• A leftward perceptual asymmetry when judging the attractiveness of visual patterns

      Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid; Crossley, Becky; Lee, Jennifer; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-15)
      Perceptual judgements concerning the magnitude of a stimulus feature are typically influenced more by the left side of the stimulus than by the right side. This research examined whether the leftward bias also applies to judgements of the attractiveness of abstract visual patterns. Across four experiments participants chose between two versions of a stimulus which either had an attractive left side or an attractive right side. Experiments 1 and 2 presented artworks and experiments 3 and 4 presented wallpaper designs. In each experiment participants showed a significant bias to choose the stimulus with an attractive left side more than the stimulus with an attractive right side. The leftward bias emerged at age 10/11, was not caused by a systematic asymmetry in the perception of colourfulness or complexity, and was stronger when the difference in attractiveness between the left and right sides was larger. The results are relevant to the aesthetics of product and packaging design and show that leftward biases extend to the perceptual judgement of everyday items. Possible causes of the leftward bias for attractiveness judgements are discussed and it is suggested that the size of the bias may not be a measure of the degree of hemispheric specialisation.
    • Life-span development and spiritual needs

      Gubi, Peter M.; Goss, Phil M.; University of Chester (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2015-02-21)
    • Limb preference and personality in donkeys (Equus asinus)

      Diaz, Sergio; Murray, Lindsay Elaine; Rodway, Paul; University of Chester; Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      Interhemispheric laterality has often been linked to different behavioural styles. This study investigates the link between limb preference and personality in donkeys. The sample consisted of 47 donkeys (Equus asinus), 30 males and 17 females. Limb preference was determined using observation of the leading limb in a motionless posture and personality was measured using the Donkey Temperament Questionnaire (French, J. M. (1993). Assessment of donkey temperament and the influence of home environment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 36(2), 249–257. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(93)90014-G) completed by the donkeys’ keepers. A Principal Component Analysis obtained two components: Agreeableness and Extraversion. Age showed a positive relationship with Agreeableness, echoing trends in humans Donkeys did not show a population-level preference towards either side. Limb preference significantly predicted the trait difficult to handle: donkeys with a preference to keep the right foot forward when motionless were harder to handle. This study presents the first investigation into limb preference and personality in donkeys, although more research is needed to clarify whether there is a population-level limb preference bias in donkeys, and the relationship between limb preference and Agreeableness.
    • Listening to Less-Heard Voices: Developing Counsellors’ Awareness

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2015-05-01)
      This book is written in order to enhance practice and understanding in Counselling and allied helping professions. The contributors are all qualified Counsellors and the work is grounded in research. They explore: the phenomenology of the tattooed client; the impact of Person-Centred Counselling training on friendship; the therapeutic importance of pets; non-physical abuse; mothers’ experiences of the impact of a traumatic birth; the experience of Counsellors who work with complicated grief; and the role of mother-tongue in counselling Welsh speakers. These individual chapters provide valuable insights into working with client groups and needs which are rarely explored in the wider literature. As a result, professionals practising in these specific fields will find this book particularly relevant. Equally, for the general reader in the Counselling and allied helping fields, the specific areas covered will spark curiosity and provide food for thought to apply to their own work. This book is an exemplar of good practice in the publication of excellent Counselling students’ research, which draws on the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis method of research, in which the participants’ voices are clearly heard.
    • Lockdown Scrapbook

      Bennett, Julia; University of Chester
      The Covid-19 lockdown in England began on 23rd March 2020, when people were told to stay at home and only go out for essential purposes, which included an hour’s daily exercise. These measures were originally scheduled to last for three weeks, but were then extended for a further three weeks. On 17th April, shortly after the three week extension began, I started to record my daily walks. For just over a month I chose a word which signified the current moment in some way and took photos related to my chosen theme. I posted four pictures per day, most days, on Twitter (@drjuliabennett). This is a description of the photos, the walks and news media during this period.
    • The long-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) implemented as a community-wide parenting programme

      Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Clucas, Claudine; Sherr, Lorraine; University of Oslo ; University of Oslo ; University College London ; University College London (Taylor and Francis, 2014-08-21)
      Short-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) for parents in the general population has been studied. The aim of this paper was to investigate the longer term impact of the ICDP programme on parents looking for sustained changes 6–12 months after the programme. For this, a nonclinical caregiver group attending the ICDP programme (N ¼ 79) and a nonattending comparison group (N ¼ 62) completed questionnaires on parenting, psychosocial functioning, and child difficulties before, on completion and 6–12 months after the ICDP programme. Analyses compare changes in scores over time. The results revealed that the ICDP group showed significantly improved scores on parenting measures, less loneliness, and trends towards improved self-efficacy compared to the comparison group 6–12 months after programme completion. The ICDP group also reported that their children spent significantly less time on television and computer games and a trend towards fewer child difficulties. Key positive effects sustained over time but at a somewhat lower level, supporting community-wide implementation of ICDP as a general parenting programme. It is concluded that more intensive training with follow-up sessions should be considered to sustain and boost initial gains.
    • Longitudinal associations between social skills problems and different types of peer victimization

      Fox, Claire L.; Boulton, Michael J.; Keele University ; University of Chester (Springer, 2006-06)
      This article discusses a study in which 449 children aged 9 to 11 years completed an inventory to assess the bidirectional longitudinal associations between three different types of victimization and submissive/nonassertive social behaviour.
    • A longitudinal study exploring the relationships between occupational stressors, non-work stressors, and work performance

      Edwards, Julian A.; Guppy, Andrew; Cockerton, Tracey; University of Portsmouth ; University of Chester ; Middlesex University (Taylor & Francis, 2007-04)
      This article examines the causal relationship between work, non-work stressors, and work performance.
    • Look good, feel good: sexiness and sexual pleasure in neoliberalism

      Wood, Rachel; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-01-27)
      This paper explores the connections between sexiness and sexual pleasure for women in neoliberal, postfeminist culture. The first half of the paper is concerned with an examination of the way that ‘looking good’ and ‘feeling good’ are constructed and conflated by sex advice for women. The second half of the paper considers how this discourse is negotiated in women’s accounts, in which they work upon and understand themselves as sexual agents who look and feel good ‘for me’. In conclusion, I argue that working upon the self/body in ways that are intelligible in neoliberalism can be precarious and prone to failure.
    • Looking behaviour and preference for artworks: The role of emotional valence and location

      Kreplin, Ute; Thoma, Volker; Rodway, Paul; Liverpool John Moores University; University of East London; University of Chester; Oxford University (Elsevier, 2014-09-07)
      The position of an item influences its evaluation, with research consistently finding that items occupying central locations are preferred and have a higher subjective value. The current study investigated whether this centre-stage effect (CSE) is a result of bottom-up gaze allocation to the central item, and whether it is affected by item valence. Participants (n=50) were presented with three images of artistic paintings in a row and asked to choose the image they preferred. Eye movements were recorded for a subset of participants (n=22). On each trial the three artworks were either similar but different, or were identical and with positive valence, or were identical and with negative valence. The results showed a centre-stage effect, with artworks in the centre of the row preferred, but only when they were identical and of positive valence. Significantly greater gaze allocation to the central and left artwork was not mirrored by equivalent increases in preference choices. Regression analyses showed that when the artworks were positive and identical the participants’ last fixation predicted preference for the central art-work, whereas the fixation duration predicted preference if the images were different. Overall the result showed that item valence, rather than level of gaze allocation, influences the CSE, which is incompatible with the bottom-up gaze explanation. We propose that the centre stage heuristic, which specifies that the best items are in the middle, is able to explain these findings and the centre-stage effect.
    • Looking over the cliff: globalizing inequalities and the challenge for a global social theory

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (2010-07)
      Every nation-state across all corners of the globe has been experiencing the most formidable structural, economic climate since the 1930s. One of the central causes of global financial instability has been transnational financial institutions and lack of regulation for consumer populations in different nation-states. It is not just financial institutions but also nation-states. For example, in May 2010, the Greek government has turned to Europe to help stimulate its economy (with 100 billion euros loan); otherwise, Greece would be at risk for bankruptcy which would then have ripple effects for other EU economies linked through economic harmonization, such as EU country memberships of the Euro – which would dramatically lose its value in the global economic market if the Greek economy was not propelled by support from other EU countries. President Obama has recognized the potential instability that Greece could potentially have on the US economy; and hence, this raises questions about the wider global economy. Whilst these problems require a global response by the international community and political leaders, they also require a response and engagement by social scientists.
    • Mainstreaming sustainable development - A case study: Ashton Hayes is going carbon neutral

      Alexander, Roy; Hope, Max; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (SAGE, 2007-02-01)
      This article discusses a case study of Ashton Hayes in Cheshire. In November 2005, the parish council of Ashton Hayes voted to try to become England's first carbon neutral village. The process of project development and implementation are discussed and some general conclusions from this experience are drawn. Ashton Hayes provides an interesting case study of a community-led attempt to bring sustainable development into the mainstream.
    • The maintenance of orderly disorder: Modernity, markets and the pseudo-pacification process

      Horsley, Mark; Kotze, Justin; Hall, Steve; University of Chester; Teesside University (The European Society for History of Law; STS Science Centre Ltd., 2015-06-15)
      In contrast with the rather violent and unstable period between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the rise of Plantagenet monarchy, the earliest phase of England’s market economy coincided with a remarkable attenuation of brutal interpersonal violence. While, for some, this diminution of aggression is indicative of a ‘civilizing process’, this paper sets out to advance our theorization of the shift from physically violent to pacified socioeconomic competition in England and Western Europe between the late fourteenth century and the mid-twentieth century. In this pursuit we draw upon the more critical theory of the ‘pseudo-pacification process’ to explain how physical violence was sublimated and harnessed to drive the nascent market economy, which established and reproduced an economically productive condition of pseudo-pacified ‘orderly disorder’.
    • The ‘management of aging’ and the dark side of modernity

      Powell, Jason; Coventry University (NOVA Publishers, 2014)
      This book presents a theoretical analysis based on a critical reading of the work of Michel Foucault. It identifies the inter-relationship between managers and older people in terms of power, surveillance and normalization.
    • Managing relationship decay: Network, gender and contextual effects.

      Roberts, Sam G. B.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; University of Chester; University of Oxford (Springer, 2015-10-21)
      Relationships are central to human life strategies and have crucial fitness consequences. Yet, at the same time, they incur significant maintenance costs that are rarely considered in either social psychological or evolutionary studies. Although many social psychological studies have explored their dynamics, these studies have typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense ties, whereas social networks in fact consist of a large number of ties that serve a variety of different functions. In this study, we examined how entire active personal networks changed over 18 months across a major life transition. Family relationships and friendships differed strikingly in this respect. The decline in friendship quality was mitigated by increased effort invested in the relationship, but with a striking gender difference: relationship decline was prevented most by increased contact frequency (talking together) for females but by doing more activities together in the case of males.
    • Managing Risk Online

      McGarry, Amanda; Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester
      This article considers the professional considerations in working with clients at risk of suicide in an online therapeutic environment.
    • Manhattan masquerade: Sexuality and spectacle in the world of Questin Crisp

      Bendall, Mark J.; University of Chester (Chester Academic Press, 2009-12-18)
      This book chapter discusses Crisp's parade of camp, his use of language, his use of androgyny, and his symbiotic interaction with urban space (especially New York) to sustain individuality and achieve, in his view, ordinariness.
    • Manipulation of glycemic response with isomaltulose in a milk-based drink does not affect cognitive performance in healthy adults

      Dye, Louise; Gilsenan, Mary B.; Quadt, Frits; Martens, Vanessa E. G.; Bot, Arjen; Lasikiewicz, Nicola; Camidge, Diana; Croden, Fiona; Lawton, Clare (Wiley, 2010-04-07)
      Previous research suggests that glucoregulation and nutrient interventions, which alter circulating glucose, impact cognitive function. To examine the effect of modulating glycemic response using isomaltulose on cognitive function 24 healthy male adult participants consumed energy and macronutrient-matched milk-based drinks containing 50 g isomaltulose, 50 g sucrose or a water control in a counterbalanced within-subject design. Interstitial glucose was measured continuously in 12 subjects and all provided 9 capillary measures on each test day. A 30-min cognitive test battery was administered before and twice (+35 and +115 min) after drink ingestion. Immediate, delayed, recognition, verbal and working memory, and psychomotor performance were assessed. Glycemic profiles induced by the drinks differed significantly during the first but not the second post-drink test battery. Neither administration of the sucrose nor isomaltulose drinks produced consistent effects on verbal or working memory, or psychomotor performance. This study used isomaltulose as an investigative tool to lower glycemic response. Importantly, it demonstrates a lack of effect of modulating glucose on cognitive performance based on reliable, continuously measured glycemia. It refutes the hypothesis that glycemia is associated with cognitive performance and questions the suggestion that isomaltulose has an effect on cognitive performance.
    • Many Roads Can Lead to Rome – Supervisors perspectives on successful supervision and the challenges.

      Lafferty, Moira E.; Hemmings, Brian; Katz, Jonathan; Cunliffe, Matthew; Eubank, Martin; University of Chester, University of Greenwich, Liverpool John Moores University (British Psychological Society, 2019-09-30)
      The article focuses directly on the stories of supervision and supervision in practice at the micro level by drawing on the views and experiences of three supervisors, two (Brian and Jonathan) with numerous years supervisory experience and one newly qualified supervisor (Matt). Brian and Jon, supervise their QSEP candidates through a combined group and individual supervisory programme in contrast, Matt adopts an individual approach with all his supervisees. In the remainder of this article, these three supervisors present their thoughts and personal experiences on three core areas, developing the supervisory relationship, challenges to supervision and the concept of continued development as a supervisor.
    • Marginally male, centre stage and spot-lit

      Bendall, Mark J.; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015-09-01)
      The chapter interrogates the dissonance between what Quentin Crisp is and what he says,using theories such as Butler's notion of gender trouble to discuss the parade of camp; wit as weapon and the negotiation of an urban environment as flaneur as an elderly white male, marginal in an already marginal culture.