• Northern Europe versus Rome: The use of the body in warfare

      Doran, John; Pinfold, Tom (University of Chester, 2012)
      Throughout time military commanders have relied on a combination of ‘shock and awe’ to win battles, whether they were the massed cavalry charges of the early Medieval period, the huge columns of men used by Napoleon to punch through enemy formations with drums beating and chants of ‘Vive l’Empereur’, through to the German Blitzkrieg against Poland or France, even today many counter-terrorist units such as the British SAS equip themselves in black body armour and gas masks giving them an otherworldly appearance. However, long before any of these, the Roman Legions and their Ancient British and Gallic adversaries were practicing body alteration on a grand scale, relying not only on physical strength but also ‘shock and awe’ to win battles. This dissertation is an investigation and a discussion of the techniques adopted and the motivations behind their adoption.