• All Emotions Matter: A Literature-Based Exploration into the Value of Emotions that can have Negative Connotations in Today’s World

      Colam, Veronica (University of Chester, 2019-05)
      This research explores the value of integrating all emotions for well-being, including those that can have negative connotations in today’s world. Contemporary Western culture, possibly influenced by the positive psychology movement, has placed emphasis on the pursuit of happiness. Emotions that may be classified as negative can be rejected, distorted or denied as they may be viewed as undesirable or harmful. This study has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the vital functions that emotions with negative connotations can serve. The basic emotions of anger and sadness are highlighted for closer examination. The study is literature-based using thematic analysis as the qualitative research method. The key findings indicate support for emotions with negative connotations such as anger and sadness making a constructive contribution to the maintenance of healthy, close interpersonal relationships. Influences on how emotions are experienced and expressed are diverse and can include the following: biological, historical, cultural, social and gender role stereotypes. Assertively expressing emotions can be beneficial whereas chronic suppression may be detrimental to health and well-being. The ability to choose flexibly between both expression and suppression of emotions is the most valuable approach, depending on the context, relationship and the individual. The main conclusion drawn from the study is that the experience and expression of emotions that can have negative connotations can contribute to our health and well-being, when used intelligently. This dissertation recommends promoting the potential value of emotions that can have negative connotations through emotional intelligence competencies, emotion regulation and therapy.
    • The influence of the position of the lower jaw on human performance in athletes

      Haughey, John (University of Chester, 2019-03-04)
      Mouth guards are widely used by athletes for the protection of the orofacial region from trauma during training and competition. A mouth guard will change the position of the lower jaw of the athlete when worn. This literature review looked at the findings of current research on the effect of mouth guard use on athletic performance. Studies which investigated the possibility of a negative impact on performance from wearing a mouth guard generally concluded that there is no negative impact on performance. Some other studies suggested there is no impact on performance with mouth guard use in sport and a larger number of studies observed positive influences on performance. The position of the lower jaw during mouth guard use in comparison to wearing no mouth guard is the common reason given for the positive improvement observed in performance. There is a lack of consensus in the current research of the mechanism or connection between lower jaw position and performance. This literature review raises the question, does the position of the lower jaw affect human performance?
    • “Some are gay, some are straight, no one actually cares as long as you’re there to play hockey”: Women’s field hockey players’ engagement with sexual identity discourses

      McEvilly, Nollaig; Whitehouse, Lauren E (University of Chester, 2019-02-13)
      This research investigates the discourses that have impacted recreational women’s hockey players’ perspectives and experiences surrounding sexual identity. Furthermore, the participants’ engagement with sexual identity discourses and through what discursive practices and disciplinary techniques sexual identities became dominant or alternative is examined. The experiences of and towards non-heterosexual sportspeople is a developing area of research, though little research focuses on recreational level sport that is not identified as a ‘gay sport space’. This study contributes to sexuality and sport research by investigating a recreational women’s team which is not restricted to the ‘gay sport space’ label to develop understandings of the dynamics and complexities that sexual identity discourses have on both heterosexual and non-heterosexual sportspeople. A poststructural, Foucaultian theoretical framework underpins this study with the utilisation of Foucault’s work on discourses, techniques of power and the technologies of the self. Data is generated from semi-structured interviews with seven hockey players, who discuss their experiences regarding sexual identity at Castle Ladies Hockey Club. By analysing the participants’ talk through discourse analysis, discourses of acceptance and inclusivity towards non-heterosexual identities are found. Firstly, non-heterosexual identities are regarded as ‘normal’, secondly, the focus was on if the player was a good team player rather than sexual identity, and thirdly, there was an increased acceptance of sexual fluidity leading to decreased tolerance towards homophobia. This research highlights that players engage with multiple discourses associated with sexual identity, often complexly. This raises questions surrounding the dominance of heteronormativity, as non-heterosexual identities are not presented as marginal.
    • Sugar Reduction in Sponge Cakes: Physical and Sensory Properties of Sponge Cake with Sugar Alternatives - Maltitol /Steviol glycosides/Polydextrose/ Inulin

      Li, Weili; Mao, Kuangqi (University of Chester, 2019-01-31)
      Challenges in reducing sugar in foods have been serious global issues as an excessive intake of sugar causes negative effects on human health, even though sugar plays a key role in the structural and sensory attributes of food products. Therefore, it is urgent for food industries to find an alternative to reduce the sugar content of foods without any noticeable effect, such as using sugar replacements to substitute the role of sugar in high-sugar foods. The first aim of this study was to verify the function of sugar in sponge cakes. The second was to compare the effects between sugar and sugar alternatives on sponge cakes in order to explore feasible sugar replacements. In current study, the effects of sugar on physical properties of sponge cake and batter were first studied in terms of different concentrations. Then the effects of replacement by maltitol, polydextrose, inulin and steviol glycosides were extensively studied using the same concentrations with regarding to sugar. Batter viscosity and specific gravity were analysed before baking. Cake physical properties were also studied through image analysis, specific gravity, height, weight loss and firmness. In addition, sensory testing was also carried out to explore the feasible sugar replacement. Experimental results showed that sugar truly exerted crucial functions in cakes manufacture, like increasing the batter viscosity and the cake volume. Significant improvement in physical properties of cakes, especially in terms of specific gravity and specific volume, can be found as the sugar level reached by 140% (P<0.05). In regard to sugar-free sponge cakes, best results in physical properties can be obtained from cakes elaborated with maltitol when the containing level was 140%. Compared with sugar, closest results can be achieved by maltitol due to the similar structure and properties. Meanwhile, cakes elaborated with maltitol got the highest overall liking level in sensory evaluation. Cakes with polydextrose showed a relatively worse performance in physical property testing and sensory evaluation due to the weaker bulking function and sweetness of polydextrose. However, the addition of steviol glycosides can improve the sensory properties to some extent. In addition, inulin appeared to be unfeasible to replace sugar according to the result obtained in this study because it led to the lowest quality of sponge cakes in physical properties or sensory attributes.
    • A qualitative exploration of therapists’ experience of working therapeutically pre-trial within the Crown Prosecution Service guidelines with adult clients who have reported sexual violence

      Kiyimba, Nikki; Nixon, Madelyn A. (University of Chester, 2019-01-24)
      This research is one of the first qualitative studies to explore the lived experience of therapists who were working pre-trial, within the Crown Prosecution Service guidelines with adult clients who had reported sexual assault. The aim of the study was to obtain a detailed account of the therapists’ experience in order to acquire a deeper understanding of how the participants created meaning from their practice. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis was chosen as an appropriate approach to analyse the data gathered. Semi-structured interviews took place with six therapists. Upon analysis five super-ordinate themes emerged which were, i) the differences between pre-trial therapy and generic therapy, ii) the psychological impact of working with this client group, iii) the complexity of the work, and competency of the therapists, iv) the dilemmas and conflicts inherent in the work, and v) an expression of a loss of faith in the Criminal Justice System. These findings illustrated the complexities that therapists are faced with when working with clients’ pre-trial. A discussion is provided relating to the extensive research that has been carried out since the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) guidelines were written in 2001 into the fallibility of memory following a traumatic incident, and the developments that have taken place in therapeutic techniques. In light of recent research and developments in therapy, it is suggested that there is potentially an argument for the need for a review and update into the current CPS guidelines into the provision of therapy for vulnerable or intimidated adults prior to trial. It is also recommended that further research is needed into whether the fallibility of memory following a traumatic incident improves after the person has undertaken an appropriate evidence-based trauma-specific treatment, and the possible need for a central register of therapists that are qualified to offer pre-trial therapy.
    • Digital marketing and young consumers: A framework for effective digital marketing communications

      Maheshwari, Vish; Morris, Bethan (University of Chester, 2019-01-22)
      Children in contemporary society are an important and lucrative consumer segment (Haryanto, Moutinho, & Coelho, 2016). They have both individual spending power, and significant influence over the purchase decisions of their parents and carers (Calvert, 2008). Brands have recognised the business benefits of engaging with consumers at an early age in order to develop profitable lifelong consumer relationships (Hamelin, Gbadamosi, & Peters, 2018) Developments in online communications, especially since the emergence of Web 2.0, has enabled businesses to build a presence in an interactive and co-creative online environment (Ryan, 2014). In the UK, consumer use of interactive technologies is pervasive. Smartphone penetration in the UK in 2016 was 81 per cent (Deloitte, 2016). The Consumerisation of ICT is particularly visible in children, born since 2000 who have grown up in the interactive era of Web 2.0 (Carter, Bennett Thatcher, Applefield, & McAlpine, 2011). 99 per cent of UK families have internet access in their home (ONS, 2016) and 83 per cent of 5 to 15 year olds have access to a mobile ICT device in their household. It is estimated that one third of all online users are below the age of 18 (Livingstone, Carr, & Byrne, 2016). Young consumers therefore have access multiple channels for communication and engagement with peers, family, and businesses. At a time when children have become proficient navigators of the online marketplace there is a real importance for marketers to understand how to communicate effectively with this segment (Thiachon, 2017). Children have been recognised as a distinguishable consumer segment since the mid-twentieth century. The study of children’s consumer socialisation emerged during the 1970s (Roedder John, 1999). In the years following, academic understanding of consumer socialisation has influenced government policy in areas of public health and child welfare, as well as influencing the self-regulation of marketing and advertising practice (Jordan, 2008). The body of existing research is predominantly focused on these areas rather than how marketers can effectively communicate with young consumers. Studies that do focus on marketing communications have done so by examining practices in relation to brand loyalty and trust (Haryanto, Manuela, & Moutinho, 2015 ; Haryanto, Moutinho, & Arnaldo, 2016). Although they provide recommendations that highlight the importance of these concepts in developing communications with young consumers, they do not identify the types of approaches to employ in order to achieve these relationships with consumers. As public policy concerns provided the impetus for research in this area, it is unsurprising that there is a concentration of research investigating the influence of marketing communications on young consumers within the context of public health. Children in this context are positioned passive and vulnerable members of society (Haefner, 1975; Roedder John, 1999; Calvert, 2008; Sramová & Pavelka, 2017). Although this approach is valid and provides valuable insights, academic understanding of young consumers would be limited if research was generated only from this perspective. This study will aim to address this gap in understanding, acknowledging that children have expanded their roles within the family as purchase influencers and independent purchase decision makers. The research will examine current Digital Marketing Communication (DMC) practices employed by brands whose products are aimed at young consumers. For the purposes of providing research focus, children are defined as individuals aged 17 and under.
    • The Intrusive Supernatural: Disruptions to Order in Nineteenth-Century Society

      Moss, Ethan J. (University of Chester, 2018-11-28)
      The Nineteenth Century was an era of frequent change, making Victorian identity increasingly difficult to identify as the divisions in society splintered the various forms of religious, political and social beliefs of the British public. Within the shadows of all these changes lurked a frequent motif of supernatural intrusion, inserting some form of superstitious element into the multiple aspects of Victorian living. This additional supernatural attribute contributed to the convoluted nature of Victorian existence, destabilising the realities and the perceptions of the social order through a paradoxical age of both rationalism and superstition. This work will aim to identify the uses of the intrusive supernatural concept in nineteenth-century literature and culture, as well as the consequences that follow its incorporation. The essay will establish the habits of the intrusive supernatural and determine whether it exists as a product or cause of the changes to nineteenth-century life. Subsequently the essay shall seek to explore the relationship between the supernatural and disruptions to the supposed natural order of Victorian society. The research into this subject will involve the exploration of both metaphorical and literary uses of the supernatural, as well as the genuine attempts to confront supernatural phenomena in Victorian culture.
    • ‘With whom shall I identify?’: Nineteenth-Century Representations of Parental Influences and Adolescent Identity Formation

      Ravenscroft, Michelle D. (University of Chester, 2018-11-26)
      This inter-disciplinary research considers cultural influences, such as religion and education, on adolescent identity formation and parental role-models in nineteenth-century texts. Definitions and representations of constructed identities are explored in relation to the influence of cultural factors using twentieth-century psychological, sociological and psychiatric theories surrounding adolescent and parental identity. Representations of adolescent experiences and parental influences within the home and society reflect changing attitudes towards shifting gender boundaries throughout the century. The conflict of changing family dynamics, in relation to parental roles and authority, are also considered with regards to how these influence the adolescent during this critical life-stage. The conflict and crisis involved in the process of adolescent identity formation is linked to the need for the adolescent to identify with a successful role-model. The analysis of representations of socially constructed role-models in the nineteenth-century suggests there are many factors that determine the success or failure of an adopted identity. This research supports the theory that the concept of a problematic adolescence is not borne out of the inability of adolescents to form an identity, rather the inability of nineteenth-century parents to provide a stable, positive and successful role-model, and the adolescent’s increasing awareness of this instability and their need for an individual identity. Representations support the argument that the growing pressure of individual responsibility for life-choices throughout the nineteenth century also increases the conflict and crisis of the adolescent experience and creates an adolescent desire for autonomy to realise their full potential.
    • ‘Amazed anew’: The Posthuman Dream, the Repetitive System, and Novum Decay in Modern Works of SF

      Stephenson, William; Hay, Jonathan D. (University of Chester, 2018-11-22)
      This study contends that modern texts within the Science Fiction genre can be seen to espouse a posthuman dream, and so to encourage the (post)human reader, viewer, listener, or player to consider the posthuman potentialities of our species’ future in correspondence with their own social present. Modern Science Fiction texts achieve this figurative function through the employment of repetitive systems, through which they prominently depict recognizable elements of the (post)human present within their otherwise radically defamiliarizing posthuman milieu. Therefore, whilst the newnesses within Science Fiction texts have commonly been presumed to be the predominant element of the genre, this study enjoins that the mundane, quotidian or banal elements of the genre are just as vital to its constitution. This radical rereading of the genre is not heedlessly contrarian, but rather comprises an important critical intervention within the fields of Critical Posthumanism and Science Fiction Studies. By arguing that Science Fiction readers phenomenologically experience the nova of the genre decaying in imaginative potency at an intratextual level, this study proposes that the (post)human engagement with the genre is an extension of our species’ penchant to rapidly become entirely habitualized to emerging technologies, despite them originally containing a quality of awe-inspiring novelty. Therefore, the ample ability of readers to become habitualized to the newnesses within the genre exposes the vast imaginative potential of our species, even as it emphasises the absolute reliance of the posthuman future on the (post)human present. As such, through the textual analysis of a range of works published during the last quarter-century, this study asserts than modern works of Science Fiction have a calculated posthuman purpose. To be exact, modern Science Fiction texts invite an understanding that posthuman concerns should be dictated by a number of pressing species-wide concerns of the (post)human present, as opposed to the dictates of any fanciful conception of the future.
    • The relationship between the living and the dead - Contemporary interaction and deposition at mortuary sites as Intangible Cultural Heritage? How this illustrates collective memories and identities in North Wales

      Williams, Howard; Capper, Morn; Bound, Scott L. (University of Chester, 2018-10-10)
      The way in which the living interact with the past in the contemporary is ever-changing. New mortuary practices and forms of commemoration are formed by different groups and cultures, expressing the way in which they perceive death and so life. This interaction can be studied through the contemporary depositions and archaeological evidence left at sites, however, this has seen little coverage heritage and mortuary studies. Given the recent acknowledgement of intangible cultural heritage as an existing element of society within British heritage management these practices that exemplify interaction with ancestral, national or collective memories and identities could be protected or promoted by governing bodies. This thesis therefore aims to highlight such contemporary practices by giving close study to the three mortuary sites that experience this in North Wales, and the forms of intangible heritage that become evident from this. Bryn Celli Ddu passage tomb in Anglesey; Gelert's Grave fictitious dog grave in Snowdonia; and St Winefride's Well site of pilgrimage in Holywell all illustrate these practices, illustrating differing cultural group's formation of memory and identity in the process. By utilising the work on heritage established by Smith on authorised heritage discourses and outstanding universal value, and Houlbrook and Wallis' research on contemporary depositions this thesis expands on the already established, yet young, discourses, providing new information on a particular context within the United Kingdom. This thesis successfully highlights this, illustrates their importance as contemporary expressions and forms of heritage, and briefly sees the function of these within British governance.
    • The effect of beetroot juice on intermittent shuttle running performance involving different numbers of directional changes

      Highton, Jamie; Francis, Ben (University of Chester, 2018-10-01)
      The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to submaximal shuttle running and performance during intermittent shuttle running involving different numbers of directional changes. Eight male recreational team sport athletes (age: 22.6 ± y, body mass: 79.4 ± 4.4 kg, stature: 179.4 ± 5.4 cm, predicted VO2max: 48.5 ± 4,1 ml·kg·-1·min·-1) completed submaximal shuttle running at 60% of their predetermined VO2peak and intermittent shuttle running to exhaustion over a 20 m course or a 10 m course involving more directional changes. Participants performed each protocol twice across four trials; once following the ingestion of NO3 - concentrated beetroot juice 2.5 h before exercise and once following the ingestion of NO3 - depleted beetroot juice. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and time to exhaustion during intermittent shuttle running were assessed. Increasing the number of directional changes increased the VO2 and HR response to submaximal shuttle running (p < 0.05). However, NO3 - did not affect blood pressure, the physiological responses to submaximal exercise or performance during intermittent shuttle running (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that increasing the number of directional changes during shuttle running elevates the physiological and metabolic demand, but that NO3 - does not impact upon the physiological responses or performance during submaximal and intermittent shuttle running.
    • An appraisal of judging criteria in relation to performance in elite male amateur boxing

      Thomson, Edd; Latham, James (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      This study intended to appraise the features of the judging criteria of elite amateur boxing and determine the impact such features have on unanimous and split contest outcomes. Appraising eight offensive actions and their outcomes, the technical demands of open-class boxing from 93 male boxers (age: 24.4 ± 3.3 y; height: 176.1 ± 10.5 cm; body mass: 65.8 ± 12.9 kg) during 87 bouts of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and 2017 World Amateur Boxing Championships were notated using computerized software. A 3 (round) x 4 (outcome) repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc statistical analyses were adopted. Twenty-five performance parameters differed between unanimous winners and losers, but only four between split winners and losers. Unanimous winners landed more punches than unanimous losers in total (P = 0.002) and in round 1, 2 and 3 (all P = 0.000). They also landed a higher percent of very successful punches than unanimous losers in total (P = 0.001) and in round 1 (P = 0.005), 2 (P = 0.027) and 3 (P = 0.02). Unanimous losers threw a greater percentage of air punches than unanimous winners per bout (P = 0.000) and in round 1 (P = 0.006), 2 (0.000) and 3 (P = 0.002). Unanimous winners landed a greater percentage of straight, hook, and uppercut punches thrown with the lead hand (P = 0.007, 0.000 and 0.049 respectively) and straight punches thrown with the rear hand (P = 0.003) than unanimous losers. Split winners landed a greater percentage of total punches than split losers in round 1 (P = 0.006) and 3 (P = 0.047). Judges use several performance indicators to assess superiority between boxers, albeit the technical disparity between split winners and losers is marginal compared to unanimous winners versus losers. This study proposes that the number of punches landed, punch accuracy and technical and tactical superiority all have an important influence during unanimous outcomes, but when judges are split on choosing the winner of a contest, only punch accuracy separates the two boxers.
    • Nutrition and Golf performance

      Robinson, Michael (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      Nutrition in Golf is a relatively new area of research with only a small amount of published studies. Golf nutrition is distinct from other sports primarily due to the variable conditions faced by players over an extended period of time. Despite that only a low to moderate exercise intensity is maintained, players are required to make multiple maximal velocity swings requiring high level motor skill whilst cognitive functioning is challenged through decision making on every shot, often under intense pressure. Caffeine supplementation has been the most investigated topic with findings of improved performance in certain areas of the game such as driving and putting whilst fatigue appeared to be attenuated towards the end of a round. Dehydration has been shown to be prevalent even in the elite amateur game with a significant decline in a range of performance variables found with only mild-dehydration. Carbohydrate consumption has been shown to prevent the decline in blood glucose experienced over a round, however an optimal consumption protocol has not been established. Future research should further investigate nutritional techniques to offset the physical and mental challenges arising over a round of golf.
    • A Comparison of the Characteristic Traits of Learning Theories in the Three Synoptic Gospels by Thematic Narrative Analysis

      Middleton, Paul; Thackray, Gordon J. (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      Many writers have discussed aspects of pedagogy in connection with the books of the New Testament but few have related pedagogical elements observable in the Gospels to current theories of how people learn and the consequent teaching methods. I perform, here, a thematic narrative analysis of the synoptic gospel texts, with the focus of contemporary approaches to learning and teaching. The project aims to identify traits of pedagogic themes throughout these gospels, with a view to establishing if it is appropriate to describe any of them as characterised by one or other of the commonly recognised theories of learning. While such a characterisation is not expected to be perfect across any one Synoptic, it could prove possible to demonstrate sufficient correlation with some theoretical learning model to argue that the gospel is typified by that pedagogy. This thesis also compares and contrasts the three synoptic gospels, in respect of their emphasis on those themes. The thesis outlines the salient features of the currently prominent learning and teaching approaches and considers the applicability of each model to this investigation. The three approaches found most useful for the analysis are: that referred to as behaviourism in teaching; a cognitive, constructivist pedagogic model; and the strongly situated learning theory. The synoptic gospels are examined for aspects of those themes, where possible, as a series of parallel passages, each regarded as a bounded text segment. Special Lukan material is also considered, separately. Any reader’s interpretation of such a narrative is constructed from within their own pre-existing framework for understanding it. My reading of the Gospels here is, therefore, a personal response to the text, which has arisen from my experience working in adult education and training. The conclusion of this work is that all three synoptic gospels exhibit textual features corresponding to a specific teaching and learning model sufficiently consistently to regard them as substantially informed by it. Furthermore, the Synoptics each exemplify a different pedagogical approach. Matthew’s gospel portrays a predominantly behaviourist pedagogy, the Gospel of Mark a generally cognitivist, constructivist approach to learning and teaching and Luke the characteristics of a strongly situative learning theory. It is anticipated that the comparison presented here will provide a new contribution to the discussion of the differences between the otherwise parallel accounts evident within the first three gospels.
    • 'Established in the fields of Great Britain': How can the study of dress further our understanding of the relationship between landscape, culture and identity? 1830 to the present

      Andrew, Rebecca; Brown, Jessica (University of Chester, 2018-09-20)
      This dissertation will explore how the study of dress can develop our understanding of the historic relationship between landscape, culture and identity in Britain from 1840 to the present. To do so, it will demonstrate how the growing social and cultural significance of rural landscapes, and their role within developing constructions of national identity were frequently reflected in changing styles of dress. Interdisciplinary in approach, this dissertation will weave together theories from the fields of history, cultural geography, sociology, dress and fashion studies to explore - through the lens of dress - how the rural landscape was understood and experienced. It will therefore be argued that the study of dress is a powerful analytical tool for the landscape historian, seeking to examine the social and cultural significance of past landscapes, and their role within constructions of national identity.
    • Soldier Endurance and the First World War Trench Press

      Craggs, Neal (University of Chester, 2018-09-19)
      Soldiers in the First World War, began publishing trench journals shortly after the German and Allied Armies entrenched along the Western Front. Although, they were not limited to the Western Front, and by the end of the war were present in many theatres. They were of varying quality, sometimes printed, sometimes hand-drawn. They constitute a unique collection of literature, poetry, and journalism, and give voice to a culture that, however briefly, emerged in the trenches of the Great War, and vanished with the signing of peace. These journal provide exceptional insight into the lives and thoughts of the inhabitants of the trenches. They are by no means a flawless historical source. They were subject to censorship, both official and self-imposed; the soldiers who wrote them were undoubtedly, in some ways, prejudiced and ignorant; they were written for an audience whose interests were particular and restrictive. Therefore, the soldier newspapers do not provide a comprehensive or uncomplicated view into the First World War, or the trench system. Nevertheless, they do represent an independent, unique, and under researched source of trench literature. This dissertation will comprise a limited study of a selection of trench journals, with the intention of analysing the ways in which these newspapers may have been beneficial to the soldier in the trenches. This analysis will be undertaken with a view to ascertaining ways in which soldiers were able to endure the harshness of trench warfare for years. It will consist of four chapters, the first being a source analysis and literature review combined, and the next three chapters will look into the ways that the trench journals present soldiers' perceptions of the trenches, the home front, and the enemy, respectively.
    • The effect of glycomacropeptide-based foods upon blood phenylalanine control in adults and children with phenylketonuria

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Thomson, Roderick (University of Chester, 2018-09-03)
      Conventional treatment for phenylketonuria restricts dietary phenylalanine to ‘control’ plasma phenylalanine concentrations. Its widespread adoption has largely eradicated the severe neurocognitive defects that previously characterised phenylketonuria. However, interest in alternative treatments continues as deficits in intelligence and other health outcomes remain problematic, conventional treatment has limitations and adherence proves difficult. Glycomacropeptide-based foods (GMP) are a novel treatment that may improve the satiety and acceptability of dietary treatment and address suboptimal health outcomes. However, glycomacropeptide contains some phenylalanine, raising safety concerns regarding its effect on plasma phenylalanine in adults and particularly children who tolerate less phenylalanine. This narrative review attempted to resolve these concerns. Its findings suggest adults and children can maintain control on GMP but individualised titrations, adjusting the amount of GMP consumed whilst monitoring plasma phenylalanine, are necessary in children. Equivalent control is a supportive finding given GMPs many advantages but this must be viewed cautiously as only seven studies were located, predominantly employing bias-prone, heterogeneous designs. GMPs effect upon control thus requires clarification via a systematic review using evidence-based, transparent methods to synthesize the entire evidence base and consider the impact of design quality, bias and heterogeneity upon results.
    • Exercise and physical activity practices of males in an Irish prison and its impact on quality of life.

      Fallows, Stephen; Dooley, Fiona (University of Chester, 2018-09-03)
      People in prison are generally deemed to be at a higher risk of several physiological and psychological conditions due to demographic factors and the prison environment, where overcrowding, lack of cleanliness and unhealthy lifestyle practices are common. In response to these influences prisoners tend to have lower quality of life and health related quality of life scores compared to the general population. While exercise provision is in place in prisons, sedentary behaviour is very common among prisoners. Physical inactivity such as this is described as a key modifiable risk factor for several health conditions. Exercise and physical activity has been widely recognised to be effective in managing an individuals’ health and the same is true in a prison perspective. Prison-based exercise programmes have increased the overall quality of life scores of prisoners most notably in the domains of physical and mental health. Cardiovascular and resistance training programmes have produced significant improvements in the cardiovascular health of prisoners reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Various exercise and sport interventions have also significantly improved the psychological wellbeing of prisoners reducing levels of depression, anxiety, stress and improving self-esteem.
    • The Effects of cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid on the Proliferation of A431 Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Griffiths, Samantha K. (University of Chester, 2018-08-31)
      Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a family of 28 positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid (LA), found predominantly in the meat of ruminant animals. The health benefits of CLA have been widely researched, with specific interest into its anti-obesity and anti-carcinogenic properties. Conclusions from in-vivo studies have suggested that, with further research, CLA supplementation may be used in conjunction with current treatments for breast cancer and rectal cancer. In-vitro research into the anticarcinogenic effects of CLA has revealed that different CLA isomers affect cancer cells through several different pathways. The anti-proliferative effects of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA have been demonstrated in-vitro, specifically on colon cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Ultimately, it has been concluded that the antiproliferative effects of CLA isomers are dependent upon the type and malignancy of the cancer cells targeted. After reviewing the literature, it is clear that there is a gap in the research. To our knowledge, no study has ever tested the effects of CLA on the proliferation of epidermoid carcinoma cells, specifically the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer. This research could add to the growing body of evidence surrounding the effects of specific CLA isomers on different types of cancer in-vitro.
    • Lifestyle behaviours associated with type 2 diabetes risk in Australian construction workers

      Markwell, Katherine; Botley, Sian (University of Chester, 2018-08-31)
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global problem with many unfavourable consequences. Obesity is the single largest predictor of T2DM. Additional modifiable risk factors include lifestyle behaviours such as poor diet and physical inactivity have also been identified to be key determinants of the disease, and are therefore key in delaying or preventing progression, as proven by many systematic reviews. The incidence of T2DM is increasing, despite efforts to reverse this trend, so barriers need to be identified and solutions proposed to aid individuals to achieve positive lifestyle behaviours. Habitual lifestyle behaviours can be determined by occupation and particular work stresses. The construction industry is a large working population in Australia whose health outcomes have not been fully explored in relation to T2DM risk. It is unknown if specific unfavourable lifestyle behaviours are adopted within this population which increase the risk of progression of this disease. This review will discuss the associated risk factors and how they can be modified to prevent progression of T2DM. A rationale will be proposed for further investigation of T2DM and its potential specific risk factors within the Australian construction industry.