse a posthuman dream, and so to encourage the (post)human reader, viewer, listener, or player to consider the posthuman potentialities of our species’ future in correspondence with their own social present. Modern Science Fiction texts achieve this figurative function through the employment of repetitive systems, through which they prominently depict recognizable elements of the (post)human present within their otherwise radically defamiliarizing posthuman milieu. Therefore, whilst the newnesses within Science Fiction texts have commonly been presumed to be the predominant element of the genre, this study enjoins that the mundane, quotidian or banal elements of the genre are just as vital to its constitution. This radical rereading of the genre is not heedlessly contrarian, but rather comprises an important critical intervention within the fields of Critical Posthumanism and Science Fiction Studies. By arguing that Science Fiction readers phenomenologically experience the nova of the genre decaying in imaginative potency at an intratextual level, this study proposes that the (post)human engagement with the genre is an extension of our species’ penchant to rapidly become entirely habitualized to emerging technologies, despite them originally containing a quality of awe-inspiring novelty. Therefore, the ample ability of readers to become habitualized to the newnesses within the genre exposes the vast imaginative potential of our species, even as it emphasises the absolute reliance of the posthuman future on the (post)human present. As such, through the textual analysis of a range of works published during the last quarter-century, this study asserts than modern works of Science Fiction have a calculated posthuman purpose. To be exact, modern Science Fiction texts invite an understanding that posthuman concerns should be dictated by a number of pressing species-wide concerns of the (post)human present, as opposed to the dictates of any fanciful conception of the future.
    • Analysing the impact of attrition rates in hospitality industry

      Webb, Paul; Mahajan, Sugandha (University of Chester, 2010-11)
      The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of attrition rates in hospitality industry. The study majorly focuses on the increasing employee turnover, its causes and impact. It looks at various methods to improve employee retention in an organisation. Various human resource theories are used to analyse the employee behaviour in an organisation. Literature review gives a background study to this research. It gives information about the previous study that had been done on employee turnover in hospitality industry. This chapter highlights causes and impact of employee turnover, and employee retention as a measure. In research methodology, researcher has cited all the methods and techniques used for this study. Researcher has also given her choice of research methods and its justification. In the next chapter findings and analysis are provided by using appropriate research methods. Analysis is done using semi-structured interviews, classic HR theories and case study. In conclusion part, researcher has concluded her findings from the research and the responses received. The researcher has also given appropriate recommendations based on the research done. Limitations and challenges faced by the researcher are also cited at the end.
    • Analysis of the dietary habits and health and lifestyle characteristics of Trafford Borough residents

      Ellahi, Basma; Charnley, Georgina (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2008)
      Aim: To investigate the health and lifestyle characteristics of a representative sample of Trafford Borough residents (n = 316), using data from a Health and Lifestyle questionnaire, with emphasis on eating behaviour and dietary habits. Design: Previously collected data from a Health and Lifestyle questionnaire designed in conjunction with Trafford PCT was fully analysed to provide a baseline dietary profile of the Trafford residents surveyed, alongside creating an overall picture of current health issues for Trafford as a whole. Results: The responses to the survey have highlighted significant differences in health related behaviours between postcode areas in Trafford. Residents in Firswood and Old Trafford were most likely to consume a poor quality diet and smoke daily (p = 0.001). Respondents from Sale, Brooklands and Ashton-On-Mersey (M33) were least likely to achieve 5-a-day (p = 0.050), and had more residents reporting consuming unsafe amounts of alcohol. Issues such as low levels of physical activity appear to be a health concern for Trafford Borough as a whole. The survey has drawn attention to inequalities between SES and ethnic groups in relation to dietary habits and food security, with Black and Black British residents being most likely to report a lack of money preventing cooking from scratch (p = 0.041). Conclusions: The significant differences in health behaviours between postcode areas in Trafford identify specific areas (M16 and M33) as being priorities for public health initiatives. Lifestyle characteristics such as smoking, alcohol consumption and a sedentary way of life, combined with poor dietary habits correspond with high rates of deaths from heart disease and diabetes incidence reported in the Trafford Health Profile 2007. The survey has shown that over 40 percent of the respondents recognised a need to change their current behaviours and adopt a healthier lifestyle indicating that interventions facilitating those most in need would be well received.
    • An Analysis of the Technical Performance Demands of Elite Female Boxers.

      Thomas, Samuel (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      The aim of this study was to analyse the technical performance demands of elite level female boxing across four different bout outcomes (unanimous win, split win, split loss and unanimous loss). 37 bouts (74 performances) were analysed from the quarter-finals, semi-finals and finals of the 2014 women's world championships. The analysis was conducted using key performance indicators (KPI's), including total punches, types of punch, punch outcome, type of defence and type of exchange. Unanimous winners threw the most punches overall and also in each round independently. Unanimous win and split win were found to throw significantly more very successful punches and successful three punch combinations than both split loss and unanimous loss. The number of exchanges initiated was highest for unanimous win, followed by split win, with unanimous loss initiating the least number of attacks. Although there was no significant difference between unanimous win and split win, the main differences were found to be very successful punches, successful punches, efficiency and individual attacks. The differences between most KPI's was smaller between split win and split loss than unanimous win and unanimous loss. Split winners initiated more exchanges in order to dominate bouts. This study provides a detailed analysis of KPI's across four different bout outcomes (unanimous win, split win, split loss and unanimous loss) and can be used by coaches and athletes in order to assist in the planning of training programmes and informing tactics.
    • ‘And they wonder why Halton’s got issues!’ Focus groups exploring and comparing barriers to accessing healthy and affordable foods, for parents with children under the age of five years, in Runcorn and Widnes (Halton)

      Glazzard, Claire; Birks, Jessica E. (University of Chester, 2016)
      Objective: To explore, compare and suggest improvements for the barriers to accessing healthy and affordable foods, for parents living in areas of high deprivation. Design: Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with all participants, to discuss any barriers they had experienced. Focus groups were audio recorded and lasted approximately 1 hour. Transcripts were written verbatim and common themes were formulated, using thematic analysis, to identify the key barriers for participants. Setting: Two low income areas within Halton, UK; Windmill Hill (Runcorn) and Hough Green (Widnes). Subjects: 13 mothers with at least one child under the age of five years old (average age of 32 years). The majority of subjects were unemployed and held a full UK-driving licence. Results: Four key themes and two sub-themes were identified: (1) ‘High cost to access healthy food locally (with the sub-theme ‘Short-shelf life of healthy food locally’); (2) ‘Children and family situation’ (with the sub-theme ’Access to budget shops’); (3) ‘Dominance of unhealthy food vs healthy food’ and (4) ‘Inadequate support/guidance with healthy diet’. These applied to both areas, with few differences between the localities noted within themes, of which are discussed. Conclusions: The main findings suggest that this sample of parents within Halton do experience barriers to accessing healthy, affordable food and thus are at risk of the consequences of poor nutrition. Understanding these barriers will help counteract this risk, in that recommendations can be made to inform relevant public health policy and improve the situation for Halton residents.
    • The Angry Couple: A Qualitative Exploration of how Couple Counsellors Experience being Affected by Working with Conflict

      Haywood, Carola (University of Chester, 2014-05)
      This small scale qualitative study explores an aspect of counselling that textbooks describe as often challenging for the counsellor, that of counselling an angry couple. The particular focus of this study is the experiences and meanings of counsellors who have identified that this aspect of their counselling work has had an impact upon them. Data was collected from five experienced counsellors, using semi-structured interviews. This was analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Five main themes emerged, these being labelled: childhood experiences, the disrupted self, a responsibility to manage, managing the impact and the developed self. The findings are consistent with the limited literature available and offer a valuable insight into the voice of the counsellor, a perspective that has been the subject of sparse research. The study indicated that counsellor discomfort with anger within the counselling room was frequently related to childhood experience within the family of origin. The analysis found that client anger commonly resulted in physical sensations in the counsellor, and that although experience moderated the feelings of anxiety experienced by the novice counsellor, some anxiety or discomfort continued to be present. Counsellors could also occasionally experience difficult feelings related to their own unresolved conflict or doubt. The results suggest that perceiving couple conflict heightens the counsellor’s sense of responsibility, which fuels a need to contain the emotional impact within the room and to hold the self of the counsellor safely in the face of emotionally strong forces. Managing the impact upon the self of the counsellor can continue after the session with the couple. In the long term however, the work can lead to both professional and personal growth. The relevance of the study outcomes to supervision, training and counsellors’ understanding of their own relationship with anger is discussed.
    • The Application of Lyapunov Method for the Investigation of Global Stability of Some Population and Epidemiology Models

      Bate, Sara (University of Chester, 2015)
      The primary purpose of this thesis is to determine the global behaviour of some population and epidemiology models through the application of Lyapunov functions. Using Lyapunov functions and applying these to mathematical models of ODE systems representing different predator-prey models, we were able to determine global assymptotic stability for their equilibrium points. Similarly, for the investigation into the stability of epidemiological models, we were able to analyse various SIRS, SIR, SIS and SEIR models to also conclude global assymptotic stability by implementing the Lyapunov direct method. We then continue our investigation by the application of Lyapunov functions to PDE systems representing reaction-diffusion systems of various predator-prey and epidemiological models. We have also been able to conclude global assymptotic stability for their corresponding equilibriums in these cases. We then proceeded to create our own reaction-diffusion system from a previously constructed ODE system and have been able to prove that for both cases they have a globally assymptotically stable endemic equilibrium.
    • The application of regression based normative profiling for international male Taekwondo performance

      Thomson, Edd; Milligan, Matthew (University of Chester, 2014-09-30)
      The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive accuracy of two regression based normative profiling methodologies (O’Donoghue & Cullinane, 2011; 2- Nonparametric regression) for the assessment of elite male Taekwondo performance. Following ‘inter-operator’ reliability analysis, retrospective performance data (319 performance indicators; 167 matches) was used for forty-eight elite senior male Taekwondo athletes (<58kg - <80kg) during participation across 22 major competitions between 2010 and 2013. The world rankings of all athletes were converted into relative quality ratings (RQ), with an RQ differential calculated for all respective matches. A Chi-Square χ2 test of independence was employed to identify the existence of a significance association between relative quality and match outcome. All data was then subjected to either Pearson’s r (O’Donoghue & Cullinane, 2011) or Kendall’s Tau (τ) (Non-Parametric regression) correlation analysis, where the performance indicators (n=34) deemed to bear the most meaningful relationships with relative quality were then included within the both profiling methodologies. The ‘standard error of estimate’ (SEE) and SEE% values were computed for all performance indicators and subjected to both Mann Whitney-U and binomial testing comparisons, from which the most accurate method was recruited to analyse a selected athlete. A Chi-square test of independence identified the validity of including relative quality within regression based performance profiling (χ2; P < .01). Non-parametric regression was found to exhibit moderately superior mean SEE and SEE% values, in addition to superior SEE and SEE% values for a greater proportion of the performance indicators of interest. It was concluded that non-parametric regression offered an advance upon previous profiling methodologies for the assessment of elite male Taekwondo performance.
    • The application of the 'COPED' theoretical framework model: A case study

      Whitehead, Paul (University of ChesterBusinessLiverpool, 2006-06)
      This dissertation has reviewed the past and present literature relating to business collaboration and partnerships, with particular reference to public-private sector joint ventures, to gain an insight into the barriers to success and an understanding of what methods have been recommended to overcome them. The evidence suggested that joint ventures partnerships, whilst increasing in popularity, are complex organisations that face many obstacles and are difficult to manage. However, little empirical research has been conducted into the application of a framework of best practice that might contribute towards the success of such partnership arrangements, despite the general consensus that a high proportion of them will encounter difficulties and ultimately fail. The work of Trafford and Proctor (2006) examined the important characteristics that go hand-in-hand with successful public-private joint venture partnerships and presented a theoretical model (COPED), which identified five key characteristics, which they argued, may be considered influential to their success. This led to the research question; Can a theoretical model of joint venture best practice be successfully applied in a case study situation? This research applied the principals of the 'COPED' model, to the case study of a recently formed public-private joint venture partnership (BusinessLiverpool), in an attempt to test its effectiveness at identifying emerging problems and thus enable timely and effective remedial action to be taken. The research strategy adopted a multi-method approach, through the use of survey and case study techniques and using a combination of semi-structured interviews to collect the qualitative data and a questionnaire to collect the quantitative data. Results obtained from the data analysis indicated a range off issues and opportunities evident within the case study organisation and also provided additional characteristics to that of the COPED model that may also be considered as important to the success of such partnerships. The theoretical model was therefore successfully applied, in that, the framework enabled a comprehensive analysis of staff perceptions and attitudes towards the characteristics viewed as important to the success of a joint venture partnership. As a result, a number of recommendations have been made to remedy the current situation and a checklist for future successful joint venture partnerships has been proposed.
    • An appraisal of judging criteria in relation to performance in elite male amateur boxing

      Thomson, Edd; Latham, James (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      This study intended to appraise the features of the judging criteria of elite amateur boxing and determine the impact such features have on unanimous and split contest outcomes. Appraising eight offensive actions and their outcomes, the technical demands of open-class boxing from 93 male boxers (age: 24.4 ± 3.3 y; height: 176.1 ± 10.5 cm; body mass: 65.8 ± 12.9 kg) during 87 bouts of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and 2017 World Amateur Boxing Championships were notated using computerized software. A 3 (round) x 4 (outcome) repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc statistical analyses were adopted. Twenty-five performance parameters differed between unanimous winners and losers, but only four between split winners and losers. Unanimous winners landed more punches than unanimous losers in total (P = 0.002) and in round 1, 2 and 3 (all P = 0.000). They also landed a higher percent of very successful punches than unanimous losers in total (P = 0.001) and in round 1 (P = 0.005), 2 (P = 0.027) and 3 (P = 0.02). Unanimous losers threw a greater percentage of air punches than unanimous winners per bout (P = 0.000) and in round 1 (P = 0.006), 2 (0.000) and 3 (P = 0.002). Unanimous winners landed a greater percentage of straight, hook, and uppercut punches thrown with the lead hand (P = 0.007, 0.000 and 0.049 respectively) and straight punches thrown with the rear hand (P = 0.003) than unanimous losers. Split winners landed a greater percentage of total punches than split losers in round 1 (P = 0.006) and 3 (P = 0.047). Judges use several performance indicators to assess superiority between boxers, albeit the technical disparity between split winners and losers is marginal compared to unanimous winners versus losers. This study proposes that the number of punches landed, punch accuracy and technical and tactical superiority all have an important influence during unanimous outcomes, but when judges are split on choosing the winner of a contest, only punch accuracy separates the two boxers.
    • An appraisal of the 7P's of marketing in respect of building surveying

      Rajkhowa, Gautam; Houghton, Gary (University of Chester, 2007-05)
      The key to long-term profitability for any professional is the creation of a service that states the needs and wants of one's clients and facilitates the exchange of those services in such a manner that provides value and satisfaction to the client. One creates these services through the combination and blend of a set of tools that are referred to as the marketing mix. We define the marketing mix as a set of controllable, tactical marketing tools that the firm blends to provide the result it wants in the target market. It might be useful to use an analogy of a combination lock. In a typical combination lock, you need to know the pattern of three numbers to successfully open the lock. In marketing a firm's services, we attempt to take everything that the firm can do to influence the demand for its services and organise them in such a manner that best meets the needs, wants and desires of the customer. Many combinations are possible with marketing's controllable varables, know as the seven P's. These P's are product, price, place, promotion, physical evidence, processes and people (Kotler & Armstrong 2001). Marketing has an important role to play as the organisation's interface with the environment. It is a "boundary-spanning organisational function through its constant interface with the external environment at large and with customers, competitors and channel members in particular" (Varadarajan 1992), as well as with the various groups within the organisation. The key role attributed to the marketing function is as a tool designed to maximise efficiency. Marketing has been very reluctantly adopted as a management tool by the professions. This dissertation addresses how the 7Ps framework can be applied to professional services given the intensity and complexity of environmental pressures they have been subjected. The research has focused on an appraisal of the 7 Ps when applied to several Building Surveying firms based in both United Kingdom and Brisbane Australia. The findings indicate that change within the building surveying profession only takes place if subjected to contingency pressures by their clients and, in general, it is slowed down due to the barriers of the profession itself. The study has revealed that building surveyors are torn between the pressures of change and the need for respectability and maintenance of the status quo. The adoption of the 7 P's of the marketing mix has been proven to be a powerful driver for change in terms of initiating and leading the marketing process. The review of perceptions of the concept and role of marketing within professional service firms has revealed generational differences, misconceptions and outright conflict leading to resistance to adopt the 7P"s framework in terms of its introduction and application, although professionals have individually practiced a wide variety of marketing activities in their pursuit of gaining and maintaining clients. There has been conspicuous resistance to the acceptance of marketing as a management tool across the building surveying professional service organisations. Understanding on how marketing has being practiced within the professional organisation researched has been considered important in establishing the nature of the response to contingency and institutional forces. The research has been focused on the level of importance given to marketing as a strategic tool as opposed to the traditional tactical, communications mainly tool.