• Preface

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (German Environment Agency / European Cyclists' Federation, 2018-11)
      Preface to volume
    • Private Security

      Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2017)
      A summary of the critical context of private security and the private security industry.
    • The problem of biology and anti-aging: A critical commentary

      Powell, Jason; Chen, Sheying; University of Chester; Pace University (Open Access Text, 2017-11-07)
      This year saw more anti-aging researchers talk about providing a 'cure' for aging in the next five years. Recently, this has been taken up by a number of people who could be called "anti-aging pioneers” (Powell, 2005). One of the fundamental continuities of this trend of thought, is that aging is seen as a 'decaying disease' and the perception given is that only anti-aging science can 'cure' it as a medical "problem" by its reversal. Older people are singled out for 'cure' of their aging because the human body changes shape over time (Biggs, 1999).
    • Processing perceived parental rejection through personal development

      Clare, Tracey; University of Chester (Karnac Books, 2016-08-28)
      An exploration of processing the effects of perceived parental rejection in childhood through participation in the personal development aspect of a person-centred counsellor training course.
    • Producing websites for assessment: A case study from a Level 1 fieldwork module

      France, Derek; Ribchester, Chris; University College Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2004-03)
      This article discusses a level 1 module assessment that requires students to write up a field-based research project as a functioning website. Student feedback and practical issues are commented upon
    • The Productivity of Care

      Pratesi, Alessandro; University of Chester (Routledge, 2013)
      The ethic of care has developed to become a body of theory that has expanded from its roots in social psychology to many other disciplines in the social sciences as well as the humanities. This work on care has informed both theory and practice by generating complex accounts of care ethics for multiple and intersecting kinds of relationships, and for a variety of domains and contexts. Its application now extends from the moral to the political realm, from personal to public relationships, from the local to the global, from feminine to feminist virtues and values, and from issues of gender to issues of power and oppression. The developments in the theories and applications of care ethics over the past few decades make this book an appropriate and timely publication. It includes chapters by authors who are developing or expanding theories of care ethics and also by those who work on applying and extending insights from care ethics to practices and policies in personal and institutional settings. Care Ethics provides readers from different disciplines and professional groups with a substantial number of new theories and applications from both new and established authors. This book was originally published as two special issues of Ethics and Social Welfare.
    • The Productivity of Care: Contextualizing Care in Situated Interaction and Shedding Light on its Latent Purposes

      Pratesi, Alessandro; University of Chester/ Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor & Francis, 2011-05-27)
      Care work may be connected with emotional and psychological exhaustion but also gratification, reward, and self-empowerment. Caregivers experience both positive and negative emotional states in caring situations, and further studies on the rewarding and energizing aspects of care may help us to broaden our understanding of how we can reduce the degree of burden while increasing the sense of satisfaction. This article shows how the focus on emotion is a necessary step to show the ambivalences and the grey areas connected with the concept of care as well as to challenge the not fully explored assumption that care is often associated with burden and stress and viewed as a result of circumstances. It reports the findings of a micro-situated study of daily care activities among 80 caregivers. Care is seen as a strategic site to grasp deeper insights into the interactional mechanisms through which the emotional dynamics revolving around care produce unanticipated outcomes in terms of symbolic and practical productivity.
    • Professional Development Implications for Counsellors Who Have Worked in The English Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) Programme

      Reeves, Andrew; Gubi, Peter; Mason, Richard (University of Chester, 2020-12)
      Background: Prior to the implementation of the IAPT programme by NHS England in 2008, counsellors were commonly employed to deliver psychological therapy in English NHS Primary Care Mental Health (PCMH) services. Pre-IAPT, professional development for PCMH practitioners, like the therapeutic approaches they offered, was non-standardised. Post-IAPT, PCMH provision became standardised, utilising manualised therapies alongside a commitment to outcome data completion. IAPT operates a highly structured approach to PCMH provision, arguably a treatment paradigm, in which ontological and epistemological entities are controlled. The model allows minimal flexibility in relation to what should, and how it should be treated; what data should, and how it should be gathered, and how outcomes should be interpreted. Clinical Commissioning Groups, contract to deliver IAPT services to any qualified providers, using IAPT data to determine performance. Arguably, IAPT has franchised PCMH in England. Professional development of IAPT practitioners is confined to training that supports the delivery of its aims. Consequently, service investment in training is focussed towards NICE approved approaches that are considered to be evidence-based. These approaches are epistemologically nomothetic, creating ideological challenges to counsellors who are epistemologically idiographic. This incommensurability between the IAPT treatment paradigm and counsellors, can affect professional development. Objectives: This research focusses on implications for professional development of counsellors who have worked in IAPT. Conducted amongst ex-IAPT counsellors, to explore: the degree to which counsellors engage in IAPT professional development opportunities; how facilitative IAPT service is to professional development; how counsellors conceptualise and respond to those professional development opportunities. Method: Semi-structured interviews of eight participants who had worked in different IAPT services across England were completed and analysed utilising an Applied Thematic Analysis. Findings: Three themes were identified, exposing many implications for counsellor professional development, influenced by: the IAPT Business and Clinical Models, and Participants Responses to those influences, reflecting both external and internal ideological challenges towards professional development. Conclusions: Ideological incommensurability, can result in both positive and negative professional development outcomes. Business and clinical models contributed to the struggle to identify, secure, or adapt to formal opportunities that are ideologically incompatible. However, participants capitalised on informal professional development opportunities. Exposure to the IAPT program, and the working environment of primary care mental health, enhanced knowledge and experience, administrative competence, and provided valuable exposure to wide-ranging variety of type and complexity in clinical presentation. This was identified as contributing to the development of a notable level of pluralistic practices. Participants did not disclose planned professional development strategies (appearing to respond intuitively to opportunity), suggesting that professional development was lacking intent. Therefore, counsellors are encouraged to reflect upon the type of psychological therapist they wish to become; contemplate the benefit of a structured professional development plan to achieve that aim; recognise the rich potential IAPT offers, and consider how IAPT might contribute to their professional development.
    • Professional development in teaching and learning for early career academic geographers: Contexts, practices and tensions

      Vajoczki, Susan; Biegas, Tamara C.; Crenshaw, Melody; Healey, Ruth L.; Osayomi, Tolulope; Bradford, Michael; Monk, Janice; McMaster University; Texas State University; Northwest Vista College; University of Chester; University of Ibadan; University of Manchester; University of Arizona (Taylor & Francis, 2011-05-16)
      This paper provides a review of the practices and tensions informing approaches to professional development for early career academic geographers who are teaching in higher education. We offer examples from Britain, Canada, Nigeria and the USA. The tensions include: institutional and departmental cultures; models that offer generic and discipline-specific approaches; the credibility of alternative settings for professional development in teaching and learning; the valuing of professional development and of teaching in academic systems of reward and recognition; and the challenges of balancing professional and personal life. We summarize concepts of good practice and suggest opportunities for future research.
    • Prologue: Language Challenges in the 21st Century

      Birney, Megan; Roessel, Janin; Hansen, Karolina; Rakic, Tamara; University of Lancaster
      As immigration and mobility increases, so do interactions between people from different linguistic backgrounds. Yet while linguistic diversity offers many benefits, it also comes with a number of challenges. In seven empirical articles and one commentary, this Special Issue addresses some of the most significant language challenges facing researchers in the 21st century: the power language has to form and perpetuate stereotypes, the contribution language makes to intersectional identities, and the role of language in shaping intergroup relations. By presenting work that aims to shed light on some of these issues, the goal of this Special Issue is to (a) highlight language as integral to social processes and (b) inspire researchers to address the challenges we face. To keep pace with the world’s constantly evolving linguistic landscape, it is essential that we make progress toward harnessing language’s power in ways that benefit 21st century globalized societies.
    • Prospective study on a fast-track training in psychiatry for medical students: the psychiatric hat game

      Clément, Anthony; Delage, Raphaël; Chollier, Marie; Josse, Laure; Gaudry, Stéphane; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Baubet, Thierry; Degos, Bertrand; email: bertrand.degos@aphp.fr (BioMed Central, 2020-10-19)
      Abstract: Background: While medical students are losing interest in lectures in favor of other educational materials, many studies suggest the benefit of active learning, combined with gamified educational tools. The authors developed a psychiatric adaptation of the « Hat Game ». It was hypothesised that this game would increase both knowledge and motivation in medical students toward psychiatric semiology. The aim of the study was to assess the benefit of a Psychiatric Hat Game session for learning psychiatric symptoms in third-year medical students. Student performance was also evaluated at 3 months. Methods: This gamified fast-track training consists of two teams and each team has to guess as many psychiatric semiology terms as possible using different techniques (i.e. speech, mime). The study involved a pre- and post-evaluation of knowledge (Multiple Choice Questions) and a satisfaction survey. Baseline, post-immediate, and three-months scores were compared by using Friedman analysis for paired samples. Comparisons of mean scores at two different times were performed by using Wilcoxon test for paired samples. Results: One hundred and sixty-six students were proposed to take part in the study. Among them 129 completed the whole program (response rate = 77.7%). Mean scores measured at the three points in time were significantly different (p < 0.001, N = 129). Knowledge mean scores were significantly higher after the game than before (+ 28.6%, p < 0.001). Improvement was maintained 3 months after the game (+ 18.9%, p < 0.001). Satisfaction survey items highlighted that students enjoyed and would recommend this type of gamified training. Conclusions: The Psychiatric Hat Game improved knowledge of psychiatric semiology in medical students. Results suggest that it is a promising and efficient tool to playfully teach medical semiology, with transferable features, utility and acceptability from one medical field to another. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge advocating for serious games and gamified training in medical education.
    • Protection and Promotion of Women’s Rights in Nigeria: Constraints and Prospects

      Ekhator, Eghosa O.; University of Chester (Eleven International Publishing, Netherlands., 2019)
      Women in Nigeria face many challenges and discriminatory practices under some extant laws and customs. The Nigerian society is inherently patriarchal. This is due to the influence of the various religions and customs in many parts of Nigeria. Women are seen as the ‘weaker sex’ and discriminatory practices by the state and society (especially by men) are condoned. This chapter highlights some of the recent reforms that have impacted positively on the promotion and protection of women’s rights in Nigeria. These reforms include the appointment of female Justices to the Supreme Court and the enactment of laws such as the Violence against Persons (Prohibition) Act 2015 amongst others. This paper contends that notwithstanding the development of these reforms and laws, women in Nigeria still face many state sanctioned discriminatory practices. The methodology adopted in this study is of a qualitative nature that consists of library based texts analysis.
    • Protection of the Environment and the International Salvage Convention 1989: An Assessment

      Ekhator, Eghosa O.; University of Chester (St. Mary's University School of Law, Ethiopia, 2016-09-30)
      This article focuses on the International Salvage Convention and the protection of the environment in salvage operations. The article traces the evolution and history of the law of Salvage to its present status by using the UK as a case study. In essence, the article seeks to ascertain the extent of current international regime on salvage in protecting the environment. The question that this article poses is: Does the International Salvage Convention 1989 accord enough protection to the environment against the backdrop of global efforts to promote environmental protection and sustainable development? The article begins with a brief synopsis of the underlying principles of salvage including the rule of ‘no cure-no pay’ followed by an appraisal of the events that culminated arguably in the development of the International Salvage Convention 1989 to safeguard the environment in the course of salvage operations. A systematic analysis of the defects inherent in the International Salvage Convention 1989 vis-à-vis protection of the environment are analysed and a number of reforms are highlighted.
    • Protocol for a systematic review of screening tools for fear of recurrent illness in common life threatening diseases

      Jones, Jenny; Kane, Paul; Polson, Rob; Leslie, Stephen J.; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Simard, Sébastien; Ozakinci, Gozde; Hubbard, Gill; University of Plymouth ; University of Stirling ; Highland Health Sciences Library ; University of Stirling/Highland Heartbeat Centre ; University of Chester ; Hospital Laval, Québec ; University of St Andrews ; University of Stirling (BioMed Central, 2015-03-19)
      A myocardial infarction (MI) (‘heart attack’) can be intensely stressful, and the impact of this event can leave patients with clinically significant post-MI stress symptoms. Untreated stress can make heart disease worse. Few tools are available that screen for specific thoughts or beliefs that can trigger post-MI stress responses. In other life-threatening illnesses, fear of recurrence (FoR) of illness has been identified as a key stressor, and screening tools have been developed to identify this. The aim of this review is to identify FoR screening tools used in other common life-threatening diseases that report on the development of the tool, to assess if there are any that can be adapted for use in MI survivors so that those with high levels of FoR can be identified and helped.
    • Psychological benefits of weight loss following behavioural and/or dietary weight loss interventions. A systematic research review

      Lasikiewicz, Nicola; Myrissa, Kyriaki; Hoyland, Alexa; Lawton, Clare; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2014-01-01)
      It is generally accepted that weight loss has significant physiological benefits, such as reduced risk of diabetes, lowered blood pressure and blood lipid levels. However, few behavioural and dietary interventions have investigated psychological benefit as the primary outcome. Hence, systematic review methodology was adopted to evaluate the psychological outcomes of weight loss following participation in a behavioural and/or dietary weight loss intervention in overweight/obese populations. 36 Studies were selected for inclusion and were reviewed. Changes in self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body image and health related quality of life (HRQoL) were evaluated and discussed. Where possible, effect sizes to indicate the magnitude of change pre- to post- intervention were calculated using Hedges’ g standardised mean difference. The results demonstrated consistent improvements in psychological outcomes concurrent with and sometimes without weight loss. Improvements in body image and HRQoL (especially vitality) were closely related to changes in weight. Calculated effect sizes varied considerably and reflected the heterogeneous nature of the studies included in the review. Although the quality of the studies reviewed was generally acceptable, only 9 out of 36 studies included a suitable control/comparison group and the content, duration of intervention and measures used to assess psychological outcomes varied considerably. Further research is required to improve the quality of studies assessing the benefits of weight loss to fully elucidate the relationship between weight loss and psychological outcomes.
    • Psychological flexibility correlates with patient-reported outcomes independent of clinical or sociodemographic characteristics

      Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Storey, Lesley (Springer, 2015-12-17)
      Purpose: The evidence for the effectiveness of psychological interventions for cancer patients is currently unclear. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), which increases individual’s levels of psychological flexibility, may be more effective than other frameworks of psychological intervention, but good quality research is needed to inform adoption and implementation. This study explored the correlation between psychological flexibility and patient reported outcomes to assess the viability of this intervention for cancer survivors. Methods: Recruitment was co-ordinated through a regional cancer centre. 129 respondents completed a cross-sectional postal questionnaire. They were of mixed gender, diagnosis and cancer stage; a mean 61 years old; and a mean 207 days post-diagnosis. Self-report questionnaires assessed psychological flexibility, mood, anxiety, depression, stress, quality of life and benefit finding. Results: Psychological flexibility was a strong and consistent correlate of outcome; effects were maintained even when potentially confounding clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were controlled. Conclusions: Psychological flexibility can be modified through ACT-based interventions. Given the strong correlational evidence found in this study, it seems that such interventions might be useful for cancer survivors. High quality and well-designed controlled trials are now needed to establish effectiveness.
    • The Psychological Impact of Cancer (PIC) Scale: development and comparative psychometric testing against the Mini-MAC© Scale in UK and Australian cancer survivors.

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Whelen, Liz; Mulcare, Hunter; University of Chester; Western Health (Wolters Kluwer, 2019-09-20)
      Background: Clinicians and researchers make considerable use of both the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Scale, and the shorter Mini-MAC, to measure psychological adjustment in cancer patients. The length of the scale is problematic when used clinically, and its psychometric properties have been criticized. This paper presents two studies leading to the development of a novel scale the Psychological Impact of Cancer (PIC) Scale using items drawn from the MAC. Methods: Study 1 used standard item-reduction techniques to shorten the Mini-MAC in a sample of 160 cancer patients of mixed diagnosis, recruited an average 46 days post-diagnosis. This resulted in a 12-item scale with a four-factor structure, similar to that derived from a 2012 re-analysis of the Mini-MAC. Study 2 presents confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of this new measure and tests its construct validity and test-retest reliability in a sample of 183 mixed cancer survivors. Results: This study indicated that the shorter scale performed well on CFA indicators (RMSEA= .083; ECVI= .923; PNFI= .604; AGFI .857) and tests of internal consistency (all >.623); and comparable concurrent validity with longer versions. The four factors were labeled cognitive distress, cognitive avoidance, emotional distress and fighting spirit. Conclusions: Given its shorter length and acceptable psychometrics, the PIC offers a useful clinical and research tool to assess the psychological impact of cancer. Psychometric properties of one subscale (fighting spirit) remain poor, but no worse than in the original scale; directions for further development of the scale are described.
    • Psychological interventions for patients with cancer: Psychological flexibility and the potential utility of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

      Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Storey, Lesley; Wilson, Kelly G.; University of Chester ; Queen’s University Belfast ; University of Mississippi; Department of Psychology; University of Chester; Chester UK; School of Psychology; Queen's University Belfast; Belfast UK; University of Mississippi; University MS USA (Wiley, 2014-08-06)
      Cancer is an illness affecting patients' physical and psychosocial well-being: high numbers report problematic levels of distress at many points through diagnosis, treatment and survivorship. Conclusive evidence for the long-term benefits of psychological interventions is lacking and this may be because (1) they employ a too limited scope of underlying therapeutic model; or (2) that they are too focused on improving psychopathological outcomes. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may add components not emphasised elsewhere and may provide a more suitable model of adjustment and coping. Following a comprehensive literature search a theoretical and conceptual discussion of the potential for ACT-based oncology interventions is presented.
    • Psychological support for patients with cancer: evidence review and suggestions for future directions

      Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Beatty, Lisa; Dhillon, Haryana M.; University of Chester; Flinders University; University of Sydney (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2018-09-31)
      Purpose of the review. Psychological distress and mental health comorbidity are common in cancer. Various therapeutic frameworks have been used for interventions to improve psychological wellbeing and quality of life in cancer patients with mixed results. This paper reviews contributions to that literature published since January 2017. Recent findings. The majority of new psychological intervention research in cancer has used Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Mindfulness-Based Interventions. Cognitive behavioural Therapy has been considered a gold-standard intervention and recent evidence justifies continuation of this. Recent reviews call into question the validity of evidence for Mindfulness- Based Interventions. A smaller number of trials using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Meta-Cognitive Therapy, Dignity Therapy and Coaching have emerged, and whilst findings are promising, additional fully-powered trials are required. Weaker evidence exists for counselling, support-based, and Narrative Therapy interventions. Summary. Efficacious, timely and acceptable psychological interventions are a necessary component of comprehensive cancer care. There is some way to go before the evidence conclusively points towards which interventions work for which cancer groups and for which specific outcomes. Methodological limitations must be addressed in future trials; at the forefront remains the need for fully-powered, head-to-head comparison trials.