• Interaction of regional and national environmental policies: The case of Spain

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Cogent OA, 2018-02-23)
      This paper uses a new approach to the concept of green budgeting within the context of green economy to analyse the different factors influencing the lack of consistency on environmental policies in Spain. It appears that structural issues have prevented Spain from becoming a real green economy, and thus from taking the right measures that could lead it into a sustainable growth path. This case study is presented as example of failure to integrate environmental issues in policy-making, with political factors being one of the main variables under analysis. A quantitative analysis on the approach to public environmental budget management during the period prior to the recent economic crisis is conducted at national and regional levels. Some of the findings are consistent with other European countries but some distinctive structural issues are also identified.
    • Intermediaries, vulnerable people and the quality of evidence: An international comparison of three versions of the English intermediary model

      Cooper, Penny; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Birkbeck University of London; University of Chester (2017-09-29)
      Since 2004, witness intermediaries have been utilised across the justice system in England and Wales. Two witness intermediary schemes based on the English model have also been introduced in Northern Ireland (2013), and more recently, in New South Wales, Australia (2016). The purpose of the intermediary in these jurisdictions is to facilitate the questioning of vulnerable witnesses, but there are clear differences in the application of the role. This paper presents the first comparative review of the three related intermediary models, and highlights the pressing need for further research into the efficacy and development of the role in practice.
    • International perspectives on the effectiveness of geography fieldwork for learning

      Fuller, Ian C.; Edmondson, Sally; France, Derek; Higgitt, David; Ratinen, Ilkka; Massey University ; Liverpool Hope University ; University of Chester ; National University of Singapore ; University of Jyväskylä (Routledge, 2006-03)
      This article discusses assumptions on the effectiveness of fieldwork as a mode of learning in geography. This is approached from an international perspective, both in the review of available evidence, which demonstrates a need for rigorous research into the issue, and in providing preliminary findings of research into the value of fieldwork from universities across three continents.
    • Internet use and preferences among women living with advanced breast cancer

      Kemp, Emma; Koczwara, Bogda; Turner, Jane; Girgis, Afaf; Schofield, Penelope; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Levesque, Janelle V.; Spence, Danielle; Vatandoust, Sina; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; et al. (Wiley, 2019-02-21)
      Despite high distress and unmet informational and psychosocial needs, and recommendations for development of advanced breast cancer (ABC)-specific resources, there remains a paucity of appropriate, accessible psychological interventions. This survey study examined internet use and preferences of women with ABC, to the gauge feasibility of providing an ABC- specific internet intervention. Most participants (83%) used the internet daily. Results indicated most women with ABC would find an ABC-specific internet intervention helpful, and that it would address gaps in current internet resources, including provision of strategies to manage treatment side effects and fear of cancer progression.
    • An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the lived experience of traumatic bereavement on therapists’ personal and professional identity and practice

      Gubi, Peter; Mintz, Rita; Broadbent, Jeanne R. (University of Chester, 2015-10)
      The self of the therapist is widely recognised as being a crucial component in the therapeutic relationship. However, comparatively little is known about the therapist as a person, or of how life-changing events in therapists’ personal lives may impact on their professional identity and practice. The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the impact of traumatic bereavement on the personal and professional lives of qualified humanistic therapists in order to shed further light on this under-researched area. Underpinned by a phenomenological-hermeneutic philosophy, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was selected as the methodology most appropriate to reveal participants’ lived experience. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a homogenous sample of eight humanistic therapists who had experienced traumatic bereavement while practising. Data comprised interview transcripts, participants’ reflective writing and researcher field notes. IPA’s idiographic approach facilitated the creation of a detailed and nuanced thematic analysis of the phenomenon, grounded in participants’ voices. Five super-ordinate themes were created from the interpretative phenomenological analysis, each of which provides a complementary ‘lens’ through which to view participants’ holistic experience: ‘Significance of context’, ‘Confronting a changed reality’, ‘Re-learning the world’, ‘Facing professional challenges’ and ‘Personal and professional reciprocity’. Findings reveal the unique contextual and multi-faceted nature of traumatic bereavement, and suggest that this experience can profoundly impact on therapists’ personal and social identities and beliefs. The professional challenges faced by grieving therapists are also highlighted. Findings illustrate that through a reciprocal process of personal and professional integration, the experience of facing, and living through grief, can lead to therapists’ increased self-knowledge, understanding, empathy and authenticity that informs and enhances their therapeutic practice. Supportive supervision and continued self-reflection are evidenced as significant mediating factors. The research demonstrates that the process of integrating the experience of traumatic bereavement into the therapist’s personal and professional life is a continuing and oscillating process. It is crucial that therapists carrying this burden have opportunities to reflect on this process in supportive supervisory relationships in order to pre-empt and ameliorate difficulties they may face in client work. A greater understanding of therapist bereavement is needed across the profession.
    • Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse Against Men: Voices of Victimization Among Ex-Servicemen of the British Armed Forces

      Taylor, Paul J.; Keeling, June J.; Mottershead, Richard; University of Chester; Keele University; University of Chester (SAGE, 2017-07-07)
      This study presents the personal testimonies of male British ex-Armed Forces personnel who have experienced violence and abuse victimization that was perpetrated by civilian female partners. In this research, we argue that to embark upon any understanding of the domestic lives of military personnel, an appreciation of the linkages to the cultural context of the military institution is necessary. Understanding the influence of the military institution beyond the military domain is crucial. We unveil the nature and character of the violence and abuse and how the servicemen negotiated their relationships. In doing so, we highlight the embodiment of military discipline, skills, and tactics in the home—not ones of violence which may be routinely linked to military masculinities; rather ones of restraint, tolerance, stoicism, and the reduction of a threat to inconsequential individual significance.
    • Introduction

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2015-02-21)
    • Introduction and validation of Psychopathic Personality Traits Scale (PPTS) in a large prison sample

      Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata; Dhingra, Katie; DeLisi, Matthew; University of Huddersfield; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland; University of Chester; Leeds Beckett University; Iowa State University (Elsevier, 2016-02)
      Purpose: The aim of this study was to create and validate a brief self-report scale of psychopathic personality traits for research purposes which would grasp the essence of a psychopathic personality, regardless of respondents’ age, gender, cultural background, and criminal history. Methods: The Psychopathic Personality Traits Scale (PPTS), The Measure of Criminal Social Identity, Self-Esteem Measure for Criminals, The Child Sexual Abuse Myth Scale, Attitudes Towards Male Sexual Dating Violence, and Lie Scale were administered to 1,794 prisoners systematically sampled from 10 maximum- and medium-security prisons. Dimensionality and construct validity of the PPTS was investigated using traditional CFA techniques, along with confirmatory bifactor analysis and multitrait-multimethod modelling (MTMM). Seven alternative models of the PPTS were specified and tested using Mplus with WLSMV estimation. Results: MTMM model of PPTS offered the best representation of the data. The results suggest that the PPTS consists of four subscales (affective responsiveness, cognitive responsiveness, interpersonal manipulation, and egocentricity) while controlling for two method factors (knowledge/skills and attitudes/beliefs). Good composite reliability and differential predictive validity was observed. Conclusion: This brief measure of psychopathic traits uncontaminated with behavioural items can be used in the same way among participants with and without criminal history.
    • An Introduction to Counselling: From Theory to Practice

      Reeves, Andrew; The University of Chester (Sage, 2018-05-26)
      An authoritative introductory text for counselling and psychotherapy
    • Introduction to Illness, Crisis and Loss

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Sage, 2015-04-01)
      This collection of papers highlights some of the key cultural and social interpretations of illness, crisis, and loss across different personal and institutional spaces—the ways that values, beliefs, behavior, emotions, and institutional arrangements concerning chronic illness, bereavement, and professional practice are structured by social environments and contexts. Although illness and death are universal human experiences, societal responses vary according to cultural attitudes, as well as contextual factors including the primary causes of illness and death, and normative age at which illness and death occurs. In this issue of the journal, researchers, social scientists, policy makers, practitioners, and students will be learning about topics of direct relevance to understanding the world in which we live.
    • An Introduction to Social Theory

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2012-05-01)
      An introduction to concepts and key authors in historical and contemporary social theory.
    • Introduction: Why cycling cultures?

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2015-06-01)
      This is an introduction to the book Cycling cultures edited by Peter Cox (2015). The chapters of the book aim to reflect a series of conversations taking place at the bridging point of academia, activism and public policy. While individual chapters can be taken as studies on their own, they also seek to inform a more central set of shared concerns with questions of diversity and complexity in cycling practices and experiences.
    • ‘Introduction’ in Neo-Liberalism, Economic Radicalism and the Normalization of Violence

      Powell, Jason; Chen, Sheying; University of Chester; Pace University (Springer Verlag, 2016-04-01)
      This edited volume offers a rich tapestry of critical theorizing about the relationship of forms of physical and symbolic violence in a global world. It provides an important volume of the Springer International Perspectives on Social Policy, Administration and Practice book series. They raise critical questions about social inaction and action and the problems of ideologies which provide mystification processes that denies positive social identity. Of course, the spectre of problems of economic violence against subjugated groups in neo-liberal globalization has endured a lasting legacy. Huge numbers of people struggle with poverty and significant pockets of poverty portend more than lack of income. Those living on the bottom of the socio-economic ladder labor under the burden of avoidable, lifestyle diseases, hunger and related maladies, not to mention myriad social risks.
    • Investigating resting brain perfusion abnormalities and disease target-engagement by intranasal oxytocin in women with bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder and healthy controls

      Martins, Daniel; Leslie, Monica; Rodan, Sarah; Zelaya, Fernando; Treasure, Janet; Paloyelis, Yannis; King's College London; University College London (Springer, 2020-06-08)
      Advances in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (BN/BED) have been marred by our limited understanding of the underpinning neurobiology. Here we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to map resting perfusion abnormalities in women with BN/BED compared to healthy controls and investigate if intranasal oxytocin (OT), proposed as a potential treatment, can restore perfusion in disorder-related brain circuits. Twenty-four women with BN/BED and 23 healthy women participated in a randomised, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. We used arterial spin labelling MRI to measure rCBF and the effects of an acute dose of intranasal OT (40IU) or placebo over 18-26 minutes post-dosing, as we have previously shown robust OT-induced changes in resting rCBF in men in a similar time-window (15-36 min post-dosing). We tested for effects of treatment, diagnosis and their interaction on extracted rCBF values in anatomical regions-of-interest previously implicated in BN/BED by other neuroimaging modalities, and conducted exploratory whole-brain analyses to investigate previously unidentified brain regions. We demonstrated that women with BN/BED presented increased resting rCBF in the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, anterior cingulate gyrus, posterior insula and middle/inferior temporal gyri bilaterally. Hyperperfusion in these areas specifically correlated with eating symptoms severity in patients. Our data did not support a normalizing effect of intranasal OT on perfusion abnormalities in these patients, at least for the specific dose (40 IU) and post-dosing interval (18-26 minutes) examined. Our findings enhance our understanding of resting brain abnormalities in BN/BED and identify resting rCBF as a non-invasive potential biomarker for disease-related changes and treatment monitoring. They also highlight the need for a comprehensive investigation of intranasal OT pharmacodynamics in women before we can fully ascertain its therapeutic value in disorders affecting predominantly this gender, such as BN/BED.
    • Investigating the celebrity effect: the influence of well-liked celebrities on adults' implicit and explicit responses to brands

      Rowley, Martin; Gilman, Hayley; Sherman, Susan Mary; Keele University (American Psychological Association, 2018-08-20)
      Celebrities are used within advertisements in an attempt to impact positively on consumers’ attitudes toward brands, purchase intentions, and ad believability. However, the findings from previous research on the effects of celebrity liking on brand evaluations have been mixed. In the study presented here, explicit and implicit responses to brands were more positive after pairing with well-liked celebrities (p < .01) and more positive than for brands paired with noncelebrities (p < .001). Participants also demonstrated a preference for celebrity-paired brands in their brand choices (p < .001). Participants’ general accuracy-based advertising skepticism was negatively correlated with explicit celebrity brand preferences (p < .05), whereas affect-based skepticism was negatively correlated with implicit (p < .05) preferences. These results are discussed in relation to the contextual and attitudinal factors that might trigger resistance to the effects of celebrity endorsement as well as the underlying psychological processes involved in responding to ads.
    • Investigating the Interaction Between Sleep Symptoms of Arousal and Acquired Capability in Predicting Suicidality

      Hochard, Kevin D.; Heym, Nadja; Townsend, Ellen; University of Chester (Wiley, 2016-08-02)
      Heightened arousal significantly interacts with acquired capability to predict suicidality. We explore this interaction with insomnia and nightmares independently of waking state arousal symptoms, and test predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS) and Escape Theory in relation to these sleep arousal symptoms. Findings from our e-survey (n = 540) supported the IPTS over models of Suicide as Escape. Sleep-specific measurements of arousal (insomnia and nightmares) showed no main effect, yet interacted with acquired capability to predict increased suicidality. The explained variance in suicidality by the interaction (1%?2%) using sleep-specific measures was comparable to variance explained by interactions previously reported in the literature using measurements composed of a mix of waking and sleep state arousal symptoms. Similarly, when entrapment (inability to escape) was included in models, main effects of sleep symptoms arousal were not detected yet interacted with entrapment to predict suicidality. We discuss findings in relation to treatment options suggesting that sleep-specific interventions be considered for the long-term management of at-risk individuals.
    • An investigation into the ways in which art is taught in an English Waldorf Steiner school

      Hallam, Jenny; Egan, Susan; Kirkham, Julie A.; University of Derby; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-07-26)
      Children who are educated using a Waldorf Steiner approach demonstrate superior expressive drawing skills (Rose et al., 2011) but little is known about how art is taught within this educational system. Four Waldorf Steiner primary school teachers participated in semistructured interviews designed to explore the Waldorf Steiner educational philosophy, their training and the ways in which they approach art in the classroom. A social constructionist thematic analysis identified two themes – teacher’s experience of art and the teacher and child’s approach to art. Within these themes the importance of adequate training which stresses the value of art and gives teachers opportunity to engage in art activities was emphasised. Such training was linked to an effective teaching approach which placed importance on teaching skills and encouraging children to develop their understanding of art through discussion
    • iPad use in Fieldwork: Formal and informal use to enhance pedagogic practice in a Bring Your Own Technology world.

      Whalley, W. Brian; France, Derek; Mauchline, Alice; Welsh, Katharine E.; Park, Julian R.; University of Sheffield; University of Reading; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2014-03-31)
      We report on use of iPads (and other IOS devices) for student fieldwork use and as electronic field notebooks. We have used questionnaires and interviews of tutors and students to elicit their views on technology and iPad use for fieldwork. There is some reluctance for academic staff to relinquish paper notebooks for iPad use, whether in the classroom or on fieldwork. Students too are largely unaware of the potential of iPads for enhancing fieldwork. Apps can be configured for a wide variety of specific uses that make iPads useful for educational as well as social uses. Such abilities should be used to enhance existing practice as well as make new functionality. For example, for disabled students who find it difficult to use conventional note taking iPads can be used to develop student self-directed learning and for group contributions. The technology becomes part of the students’ personal learning environments as well as at the heart of their knowledge spaces – academic and social. This blurring of boundaries is due to iPads’ usability to cultivate field use, instruction, assessment and feedback processes. iPads can become field microscopes and entries to citizen science, and we see the iPad as the main ‘computing’ device for students in the near future. As part of Bring Your Own Technology/Device the iPad has much to offer, although both staff and students need to be guided in the most effective use for self-directed education via development of personal learning Environments.
    • “The Irish Conflict” and the Experiences of Female ex Combatants In the Irish Republican Army: Power, Resistance and Subjectivity

      Wahidin, Azrini; Powell, Jason; Nottingham Trent University; University of Chester (Emerald, 2017-09-01)
      Purpose: The fundamental purpose of this article is to critically explore the importance of the experiences of female former combatants during the Irish Conflict, colloquially know as ‘The Troubles’ and outline key moments of resistance for female political prisoners during their time at Armagh jail. The paper will situate the analysis within a Foucauldian framework drawing on theoretical tools for understanding power, resistance and subjectivity to contextualise and capture rich narratives and experiences. What makes a Foucauldian analysis of former female combatants of the Conflict so inspiring, is how the animation and location of problems of knowledge as ‘pieces’ of the larger contest between The State, institutions of power and its penal subjects (ex female combatants as prisoners). The paper has demonstrated that the body exists through and in culture, the product of signs and meanings, of discourse and practices. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily qualitative methodology underpinned by Foucauldian theory. There were 28 women and 20 men interviewed in the course of this research came from across Ireland, some came from cities and others came from rural areas. Some had spent time in prisons in the UK and others served time in the Republic of Ireland or in the North of Ireland. Many prisoners experienced being on the run and all experienced levels of brutality at the hands of the State. Ethical approval was granted from the Queens University Research Committee. Findings: This paper only examines the experiences of female ex-combatants and their narratives of imprisonment. What this article clearly shows through the narratives of the women is the gendered nature of imprisonment and the role of power, resilience and resistance whilst in prison in Northern Ireland. The voices in this paper disturb and interrupt the silence surrounding the experiences of women political prisoners, who are a hidden population, whilst in prison. Research limitations/implications: In terms of research impact, this qualitative research is on the first of its kind to explore both the experiential and discursive narratives of female ex-combatants of the Irish Conflict. The impact and reach of the research illustrates how confinement revealed rich theoretical insights, drawing from Foucauldian theory, to examine the dialectical interplay between power and the subjective mobilisation of resistance practices of ex-combatants in prison in Northern Ireland. The wider point of prison policy and practice not meeting basic human rights or enhancing the quality of life of such prisoners reveals some of the dystopian features of current prison policy and lack of gender sensitivity to female combatants. Practical implications: It is by prioritising the voices of the women combatants in this article that it not only enables their re-positioning at the centre of the struggle, but also moves away methodologically from the more typical sole emphasis on structural conditions and political processes. Instead, prioritising the voices of the women combatants places the production of subjectivities and agencies at the centre, and explores their dialectical relationship to objective conditions and practical constraints. Originality/value: This article is one of the first to explore the importance of the experiences of female former combatants during the Northern Irish conflict with specific reference to their experience of imprisonment. The aim of this significant article is to situate our critical analysis grounded in Foucauldian theory drawing on theoretical tools of power, resistance and subjectivity in order to make sense of women's experiences of conflict and imprisonment in Ireland. It is suggested that power and resistance need to be re-appropriated in order to examine such unique gendered experiences that have been hidden in mainstream criminological accounts of the Irish Conflict.
    • Is person-centred counselling effective when assisting young people who have experienced bullying in schools?

      Jones, Callum; University of Chester
      The effects of bullying on children have profoundly been researched; however, there is a gap in research on how therapy can assist children who are bullied. The aim of this research was to understand how person‐centred therapy may assist individuals who are being bullied within the school environment. Methodology Person‐centred therapy was chosen as it is the author's profession. When pursuing his master's degree and the allied research programme, the author conducted the therapy. This research was performed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The researcher worked with four research participants, and the contributors were individuals who had left school due to childhood bullying. The participants also underwent person‐centred therapy to work through the issues that bullying had caused them. A series of interviews were conducted with the participants using pre‐decided questions. These interviews were then transcribed, and key themes were found within the text. The themes, and the subordinate themes, include the following: Childhood bullying in the context of the experience of support, and the absence of support leading to trauma. Bullying as a multifaceted experience, and bullying as an emotional communication. Childhood bullying and its association to adult mental health and adult experiences of anxiety. How person‐centred counselling helped participants, and gaining support in schools. Conclusions The article found that in the school environment a lack of emotional support added to the trauma that the victims experienced from bullying. Bullying was experienced individually, but each participant reported it being an emotional way of communicating. The bullying the participants experienced during school lead to mental health problems in adulthood, the most reported mental health condition was anxiety. Finally, the article explored how the person‐centred approach assisted participants, whilst most participants found the approach to be very useful. A few participants believed that the limitations of the person‐centred approach lead to less exploration, many wished for techniques to help them cope with their bullying experiences something that CBT might be more adequate for.