Now showing items 21-40 of 1143

    • Missing People and Fragmented Stories: Painting Holistic Pictures through Single Pen Portrait Analysis (SPPA)

      Blundell, Peter; Oakley, Lisa; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2023-11-18)
      A pen portrait is an analytical technique for analysing, condensing, and depicting qualitative data from participants that can also incorporate themes or patterns. Pen portraits are a useful qualitative analytical technique that has not been adequately explored. A review of the use of pen portraits indicates that researchers have employed them in different ways across a variety of disciplines. These studies do not provide sufficient detail to enable researchers to understand the analytical process or undertake pen portraits and therefore be able to apply this. This scarcity of detail makes it difficult to engage with pen portraits as a trustworthy form of qualitative analysis. This paper outlines the authors’ approach called Single Pen Portrait Analysis (SPPA). This qualitative analytical technique was used by both authors, to overcome the issue of fragmented people or experience during their initial analysis. This paper describes ways that researchers could identify SPPA as a useful approach for answering their research question, and then details a step-by-step guide for completing this type of analysis. This guide is offered alongside two worked examples from the authors’ doctoral research projects to help researchers apply this analytical technique in practice. A tentative critical analysis of SPPA is offered. Finally, there is an argument for qualitative researchers to access the untapped potential of pen portraits by creatively engaging with them.
    • Gambling, cryptocurrency, and financial trading sponsorship in high-level men's soccer leagues: An update for the 2023/2024 season

      Torrance, Jamie; HEATH, CONOR; Newall, Philip; University of Chester; Swansea University; Birmingham City University; University of Bristol (Mary Ann Liebert, 2023-11-02)
    • Reinvestigating the U.S. Consumption Function: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lags Approach

      Ebadi, Esmaeil; Are, Wasiu; Gulf University for Science and Technology; University of Chester (De Gruyter, 2023-11-08)
      This article examines the asymmetric aspect of U.S. consumption using disaggregated quarterly consumption expenditure data, including durables, nondurables, and services from 1994 to 2019. We apply a novel nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag analysis considering a regime-switching mechanism and find that U.S. consumers behave differently during economic upturns and downturns, with asymmetry existing for the consumption of durables (in the long run) and services (in both the short and long-run), but not for nondurables. Since services account for more than 40% of U.S. aggregate output, the slow adjustment toward equilibrium and the elasticity less than unity proves that services are more of a necessity than a luxury for U.S. consumers. The results indicate that the consumption of services is the primary determinant of U.S. consumer behavior, and monetary policy has a limited effect on U.S. consumption.
    • Measuring authentic living from internal and external perspectives: A novel measure of self-authenticity

      Cartwright, Tim; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Evans, Gemma; Hulbert-Williams, Nick; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2023-10-10)
      Self-authenticity refers to knowing and being oneself despite societal expectations, a concept closely related to values-based therapeutic interventions. Authentic living is currently measured using three validated psycho- metric scales; however these have limitations including issues with length, theoretical instability, and lack of measurement invariance testing. The present study sought to develop a novel measure of self-authenticity to resolve these limitations, and to provide further empirical evidence as to the structure of self-authenticity. Using a large sample, split into two subsamples, the novel Self-Authenticity Measure (SAM) was developed and found to be reliable. We present evidence of convergent and concurrent validity, as well as a degree of incremental validity over one of the previously developed authenticity scales. Furthermore, construct validity and (config- ural) measurement invariance were demonstrated through confirmatory factor analysis. Thus, though the measure was initially developed for use with sexual-minority groups, it appears to function similarly in a het- erosexual sample. Self-authenticity correlated with constructs related to psychological flexibility, suggesting that therapeutic techniques based on valued living could increase self-authenticity in individuals. The SAM affords researchers the opportunity to measure self-authenticity from internal (knowing and being oneself) and external (being oneself around others) perspectives. Further testing of measurement invariance is recommended.
    • The Intimate Socialities of Going Carbon Neutral

      Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (Wiley, 2023-11-17)
      This paper argues that the generation of social intimacy is critical to enabling acts of environmental care. By interrogating the intimate socialities of a group of young people who grew up in a village community committed to carbon reduction, I untangle the influence of everyday intimacies on everyday (un)sustainabilities, particularly in relation to the popular but uncritical positioning of young people as ’sustainability saviours’. I problematise assumptions that young people’s social intimacies are a straight-forward enabler of lifestyle change aligned with sustainability by highlighting the fluidity of intimacies and associated senses of trust throughout young adulthood. I argue further that capitalising on this fluidity might in fact amplify bottom-up environmental care if young people can move readily between networked spaces of trust and support. Drawing from scholarship on friendship, family and community intimacies and the substantial literature on households as crucibles for more sustainable living, I suggest there is considerable reconciliation work demanded at a personal level in order to live comfortably within the everyday intimacies of social life at the same time as committing to individual environmental action. These arguments advance debates around the optimal social drivers of more sustainable lifestyles, at the same time as sounding a cautionary note in relation to the too-easy emplacement of responsibility for driving change at the feet of young people.
    • Predicting Adolescents’ Intentions to Support Victims of Bullying from Expected Reactions of Friends versus Peers

      Marx, Hedda; Boulton, Michael J.; Macaulay, Peter J. R.; University of Chester; University of Derby (IOS Press, 2023-10-24)
      Given the crucial role of bystanders in combating bullying in schools, there is a need to understand the reasons why children may or may not intervene on behalf of a victimised peer. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between children’s expectations of general peer reactions versus the reactions of their friends on three subtypes of victim support: consoling the victim, addressing the bully, and getting adult help. A sample of 630 students (297 girls; 333 boys, Mage = 12.5) from three public secondary schools in Germany completed a 30-item questionnaire measuring expected peer reactions, expected friend reactions, past victim support experiences, and intentions to support victims. Results revealed the more influential role of expected reactions of friends over general peers in predicting victim support with expected negative consequences from friends reducing children’s willingness to engage in victim helping, irrespective of the three sub-types of support studied. Expected negative outcomes from peers were also found to significantly affect students’ intentions to approach a teacher for help. Boys were found to be more concerned about their friends’ and peers’ reactions to victim support than girls. The findings are discussed in relation to bystanders’ willingness to offer victim support and associated practical implications for addressing the widespread problem of bullying in schools.
    • Therapeutic Residential Interventions for Harmful Sexual Behaviour - A Theory of Change

      Madoc-Jones, Iolo; Gallagher, Kevin N. (University of ChesterWrexham Glyndwr University, 2023-06)
      The numbers of children who are removed from their families and looked after by the state is rising in the UK. Whilst approximately 90% of these are eventually placed in foster care, the remainder are a very diverse population with complex needs that often require care delivered in a residential setting, usually with therapeutic input and purpose. Some of these young people will have extensive experiences of trauma and abuse and will have engaged in Harmful Sexual Behaviour (HSB). Therapeutic residential interventions to meet the needs of this group come at an especially high cost to the public purse, but despite this, outcomes for this group of looked after children are statistically poor. This is across primary and mental health, employment, education, housing and welfare, and offending measures. In this context identifying and promoting good practice is important but a challenge in this regard is assessing the effectiveness of residential interventions when there are so many confounding and competing variables in play. The individual pathway into residential care means that young people have very different starting points and needs; young people might receive a range of different therapies and interventions during their time in care; there are often ongoing and dynamic forces in the wider system around a young person; and continuation of resources or timing of moves might be driven by economic reasons rather than need or the precepts of good practice. Conversely, theory-based approaches offer a potential route to defining and evaluating practice by shifting the focus from ‘what works’ to required activities and how these are expected to work. In response, this study draws on the field of theory led evaluation, specifically Mayne’s (2001) Contribution Analysis (CA) to create a Theory of Change (ToC) to explain how capacity, opportunity and motivation to change behaviour can be promoted in therapeutic residential settings for children and young people who have engaged in HSB Drawing on interviews with service providers and adult males who received interventions, it providers an account of the activities and processes that are considered to have generative potential in terms of promoting good outcomes in therapeutic residential settings for boys who have engaged in HSB. Haigh’s (2013) ‘quintessences’ (attachment, containment, open communication, participation and agency) and Kennard’s (1998) ‘common features of a therapeutic community’ emerge as key theoretical frameworks to understand data from staff and former resident interviews. Within the ToC that is finally developed there is a focus on the role, relevance and contribution of relationships to better outcomes and how structures and processes can be used to underpin therapeutic change. This is the first time that a model like this has been created to describe and navigate a therapeutic residential journey. The model provides the foundation stage for theory-based evaluation of such services and for further iterations and adaptation for use in other complex relational systems and interventions.
    • Having a Positive Attitude or Doing Good Deeds? An Experimental Investigation of Poker Players’ Responses to the Gambling Fallacies Measure

      Newall, Philip; Torrance, Jamie; University of Bristol; University of Chester; Swansea University (University of California Press, 2023-10-18)
      Gambling fallacies are irrational beliefs about how gambling works, which are common among disordered gamblers, and measured by questionnaires such as the Gambling Fallacies Measure (GFM). Less is known about the potentially rational cognitions of some skilled gamblers, such as professional poker players. The present research experimentally manipulated item 5 from the GFM, “A positive attitude or doing good deeds increases your likelihood of winning money when gambling”, by comparing two new versions focusing only on a “positive attitude” or “doing good deeds” to the original version (control). Item 5 is scored so that “disagree” is the non-fallacious correct answer, but it was hypothesized that the words “a positive attitude” might increase rates of poker players selecting “agree” in a non-fallacious manner. Online experiments were conducted on samples of professional poker players (N = 379), and a broad sample of poker players with no inclusion criteria (N = 1,510). Participants’ responses to item 5 were associated with the rest of their GFM scores (GFM-9). Participants in both samples were more likely to disagree with the good deeds version, and less likely to disagree with the positive attitude version, compared to control. In comparison to the other conditions, good deeds responses were most strongly associated with GFM-9 scores among professionals, while positive attitude responses were least strongly associated with GFM-9 scores among the broad sample. The good deeds version of item 5 has advantageous measurement properties among professional poker players. New approaches are needed to better understand the potentially rational cognitions of skilled gamblers.
    • Temporal tensions in young adults’ efforts towards influencing institutional climate action

      Collins, Rebecca; Hunt, Tamara; Cox, Jade; University of Chester; Chester Youth Climate Action Network; Cheshire West & Chester Council (Taylor & Francis, 2023-11-16)
      In this Viewpoint we draw attention to an overlooked tension at the intersection of young adults’ and older adults’ everyday life-world temporalities, and argue that this tension presents a considerable intergenerational challenge for the enabling of young people’s agency for climate action. We articulate the often-cyclical nature of young people’s everyday temporalities, especially for those within formal education systems based on year-on-year ‘progression’, highlighting both the benefits of such cyclical opportunities for involvement in climate action and challenges inherent to the necessary ‘moving on’ at the end of each cycle. We contrast these inherently forward-moving (annual) cycles with the protracted, often non-linear chains of decision-making and action that characterise, first, the (older adult-led) systems upon which youth-led pro-environmental action seeks to have an impact, and second, the (also older adult-led) structures – of funding, coordination, legitimacy-making, and other forms of ‘resource’ – that enable and support youth-led initiatives. By narrating our ongoing negotiation of these tensions, we look afresh at the idea of intergenerational relations for climate action, not through the more typical lens of age-based generational identity (and their synergies or tensions), but through the lived temporalities of younger and older adults, with their contrasting orientations to and responsibilities towards the levers of meaningful action.
    • Family carer experiences of hospice care at home: qualitative findings from a mixed methods realist evaluation

      Abrahamson, Vanessa; Wilson, Patricia; Barclay, Stephen; Brigden, Charlotte; Gage, Heather; Greene, Kay; Hashem, Ferhana; Mikelyte, Rasa; Rees-Roberts, Melanie; Silsbury, Graham; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2023-10-21)
      Background: Hospice-at-home aims to enable patients approaching end-of-life to die at home and support their carers. A wide range of different service models exists but synthesised evidence on how best to support family carers to provide sustainable end-of -life care at home is limited. Aim: To explore what works best to promote family carers’ experiences of hospice-at-home. Design: Realist evaluation with mixed methods. This paper focuses on qualitative interviews with carers (to gain their perspective and as proxy for patients) and service providers from twelve case study sites in England. Interviews were coded and programme theories were refined by the research team including two public members. Setting/participants: Interviews with carers (involved daily) of patients admitted to hospice-at-home services (n=58) and hospice-at-home staff (n=78). Results: Post bereavement, 76.4% of carers thought that they had received as much help and support as they needed and most carers (75.8%) rated the help and support as excellent or outstanding. Of six final programme theories capturing key factors relevant to providing optimum services, those directly relevant to carer experiences were: integration and co-ordination of services; knowledge, skills and ethos of hospice staff; volunteer roles; support directed at the patient–carer dyad. Conclusions: Carers in hospice-at-home services identified care to be of a higher quality than generic community services. Hospice staff were perceived as having ‘time to care’, communicated well and were comfortable with dying and death. Hands-on care was particularly valued in the period close to death.
    • Editorial for special section: Grounded theory in qualitative research

      Fleet, Doreen; Reeves, Andrew; Taylor, Paul; Gabriel, Lynne; University of Chester; York St John University (Wiley, 2023-10-22)
    • The Personal Tutor's Guide to Supporting Student-Parents in Higher Education

      Todd, Andrea; University of Chester (United Kingdom Advising and Tutoring Association (UKAT), 2023-09-18)
      This research-informed, evidence-based, peer reviewed toolkit aims to assist personal tutors to provide effective support to their student-parent personal tutees.
    • The Student-Parent’s Guide to Navigating University

      Todd, Andrea; University of Chester (Universities & Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS), 2023-09-11)
      The Student-Parent Guide to Navigating University is a research-informed, evidence-based, peer reviewed toolkit which has been published via the UCAS (Universities & Colleges Admissions Service) website
    • How poems go beyond: Advocating the use of poetic representation for therapeutic practitioner researchers in qualitative research

      Buxton, Christina; University of Chester (The British Psychological Society, 2023-06-01)
      This article focuses on how poetic representation of research offers therapeutic practitioners distinct ways to engage audiences, leading to a deeper, more dynamic and relationally based understanding of the lived experience of another than other research outputs allow. Methodologically, it advocates that using poetic representation presents practitioners with an accessible, flexible, and therefore more viable way of presenting research findings that can encourage research confidence and engagement. It briefly describes the use of Gee’s (1991) psycholinguistic framework in creating poetic form from unstructured narrative interviews with therapists who work with psychological trauma. This framework allows the researcher to readily draw out content that represents the most meaningful aspects of interview material. Using extracts from resultant poems, it explores the ways in which this form of data presentation offers the ability to connect with readers deeply and evocatively, ultimately leading to potential change in the reader’s world as a result.
    • Writing collaboratively in groups: Reflections on twenty-five years experiences of international collaborative writing groups

      Healey, Mick; Healey, Ruth L.; University of Gloucestershire; University of Chester
      International collaborative writing groups (ICWGs), working with a sponsoring organization, have had a major impact on capacity building and developing learning communities, as well as producing quality outputs (Healey, 2017; ISSOTL, nd). They are about “working creatively, critically and collaboratively to address a scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) challenge from a multi-perspective lens” (Abrahamson, 2023). ICWGs usually involve groups of staff and students from different countries working together with a leader in small teams to write articles about pre-selected topics for submission to an international peer-reviewed journal. The process normally lasts around 18 months from announcement to submission, with participants working mostly online. The highlight is when all the teams come together for between 2 and 3 days, before or after an international conference, to work intensively on their articles. Whilst this model has predominantly been used within the context of SoTL, it is easily transferable to other topics and disciplines. We ran the first full ICWG in SoTL from 2004-06 for geographers, drawing on the experience of running an international seminar in 1999 that piloted many of the features that subsequently came to characterise ICWGs (Healey, 2006; Healey et al., 2000)). Subsequently in 2012 we introduced ICWGs to ISSOTL (Healey et al., 2013). We have experienced each of the three ICWG roles – event facilitator, group leader, and co-author – several times in the last 25 years (Table 1). In this chapter we offer advice based on our reflections on these experiences, and the research evidence on the opportunities and challenges ICWGs have provided for participants. We outline some suggestions for how participants playing the different ICWG roles may make the most of their experiences, and how the model might be used by the wider SoTL community and other academic communities to support local, national, and institutional collaborative writing groups. We begin by exploring the nature and purposes of ICWGs in SoTL.
    • Facial expression of TIPI personality and CHMP-Tri psychopathy traits in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for honest signaling?

      Murray, Lindsay; Goddard, Jade; Gordon, David; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (Springer, 2023-11-07)
      Purpose: Honest signaling theory suggests that humans and chimpanzees can extract socially relevant information relating to personality from the face of their conspecifics. Humans are also able to extract information from chimpanzees’ faces. Here, we examine whether personality characteristics of chimpanzees, including measures of psychopathy, can be discerned based purely on facial morphology in photographs. Methods: Twenty-one chimpanzees were given naïve and expert personality ratings on the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) and the Chimpanzee Triarchic Model of Psychopathy (CHMP-Tri) before and following behavioural observations. Results: Characteristics relating to openness, conscientiousness, extraversion and disinhibition could be distinguished from the faces of chimpanzees. Individuals higher on disinhibition have lower scores on conscientiousness and emotional stability and higher scores on extraversion; while those higher on meanness have lower conscientiousness and agreeableness. Facial expressions are linked to personality traits present in the TIPI and CHMP-Tri models: the Relaxed Face and the Grooming Face were displayed more by chimpanzees higher on agreeableness, while the Compressed Lips Face was observed more in those individuals higher on boldness, and the Full Open Grin was displayed more by chimpanzees higher on extraversion, but lower on emotional stability and conscientiousness. Facial expressions were also found to be associated with particular behavioural contexts, namely the Grooming Face in affiliative contexts and the Relaxed and Relaxed Open Mouth Faces in neutral contexts. Dominant chimpanzees display higher levels of boldness and more Compressed Lips Faces, Relaxed Open Mouth Faces and Grooming Faces than subordinate individuals. Conclusion: These findings support and extend evidence for a shared honest signalling system and a shared personality structure between humans and chimpanzees. Future research could further explore how personality is conveyed through the face, perhaps through more than just singular aspects of character, and maybe reflecting what chimpanzees themselves are able to do.
    • An evaluation of a violence reduction partnership network: Mixed Methods Network Analysis

      Wilkinson, Dean John; Thompson, Alison; Kerslake, Debbie; Chopra, Isha; Badger, Sophie; University of Chester, University of Wolverhampton
      The work of the West Midlands Violence Reduction Partnership forms a network of stakeholders, organisations and providers in a geographical area adopting a Public Health approach to Violence prevention and reduction. The chosen area of focus for the evaluation had experienced complex deprivation, significant implications due to Covid19 restrictions and a lack of outdoor recreation space. Network Analysis methodologies are increasingly being used in criminological research and evaluations to assess the structures of social and economic networks. This study explored, using a mixed-methods network analysis methodology, the nature of the established violence reduction network in a specific geographical location in West Midlands. A breadth of network activity is taking place across the community, however, the network analysis highlighted gaps in terms of specialist provision for early years and support from those with lived experience. It was perceived that a lack of continuity, in terms of changes in key roles, has affected the network. Funding mechanisms were perceived ineffective, and not encouraging of development of localisation services. Relationships between Network members were predominantly positive with organisations having good communication and accessing support from one another; however, identifying shared goals and better collective working would benefit the network. This study pioneers using an innovative, mixed methods network analysis to explore a public health approach to violence prevention and reduction. Quantitative data collection and analysis allowed for assessment of the networks capacity and density, whilst qualitative data provided insights and detailed accounts of how the network functions.
    • Client-Led Applied Sport Psychology Practitioners’ Narratives about Helping Athletes

      Tod, David; McEwan, Hayley; Cronin, Colum; Lafferty, Moira; Lancaster University; University of the West of Scotland; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Human Kinetics, 2023-10-06)
      The current study explored how applied sport psychology practitioners adopting client-led stances described two of their athlete interactions. Applied sport psychology practitioners (8 females and 12 males, mean age = 33.76 years, SD = 4.70) describing themselves as client-led practitioners discussed two athlete consultancies during open-ended interviews. Data analysis involved examining the narrative structure of practitioners’ stories and identifying the features of client-led service-delivery present in the accounts. The participants’ stories reflected a collaborative empiricism narrative in which they collaborated with athletes to resolve client issues. The stories contained features of client-led Person-Centred Therapy and the use of practitioner-led techniques and interventions. The results point to applied implications, such as providing accounts of service delivery on which practitioners can reflect as they consider the ways they wish to help clients. Keywords: Applied Sport Psychology, Person-Centred Therapy, Helping 13 Relationships, Practitioner Characteristics, Mental Skills Training, Client-Led
    • Law Students as Active Citizens: Instilling a Career-Long Commitment to Pro Bono and Social Justice via the CLE Curriculum

      Todd, Andrea; University of Chester (Northumbria University Press, 2023-12-20)
      By engaging in pro bono work whilst at university, students demonstrate that they are good citizens. Students perform a valuable service for members of the local community, and the skills they learn enhance their ability to secure, and succeed in, a graduate role. But is this enough? Should we, as clinical legal educators, be doing more to facilitate students becoming active (and not just good) citizens, who know not only how to ‘do’ pro bono, but who also actively engage with the why of pro bono? Can facilitating a critical understanding of the political and social backdrop to the need for pro bono advice engender a genuine commitment to social justice which students can take with them into their working lives? This paper explores the drivers for an ‘active citizenship’ approach to pro bono learning and reflects on the pilot year of a student-led module aimed at fostering social responsibility and a strong sense of social justice to achieve a long-lasting commitment to pro bono in the lawyers of the future
    • An Exploration of the Perceived Gendered Impact and Implications of Shared Parental Leave on the Career Progression of Solicitors in England and Wales

      Davies, Chantal; Morrow, John; Newton, Jethro; Gillard, Niel (University of Chester, 2023-07-31)
      Over 100 years since the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919 lifted the prohibition of women practicing law in England and Wales the number of women practising as solicitors has overtaken men. However, women continue to be underrepresented in the senior positions in the solicitors’ profession. Existing literature has identified that the solicitors’ profession is underpinned by a masculine workplace culture, and that sex, motherhood, and childcare responsibilities present obstacles for women to progress to the senior positions in the solicitors’ profession. In 2015 the UK Government introduced shared parental leave (SPL), a modest reform of childcare leave, enabling working mothers to transfer maternity leave and pay to the father from as early as two weeks after the arrival of a child. SPL is intended to help women to retain and improve their position in the UK labour market by encouraging fathers to share childcare more equally from birth. The object of this research is to examine whether SPL effectively addresses the gendered obstacles related to childcare responsibilities faced by women to career progression in the solicitors’ profession. To achieve this, the research employs a socio-legal methodology with a qualitative empirical approach using a student focus group, a qualitative questionnaire and 24 interviews with participants with experience working at solicitors’ firms based in England and Wales. This research finds that childcare and the perception that women will become mothers with childcare responsibilities is an underlying obstacle to career progression in the solicitors’ profession. This research also finds that shared parental leave is ineffective at challenging the obstacles to career progression because of barriers preventing parents from taking up SPL. Participants recommended changes to SPL and the introduction of additional mechanisms to encourage higher levels of take-up of SPL by parents working in the solicitors’ profession. This research proposes pointers for action by individual law firms, regulatory bodies, and the UK Government to increase the efficacy of SPL at addressing the gendered obstacles related to childcare responsibilities faced by women to career progression in the solicitors’ profession.